Author Topic: The slightly less well known  (Read 180348 times)

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Offline Angry Turnip

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Re: The slightly less well known
« Reply #900 on: May 28, 2021, 05:15:44 PM »
Mitsubishi 3MT5

The Mitsubishi 3MT5 was a Japanese bomber of the 1930s.

The design process of this aircraft was prolonged, as the Navy kept changing their requirements, and the first of eleven prototypes, designated 3MT5 by Mitsubishi and the 7-Shi Twin-engine Carrier Aircraft by the Navy, was completed in September 1932. The new torpedo bomber was a two-bay biplane with folding wings, and was of mixed construction, with a wood and metal fuselage and a metal wing structure with fabric covering. It had a fixed tailwheel undercarriage, and was powered by two 800 hp Mitsubishi A4 radial engines driving two-bladed propellers.

The first prototype flew on 19 October 1932, with a further three prototypes being completed in 1932. The remaining five prototypes (3MT5) were completed in 1933 incorporating modifications based on initial testing, with a twin tail replacing the single fin and rudder of the first four aircraft, three-bay wings and four-bladed propellers being fitted.
Despite these changes, the aircraft was difficult to control, and suffered from severe vibration, which on one test flight in March 1934, resulted in all four ailerons being torn off the wings of one of the prototypes, which was safely landed. These problems could not be resolved, and the lengthy development meant that the type was now obsolete, so no production followed.
« Last Edit: May 28, 2021, 05:16:13 PM by Angry Turnip »

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Re: The slightly less well known
« Reply #901 on: May 28, 2021, 05:33:27 PM »
Mitsubishi A7M

The Mitsubishi A7M Reppū was designed to be the successor to the Imperial Japanese Navy's A6M Zero.

In July 1942 the Navy issued specifications for the fighter: it had to fly faster than 397 mph above 6,000 m (20,000 ft), climb to 6,000 m (20,000 ft) in less than 6 minutes, be armed with two 20 mm cannon and two 13 mm (0.51 in) machine guns, and retain the maneuverability of the A6M3.

To meet the specifications the engine would need to produce at least 2,000 hp , which restricted options to Nakajima's NK9 (Ha-45/Homare), or Mitsubishi's MK9 (Ha-43); both engines still under development. These engines were based on 14-cylinder engines converted to 18-cylinder powerplants. The early NK9 had less output but was already approved by the Navy for use on the Yokosuka P1Y Ginga, while the larger MK9 promised more power.

Work on the 17-Shi was further delayed by factories prioritizing A6M and Mitsubishi G4M production as well as further work on A6M variants.As a result, the 17-Shi, which became the A7M1, officially flew for the first time on 6 May 1944, four years after development started. The aircraft demonstrated excellent handling and maneuverability, but was underpowered as Mitsubishi engineers feared, and with a top speed similar to the A6M5 Zero.
It was a disappointment, and the Navy ordered development to stop on 30 July 1944, but Mitsubishi obtained permission for development to continue using the Ha-43 engine, flying with the completed Ha-43 on 13 October 1944. The A7M2 now achieved a top speed of 390 mph while climb and other areas of performance surpassed the Zero, leading the Navy to change its mind and adopt the craft. The A7M2 was also equipped with automatic combat flaps,significantly improving manoeuvrability.
« Last Edit: May 28, 2021, 05:36:39 PM by Angry Turnip »

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Re: The slightly less well known
« Reply #902 on: May 28, 2021, 05:57:53 PM »
Mitsubishi B5M

The Mitsubishi B5M was an Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service (IJNAS) land-based attack aircraft.

The B5M was designed in response to a 1935 specification for a new bomber for use on the IJNAS aircraft carriers.It was to have a crew of three, folding wings for flight deck storage, a speed of not less than 200 mph, an endurance of not less than seven hours, and the ability to carry at least 800 kg (1,760 lb) of bombs. It was intended as a backup for the Nakajima B5N "Kate" torpedo bomber. Although designed as a carrier-based aircraft, it was redeployed to land-based torpedo bomber duties in World War II. 125 were built.

The majority were employed during the early months of World War II from land bases in Southeast Asia and in China, where they were confronted by weak or no enemy fighter opposition. These machines ended their careers as trainers, target tugs, and kamikazes.
« Last Edit: May 28, 2021, 05:58:12 PM by Angry Turnip »

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Re: The slightly less well known
« Reply #903 on: May 31, 2021, 08:40:26 PM »
Mitsubishi K7M

The Mitsubishi K7M was a 1930s Japanese experimental crew trainer built by Mitsubishi for the Imperial Japanese Navy.

The K7M was a high-wing monoplane with a cabin for five students and two instructors,and was of built of metal, with fabric-covered outer wings. The K7M was powered by two 340 hp Gasuden Tempu radial piston engines. The Navy decided the twin-engined type was too costly to replace the single-engined K3M and the type was not developed further, the two prototypes did enter service as trainers with the designation K7M1.
« Last Edit: May 31, 2021, 08:40:46 PM by Angry Turnip »

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Re: The slightly less well known
« Reply #904 on: June 01, 2021, 10:48:56 PM »
Mitsubishi Ki-1

The Mitsubishi Ki-1, also known as Mitsubishi Army Type 93 Heavy Bomber, was built for the Imperial Japanese Army in the 1930s.

The Mitsubishi Ki-1 was a low-wing monoplane with fixed landing gear, twin fins and rudders, and was powered by two 701 hp Mitsubishi Ha2-II water-cooled V-12 engines, giving a maximum speed of 136 mph. The 2 flight crew were seated in tandem under an enclosed canopy, while gunners sat in semi-enclosed nose and dorsal gun turrets, each armed with a single 7.7 mm (0.303 in) machine gun. The typical bomb load was up to 1,500 kg (3,306.9 lb).

The Ki-1 shared a similar configuration with the Junkers S 36 first flown in 1927, militarized into the Junkers K37 by Junker's Swedish subsidiary.The K37 prototype was brought to Japan and tested in combat during the Manchurian Incident of 1931, following which the IJAAF authorized Mitsubishi to produce both heavy and light bomber variations. The heavy bomber Ki-1, was much larger than the original Junkers K37 and first flew in August 1932. A total of 118 aircraft were built in two versions between March 1933 and April 1936.
« Last Edit: June 01, 2021, 10:49:16 PM by Angry Turnip »

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Re: The slightly less well known
« Reply #905 on: June 03, 2021, 11:13:46 PM »
Mitsubishi Ki-20

The Mitsubishi Ki-20 is a Japanese bomber variant of the Junkers G.38 airliner.

A licensing and manufacturing agreement was reached with Junkers and in 1932 the first two Ki-20s were completed by Mitsubishi, utilizing Junkers-made parts. A prototype was successfully flown in Japan by a German test pilot in that year Four more Ki-20s were built between 1933 and 1935. All subsequent models used Mitsubishi-built parts with development focused on engine upgrades to address the aircraft being underpowered. Several engine upgrades were completed during the lifetime of these aircraft. The initial Junkers L88 engines were replaced by the more powerful 750hp Jumo 204 engines, also built under license by Mitsubishi.

The aircraft were the largest operated by the Imperial Japanese Army Air Service and their existence was kept secret. As a result, they were issued their out-of-sequence Kitai number '20' only when they were finally revealed in 1940. During World War II, the Ki-20 served in a variety of transport and support roles.
« Last Edit: June 03, 2021, 11:14:17 PM by Angry Turnip »

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Re: The slightly less well known
« Reply #906 on: June 04, 2021, 12:52:28 PM »
Mitsubishi Ki-83

The Mitsubishi Ki-83 was a Japanese experimental long range heavy fighter.

The design was for a 1943 specification for a new heavy fighter with long range. The first of four prototypes flew on 18 November 1944. They displayed excellent maneuverability for aircraft of their size. The Ki-83 carried a powerful armament of two 30 mm (1.18 in) and two 20 mm cannon in its nose. It was powered by two Mitsubishi Ha-43 Ru (Ha211) 18-cylinder air-cooled radial piston engines, of 2,200 hp each.

The existence and performance of the Ki-83 were little known during the war, even in Japan. It was completely unknown in Allied military aviation circles – as demonstrated by the fact that the Ki-83 had not been given a reporting name. Early photographs of the type were taken during the post-war occupation of Japan, when the four prototypes were seized by the United States Army Air Forces and repainted with USAAF insignia. When they were evaluated by U.S. aeronautical engineers and other experts, a Ki-83 using high-octane fuel reached a speed of (473 mph), at an altitude of 23,000 ft. Plans for the Ki-83 to enter production were underway when Japan surrendered on 15 August 1945.
« Last Edit: June 04, 2021, 12:53:01 PM by Angry Turnip »

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Re: The slightly less well known
« Reply #907 on: June 05, 2021, 11:56:30 AM »
Mitsubishi Ki-57

The Mitsubishi Ki-57 was a Japanese passenger transport aircraft.

When the Ki-21 heavy bomber began to enter service, its capability attracted the attention of the Imperial Japanese Airways. A civil version was developed, generally similar to the Ki-21-I and retaining its powerplant of two 950 hp Nakajima Ha-5 KAI radial engines, differed by having the same wings transferred from a mid to low-wing configuration and the incorporation of a new fuselage to provide accommodation for up to 11 passengers. This transport version appealed also the navy, and following the flight of a prototype in August 1940 and subsequent testing, the type was ordered into production for both civil and military use.

This initial production Ki-57-I had the civil and military designations of MC-20-I and Army Type 100 Transport Model 1, respectively. A total of 100 production Ki-57-Is had been built by early 1942, and small numbers of them were transferred for use by the Japanese navy in a transport role, then becoming redesignated L4M1. After the last of the Ki-57s had been delivered production was switched to an improved Ki-57-II, which introduced more powerful 1,080 hp Mitsubishi Ha-l02 14-cylinder radial engines. It featured redesigned nacelles and incorporated a number of detail refinements and minor equipment changes.
« Last Edit: June 05, 2021, 11:56:54 AM by Angry Turnip »

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Re: The slightly less well known
« Reply #908 on: June 05, 2021, 12:14:24 PM »
Mitsubishi J8M

The Mitsubishi J8M Shūsui was a Japanese World War II rocket-powered interceptor.

The J8M1 was intended to be a licence-built copy of the Messerschmitt Me 163 Komet. Difficulties in shipping an example to Japan meant that the aircraft had to be reverse-engineered from a flight operations manual and other limited documentation. They negotiated the rights to licence-produce the aircraft and its Walter HWK 509A rocket engine.
Mitsubishi and partners Nissan and Fuji proceeded with development of the airframe and Yokosuka Arsenal was adapting the engine for Japanese production, designated the Ro.2. The Japanese succeeded in producing prototypes that outwardly looked very much similar to the Komet. The J8M1 had a wet weight that was 400 kg (880 lb) lighter, the aircraft having a plywood main spar and wooden vertical tail. The designers had also dispensed with the armoured glass in the cockpit and the aircraft carried less ammunition and less fuel.

The Ki-200 and the J8M1 differed only in minor items, but the most obvious difference was the JAAF's Ki-200 was armed with two 30 mm (1.18 in) Type 5 cannon (with a rate of fire of 450 rounds per minute, while the J8M1 was armed with two 30 mm (1.18 in) Ho-105 cannon (rate of fire 400 rounds per minute.

The J8M took to the air for its first powered flight on 7 July 1945, at an altitude of 400 m (1,300 ft), the engine stopped abruptly and the J8M1 stalled. The pilot managed to glide the aircraft back, but clipped a small building at the edge of the airfield, causing the aircraft to burst into flames. The engine cutout had occurred due to the angle of climb, coupled with the fuel tanks being half-filled for the first flight, caused a shifting of the fuel, which caused an auto cutout device to activate because of an air lock in the fuel line.
15 August 1945, the war ended for the Japanese and all work on the J8M ceased. The end of the war also spelled the end of the JAAF's Ki-202 Shūsui-Kai (Modified Shusui), whose design had begun in secret months before.
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Re: The slightly less well known
« Reply #909 on: June 05, 2021, 12:28:00 PM »
Nakajima A2N

The Nakajima A2N was a Japanese carrier-borne fighter of the 1930s.

The A2N was developed as a private venture by Nakajima for the Imperial Japanese Navy. It was based loosely on the Boeing Model 69 and Boeing Model 100, examples of both having been imported in 1928 and 1929 respectively. Two prototypes, designated Navy Type 90 Carrier Fighter in anticipation of Navy acceptance, were ready by December 1929. Powered by Bristol Jupiter VI engines, but these were rejected, not being regarded as offering a significant improvement over the Nakajima A1N.

After a major redesign and another prototype, the A2N1, powered by a 579 hp Nakajima Kotobuki 2, was completed in May 1931. The type was adopted by the Navy in April 1932.A two-seat trainer, the A3N3-1, was developed from the Navy Type 90 Carrier Fighter and 66 of these were built between 1936 and 1939.
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Re: The slightly less well known
« Reply #910 on: June 09, 2021, 08:35:36 PM »
Nakajima Ki-6

The Nakajima Ki-6 was a licensed-produced version of the Fokker Super Universal transport built in the 1930s.

The first Super Universal was brought to Japan in components and was assembled by Nakajima for Japan Air Transport, the national airline of the Empire of Japan from 1928 to 1938. Under license production, Nakajima replaced the engine with a 450 hp Bristol Jupiter radial engine, also license-built in Japan, and later by its own Nakajima Kotobuki 460 hp engine.
Nakajima's production began in September 1930, with the first aircraft delivered in March 1931. Production ended in October 1936, total number of aircraft built is unknown.The first military Super Universals were introduced into service following Japan's invasion of Manchuria in 1931 when the Imperial Japanese Army commandeered seven of the aircraft.

In 1932, the IJAAF decided to acquire its own transports, which it designated as the Army Type 95 Training Aircraft , or Ki-6. The first aircraft was delivered as a flying ambulance fitted with two stretchers and three seats. This was followed by an order for 20 trainers to be used for training pilots, gunners, bombardiers and wireless operators. The aircraft built in Japan were used for both civil and military roles with some remaining in operation until after World War II.
« Last Edit: June 09, 2021, 08:36:02 PM by Angry Turnip »

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Re: The slightly less well known
« Reply #911 on: June 11, 2021, 05:46:33 PM »
Nakajima Ki-11

The Nakajima Ki-11 a modern single-seat monoplane fighter suitable to meet the needs of both the Imperial Japanese Army Air Force and Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service.

The development of the aircraft began as a private venture in 1934, based on a wire-braced low-wing monoplane, inspired by the Boeing P-26 Peashooter. The fuselage wing center section and undercarriage were constructed in duralumin, while the wings and tail were of wood and canvas. The aircraft was powered by a single 550 hp Nakajima Kotobuki Ha-1-3 radial engine. Proposed armament consisted of twin 7.7 mm (.303 in) machine guns firing from between the engine cylinders.

The Ki-11 competed with the Kawasaki Ki-10 biplane design. The K-11 was technically more advanced and faster than the Kawasaki design,however the IJA command was split between supporters of "maneuverability" and supporters of "speed". The supporters of the "maneuverability" scheme won, and the Ki-10 became the main army fighter until 1937. Nakajima continued to refine the Ki-11 design, and it re-emerged in the form of the Nakajima Ki-27 "Nate" several years later. Nakajima sold the fourth prototype as AN-1 Communications Aircraft to a newspaper, who registered it as J-BBHA and used it as a liaison and courier plane, and for reconnaissance.
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Re: The slightly less well known
« Reply #912 on: June 11, 2021, 06:10:47 PM »
Nakajima G5N

The Nakajima G5N Shinzan was a four-engined long-range heavy bomber built for the IJN prior to World War II.

The Nakajima G5N Shinzan originated because of the IJN`s interest in developing a long-range attack bomber capable of carrying heavy loads of bombs or torpedoes a minimum distance of 3,000 nmi To meet this requirement, it became apparent a four-engine lay-out would be required. As Japanese aircraft manufacturers lacked experience in building such large complex aircraft, the Navy searched for a suitable existing foreign-made model to base a new design on. It settled on the American Douglas DC-4E airliner. In 1939 the sole prototype of this airliner was purchased by Nippon Koku K.K. (Japan Airlines Co) and secretly given over to the Nakajima Aircraft Company for dismantling.

The design was an all-metal mid-wing monoplane with fabric-covered control surfaces and powered by four 1,870 hp Nakajima NK7A Mamori 11 air-cooled radial engines driving four-bladed propellers.It had a long ventral bomb-bay, glazed nose and twin tailfins replacing the DC-4E's distinctive triple rudder. The DC-4E's retractable tricycle undercarriage was retained, as well as the original wing form and powerplant arrangement. Defensive armament comprised two 20mm Type 99 Model 1 cannon (one in a power-operated dorsal and one in a tail turret), plus single-mount hand-operated 7.7mm Type 92 machine guns in the nose, ventral and in waist positions.

The first prototype G5N1 made its first flight on 14:35 8 April 1941. Performance proved rather poor however, due to excessive weight, and the unreliability of the Mamori engines and the complexity of the design. Only three more prototypes were completed. In an attempt to salvage the project, two additional airframes were fitted with 1,530 hp Mitsubishi MK4B 12 "Kasei" engines and designated G5N2s. Although the Mitsubishi engines were more reliable than the original Mamori 11s, the aircraft was now even more hopelessly underpowered and further development of the type was ended.
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Re: The slightly less well known
« Reply #913 on: June 14, 2021, 09:05:17 PM »
Nakajima Ki-115

The Nakajima Ki-115 Tsurugi was a one-man kamikaze aircraft.

The Japanese High Command thought they did not have enough obsolete aircraft to use for kamikaze attacks, it was decided that huge numbers of cheap, simple suicide planes should be constructed quickly in anticipation of the invasion of Japan.
The aircraft was very simple,made from mainly wood and steel. To save weight, it was to use a jettisonable undercarriage, so a simple welded steel tube undercarriage was attached to the aircraft. This was found to give unmanageable ground-handling characteristics, so a simple shock absorber was then incorporated. The cross section of the fuselage was circular and not elliptical as were most planes of this size and type; such a fuselage was easier to build.

The Ki-115 was designed to be able to use any engine that was in storage for ease of construction and supply, even Japan's stocks of obsolete engines from the 1920s and 1930s. The initial aircraft (Ki-115a) were powered by 1,151 hp Nakajima Ha-35 radial engines. It is not known if any other engine was ever actually fitted.
The aircraft had a top speed of 340 mph and could carry a bomb weighing as much as 800 kg (1,800 lb). however, it was otherwise unarmed, and heavily laden with its bomb, would have been an easy target for enemy fighter aircraft.Of the 105 examples produced, two airframes are known to exist. One example of the Ki-115 on loan to the Pima Air & Space Museum in Tucson, Arizona from the National Air and Space Museum.
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Re: The slightly less well known
« Reply #914 on: June 20, 2021, 11:40:17 AM »
Nakajima LB-2

The Nakajima LB-2 was a long-range, land-based bomber developed in Japan for use by the Imperial Japanese Navy.

It was a conventional, low-wing cantilever monoplane powered by twin engines.It was made of metal throughout, and the main units of the tailwheel undercarriage retracted into the engine nacelles. The bomb load was carried in an internal bay.The prototype LB-2 was completed in March 1936. and it was considered for production, along with the Mitsubishi G1M, but eventually both were rejected. The LB-2 prototype's bomb bay was replaced with a fuel tank and a cabin for six passengers was fitted, with the bombardier's position in the nose converted to store luggage

The converted LB-2, now named Akatsuki-go, was delivered to Manchukuo National Airways in 1937, with the  intent to operate a service to the Soviet Union over the Tian Shan mountains. The outbreak of the Second Sino-Japanese War and the Soviet–Japanese Border Wars ended the plans,and the Akatsuki-go was scrapped in 1941.
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Re: The slightly less well known
« Reply #915 on: June 23, 2021, 11:17:11 PM »
Nakajima Kikka

The Nakajima Kikka was Japan's first jet aircraft.

The Japanese military attaché in Germany witnessed trials of the Messerschmitt Me 262 in 1942, and the Imperial Japanese Navy requested Nakajima to develop a similar aircraft as a fast attack bomber. Specifications for the design were that it would be able to be built by unskilled labour, and that the wings should be foldable. This latter feature was to enable the aircraft to be hidden in caves and tunnels around Japan. Nakajima came up with an aircraft that bore a strong but superficial resemblance to the Me 262.

It was decided to produce a new axial flow turbojet based on the German BMW 003 as Japan did not yet have a suitable engine. Development was troubled, based on little more than photographs drawings of the BMW 003, a suitable unit, the Ishikawajima Ne-20, was finally built in 1945. By mid-1945, the Kikka project was making progress once again.Other more economical projects designed specifically for kamikaze attacks, such as the simpler Nakajima Tōka, the pulsejet-powered Kawanishi Baika, and the Yokosuka Ohka,were underway or already in mass production.

Compared to the Me 262, the Kikka airframe was smaller and more conventional in design, with straight wings and tail surfaces. The main landing gear of the Kikka was taken from the A6M Zero and the nose wheel from the tail of a Yokosuka P1Y bomber.
The first prototype began ground tests on 30 June 1945. The following month it was dismantled and delivered to Kisarazu Naval Airfield where it was re-assembled and prepared for flight tests The first flight took place on 7 August 1945 and the aircraft performed well during a 20-minute test flight, with the only concern being the length of the takeoff run. For the second test flight, four days later, rocket assisted take off (RATO) units were fitted to the aircraft. The pilot had been uneasy about the angle at which the rocket tubes had been set, so it was decided to reduce the thrust of the rockets by 50%. Four seconds into take off the RATO was actuated, jolting the aircraft back onto its tail leaving the pilot with no effective tail control. After the nine-second burning time of the RATO ran out the nose came down and the nose wheel contacted the runway. The pilot opted to abort the take off, the aircraft ran over a drainage ditch which caught the landing gear, the aircraft continued to skid forward and stopped short of the water's edge. Before it could be repaired Japan had surrendered and the war was over.
After the war, several airframes were brought to the U.S. for study. Today, two examples survive in the National Air and Space Museum.
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Re: The slightly less well known
« Reply #916 on: June 25, 2021, 11:35:12 AM »
NAMC YS-11

The NAMC YS-11 is a turboprop airliner designed and built by the Nihon Aircraft Manufacturing Corporation (NAMC), a Japanese consortium.

NAMC designed a low-winged twin-turboprop-engined monoplane, capable of seating up to 60 passengers, named the YS-11.The twin-engined YS-11 was projected as delivering similar operational performance to the four-engined British-built Vickers Viscount, while possessing 50% greater capacity than the Dutch-built Fokker F27 Friendship. MITI supervised the pricing of the aircraft in order to ensure that it was competitive with the American-built Martin 4-0-4.

The aircraft was mainly designed and manufactured in Japan, the engine selected to was the 3,050 ehp Rolls-Royce Dart RDa.10/1 powerplant, which was both developed and produced by Rolls-Royce. Several of the key aircraft systems, such as cabin pressurization, were copied from foreign sources; information was gleaned from Japanese airlines, trading companies and diplomats. Throughout the YS-11's production lifetime, its electronic equipment, avionics, mechanical and fuselage components were supplied by a combination of Japanese companies and foreign suppliers.

On 30 August 1962, the first prototype made its maiden flight, followed by a second prototype, on 28 December 1962. Early flight testing revealed several serious problems, including poor steering, excessive vibration and noise. There was also a concern during sideways maneouvers; the wake of the propeller produced forces that inclined the aircraft to the right; all of the rudders were ineffective; and the maneuverability was worst of all. These problems produced a tailspin during the flight test, and were the direct cause of a crash. It received its Japanese Type certificate on 25 August 1964, while the (FAA) certification followed on 9 September 1965. Prior to applying for certification, the FAA had been involved in the programme at NAMC's invitation, performing informal project reviews so that defects could be identified and fixed early on.

A major customer for the YS-11 was the American operator Piedmont Airlines. After evaluating numerous aircraft around the world, the company determined that the Japanese airliner was the most suitable. During October 1967, Piedmont Airlines ordered a batch of ten YS-11A-200s along with an option for an additional ten aircraft for $22.5 million. The company was so impressed by its performance, it exercised the option for ten aircraft and purchased an additional YS-11, operating a combined fleet of 21 YS-11s by mid-1970. Piedmont would be the type's largest international operator.

The end of the YS-11 programme was forseen by the 1971 Smithsonian Agreement, which led to an appreciation in the value of the Japanese yen and the impact upon the nation's economy.By this point, it was clear that there was little chance that the YS-11 could ever be close to breaking even. These factors contributed to the decision for production to be terminated after the completion of 182 aircraft. On 11 May 1973, the last YS-11 was delivered to the Japanese Maritime Self-Defence Force (JMSDF).
« Last Edit: June 26, 2021, 01:03:33 AM by Angry Turnip »

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Re: The slightly less well known
« Reply #917 on: June 27, 2021, 08:59:42 PM »
Tachikawa KKY

The Tachikawa KKY, full name Tachikawa Army Small and Light Ambulance Aircraft were built between 1936 and 1940.

The Japanese Army placed an order for a small ambulance aircraft, capable of using rough airstrips and holding two stretcher cases and a medical attendant, in August 1932.It was a single bay cabin biplane with wings attached to the upper and lower longerons and braced on each side with near-parallel interplane struts. The wings had wooden structures and were fabric-covered.
The prototype was completed in December 1933, and its development was protracted and it was not ready for production until 1936.

It was powered by a 120–130 hp Cirrus Hermes IV four cylinder air-cooled, inverted inline engine and the later KKY-2 by a 150 hp Gasuden Jimpu seven cylinder radial engine. The fuselage had a welded steel tube structure, with a windowed cabin that included the pilot's seat just ahead of the wing leading edge and the patients and attendant under the wing. The tail, with an aluminium structure and fabric-covered, was conventional, with a tailplane on top of the fuselage and braced to it from below. The vertical tail had a blunted triangular profile.To rescue patients from rough airfields or unmade airstrips, the ambulance needed a robust undercarriage. This had split axles mounted on a short, central, V-strut from the fuselage underside with wheels with wide, low-pressure tyres were available.

21 production KKYs were built and they were active in the Second Sino-Japanese War,which began in 1937 and became part of World War II when China entered on the Allies' side shortly after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbour.
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Re: The slightly less well known
« Reply #918 on: June 28, 2021, 12:15:37 AM »
Tachikawa Ki-74

The Tachikawa Ki-74 was a twin engine experimental long-range reconnaissance bomber of World War II.

First conceived in 1939 as a long-range reconnaissance aircraft, the initial prototype Ki-74 only first flew as late as March 1944, after its development and primary mission requirement had been changed to capability of bombing and reconnaissance over the mainland United States.The aircraft was powered by two 2,201 hp Mitsubishi Ha-211-I radial engines. The two prototypes were powered by the turbo-supercharged Mitsubishi Ha-211-I Ru; these experienced teething problems and the following thirteen pre-production machines substituted the Ha-211 Ru engine for the lower-powered but more reliable turbo-supercharged Mitsubishi Ha-104 Ru 1,900 hp Air Cooled Radial. The aircraft was fitted with self-sealing fuel tanks, armor and a pressurized cabin for its crew of 5.
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Re: The slightly less well known
« Reply #919 on: July 01, 2021, 01:10:32 PM »
Tachikawa R-38

The Tachikawa R-38 was a Japanese training aircraft of the late 1930s.

In 1938, the Tachikawa Aircraft Company, began work on a new training aircraft for use by civilian training schools. The aircraft, the Tachikawa R-38[a], was a single-engined parasol wing monoplane. It had a fabric-covered welded steel tube fuselage and a wood and metal wing. The student and instructor sat in separate tandem open cockpits.

The first prototype was powered by a 150 hp Gasuden Jimpu seven-cylinder radial engine driving a two-bladed propeller and made its first flight on 22 February 1939. It was tested by the Japanese Army, with the conclusion that the lighter R-38 was superior to the Army's Ki-17 primary trainer, which used the same engine. As the Ki-17 was already in production, however, the Army had no need for a new trainer. A second prototype, the R-38-Kai was built powered by an experimental 120 hp Kosoku KO-4 four-cylinder air-cooled inline engine, produced by a subsidiary of Tachikawa. The R-38-Kai flew in July 1941.

From 1938, all major Japanese aircraft companies were required to be licensed by the government, and the armed services controlled the management of the companies. As there was no military requirement for the R-38, the Japanese Army halted further production.of the R-38 and R-38K.
« Last Edit: July 01, 2021, 01:12:16 PM by Angry Turnip »

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Re: The slightly less well known
« Reply #920 on: July 03, 2021, 11:28:16 PM »
On to Australia now.....


CAC CA1 / CA3 Wirraway

The CAC Wirraway was a training and general purpose military aircraft manufactured in Australia.

On 17 October 1936, with the approval of the Government of Australia, three companies came together to form a joint venture, registered as the Commonwealth Aircraft Corporation (CAC), which had the initial goal of assessing the viability for developing a self-sufficient aircraft industry in the nation. The company decided that it would pursue the development and production of a single-engine armed advanced trainer, which would be a licence-built version of an existing aircraft,which turned out to be the North American Aviation (NAA) NA-16.

During 1937, production licences for the type were obtained from North American Aviation along with an accompanying arrangement to domestically produce the Wirraway's Wasp engine from Pratt & Whitney.A pair of NA-16s were purchased to act as prototypes. The first of these two aircraft was the fixed undercarriage NA-16-1A ; the second was the retractable undercarriage NA-16-2K.During August 1937, the NA-16-1A arrived in Australia and, following its re-assembly, flew for the first time on 3 September.The NA-16-2K arrived in Australia and likewise flew shortly afterwards. These aircraft were given the RAAF serials A20-1 and A20-2 within that organisation's numbering system.

The NA-16-2K model was the type selected for initial production. The design featured detail and structural changes, such as fitting of a pair of forward-firing guns instead of the NA-16's single gun, and the strengthening of the tail and wings to better facilitate dive-bombing operations.Other modifications included the adoption of a single gun set on a swivelling mount to the rear of the cockpit, along with the installation of cameras and radio sets. On 27 March 1939, the first CA-1 Wirraway, RAAF serial A20-3, performed its maiden flight. This aircraft was subsequently retained by CAC for evaluation and trials for a number of months; on 10 July 1939, the first pair of Wirraways to be delivered to the RAAF, serials A20-4 and A20-5, were received by the service.
Forty CA-1 Wirraways were constructed before the improved CA-3 variant entered production.
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Re: The slightly less well known
« Reply #921 on: July 10, 2021, 11:20:18 AM »
CAC Wackett

The CAC Wackett trainer was the first aircraft designed in-house by the Commonwealth Aircraft Corporation of Australia.

It was a tandem seat fixed tailwheel-undercarriage monoplane aircraft with a fuselage of steel tube and fabric construction with wings and tail made of wood.It was a simple design, but construction of the first of two CA-2 prototypes, begun in October 1938, and completed until September 1939.
The first prototype flew 19 September 1939 fitted with a Gipsy Major series II engine, fitted with a metal DH variable pitch propeller. The aircraft proved to be underpowered so the second prototype was fitted with a Gipsy Six, from a Tugan Gannet,with its wooden propeller, prior to its first flight in early November the same year (the first prototype was subsequently also re-engined with a Gypsy Six from a Tugan Gannet).Although performance was improved slightly, the heavier engine cancelled out any real benefits to take-off performance with the increased power, so the decision was made to install a 165D Warner Scarab radial engine driving a Hamilton Standard 2B20 two-bladed propeller. The two prototypes were fitted with Scarabs in mid-1940.

The first CA-6 Wackett made its first flight on 6 February 1941 and entered service shortly after. Supplies of Hamilton Standard 2B20 propellers, which were being manufactured locally by de Havilland Australia, and the Scarab engines, were poor during the first half of 1941. The problem was not fully resolved until October, so many unflyable aircraft accumulated at the CAC factory.The opportunity was taken to modify the thickness of the lower wing skins that in-service use had shown were required. Following the outbreak of the Pacific War production was increased to make way for the Boomerang and the last Wackett was delivered to the Royal Australian Air Force on 22 April 1942.

The Wackett served primarily as wireless trainers but also as an initial dual flying trainer at various sites across the country. Around 30% of the 200 aircraft were written-off during service with the RAAF and after the end of World War II the remaining aircraft were withdrawn from use and sold to civilians and organisations. About thirty aircraft were re-sold to the Netherlands East Indies Air Force and the survivors of these were transferred to the Indonesian Air Force, although it is thought that they did not see further use. Several dozen more were placed on the Australian civil register.
« Last Edit: July 10, 2021, 11:20:47 AM by Angry Turnip »

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Re: The slightly less well known
« Reply #922 on: July 16, 2021, 01:51:43 PM »
CAC Boomerang

The CAC Boomerang is a fighter aircraft designed and manufactured in Australia.

The Boomerang was a small single-engine monoplane fighter, designed to have high manoeuvrability. It`s stubby appearance, resulted from the structure being based on the smaller Wirraway  paired with a considerably larger 1200hp Pratt & Whitney R-1830 Twin Wasp radial engine, which drove a three-bladed Hamilton Standard propeller, license-built by de Havilland. The engine was closely cowled with two air scoops fixed to the upper and lower sides, the upper being for the carburetor and the lower for the oil cooler.

The final design had substantially differed from the original, having adopted shorter wings along with a shorter fuselage, which had increased strength to withstand combat stress. The wing used a single spar and a stressed skin construction, along with fabric-covered ailerons, aluminium trim tabs and split trailing edge flaps. The main undercarriage retracted into wheelwells forward of the main spar.
The Boomerang had a new single seat cockpit over the centre of the wing, with a sliding canopy which had 1.5-inch bulletproof glass and armor protection.It was armed with a pair of British-made Hispano-Suiza 20 mm cannon.Other armament fitted included four Browning .303 machine guns along with provision for up to four 20 lb smoke bombs.

Records show that the Boomerang was never recorded as having destroyed any enemy aircraft, the type proved to be more useful in its capacity as a light ground attack aircraft used by Army co-operation squadrons, often replacing the lightly armed Wirraway in this role.The Boomerang directly contributed to the extensive ground war in the jungles of the South West Pacific theatre in small unit actions, fought at close quarters. In addition to strafing Japanese ground forces with cannon and machine gun fire, Boomerangs would often deploy smoke bombs to mark valuable targets for other units to attack.The aircraft was also used for artillery spotting, aerial supply drops, tactical reconnaissance, and anti-malarial spraying.
« Last Edit: July 16, 2021, 01:52:15 PM by Angry Turnip »

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Re: The slightly less well known
« Reply #923 on: July 24, 2021, 08:24:00 PM »
CAC Woomera

The CAC Woomera was an Australian bomber aircraft from WWII.

The Australian Government was initially uninterested in the CAC design,but in mid-1940, cut off from the supply of British-made components for the Beaufort program (thanks to a British embargo on the export of aviation products, the Australian Government ordered a prototype of the CAC design. The prototype CA-4 first flew on 19th September 1941.

It was a low-wing, twin-engined, multi-role bomber with a crew of three. It was armed with four nose-mounted .303 calibre machine guns and two remote-controlled twin machine-guns mounted at the rear of the engine nacelles. It could carry either 500 lb bombs, 250 lb bombs or two torpedoes. It was originally powered by two Pratt & Whitney Twin Wasp R-1830-S3C3-G radials. Unfortunately, the new design fuel tanks never proved reliable, and in January 1943 the CA-4 prototype was completely destroyed in a mid-air explosion, probably due to a fuel leak. Later With a re-designed tail and rudder, and an improved nose armament of two 20 mm cannon and two .303 calibre machine guns, the CA-4 became the CA-11 Woomera.

After the loss of the CA-4 prototype, the redesigned CA-11 did not fly until June 1944. By the time production was due to commence, the RAAF was filling the light bomber/reconnaissance/strike role with British-designed Bristol Beaufighters (built under license) and US-made bombers, including the B-25 Mitchell. The Woomera order was reduced from 105 to 20. After the first CA-11 flew, the whole program was cancelled and the production capacity at CAC was switched to P-51 Mustang fighters. The only completed CA-11 Woomera, A23-1, was stripped for parts and scrapped in 1946.
« Last Edit: July 24, 2021, 08:25:51 PM by Angry Turnip »

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Re: The slightly less well known
« Reply #924 on: July 27, 2021, 10:42:15 PM »
CAC Ceres

The Commonwealth Aircraft CA-28 Ceres was a crop-duster aircraft built between 1959 and 1963.

CAC research showed there was a need for a purpose-built aircraft optimized for agricultural work. Once the board approved the project a number of surplus Wirraways were purchased from the RAAF for use in the production of this new aircraft.

The design was vaguely similar to the Wirraway, but really a new type that used some Wirraway components rather than a conversion. The only major components used in both types without alteration were the tail group and the landing gear. The fuselage was completely new, with a hopper installed between the engine and the high-mounted single-seat cockpit. The outer wing panels had slotted trailing-edge flaps and fixed leading edge slats, while the centre-section was altered to accommodate the hopper. The increase in wingspan and wing area was also incorporated in the centre-section, and the result was an aircraft with much more docile stalling characteristics. The engine was the same, a Pratt & Whitney R-1340, but altered so that it was direct-drive. The three-bladed variable-pitch propeller was also different, being of wider chord and smaller diameter.

The Ceres prototype first flew in February 1958 and the first production aircraft was delivered in April 1959. After five aircraft had been built provision was made for a rearward-facing seat behind the cockpit, housed under an extended canopy. CAC had hoped to sell at least fifty aircraft, but production of the Ceres ended in July 1963 after 21 aircraft had been built.
« Last Edit: July 27, 2021, 10:44:40 PM by Angry Turnip »