Northern Ireland Aviation Enthusiast's Forum

Military Aviation => Historical Military Aircraft => Topic started by: Angry Turnip on January 14, 2019, 08:25:14 PM

Title: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on January 14, 2019, 08:25:14 PM

As a new feature I am going to do a short daily profile of British historic military and/or civil aircraft,that are perhaps slightly less well known than others from the same stable, mainly from defunct companies.


Avro Lincoln.

The Avro Lincoln,or Avro Type 694,a British four-engined heavy bomber,which first flew on 9 June 1944.The first Lincoln variants were initially known as the Lancaster IV and V,but were renamed Lincoln I and II.It was the last piston-engined bomber operated by the RAF.

WWII ended before the Lincoln went into action,but production of the type proceeded and was adopted in quantity,the RAF and the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) operated the Lincoln during the Malayan Emergency.Lincolns also saw some use in civil aviation,often being operated as aerial test beds for aero-engine research.

The Lincolns of Bomber Command were phased out from the mid-1950s and had been completely replaced by jet bombers by 1963.The last in RAF service were five operated by No. 151 Squadron,Signals Command,at RAF Watton,which were retired on 12 March 1963.

Other aircraft were also derived from the Lincoln.A dedicated maritime patrol aircraft,designated as the Avro Shackleton,was developed for the RAF and the South African Air Force.Avro decided to develop a commercial airliner,known as the Tudor,which dipped extensively into the parts bin of the Lincoln.

View of Avro Lincoln credit to Skytamer Images
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on January 15, 2019, 07:30:44 PM
Armstrong Whitworth A.W.41 Albemarle.

The Armstrong Whitworth A.W.41 Albemarle was a British twin-engine transport,that entered service during the WWII.Designed as a medium bomber,it was used for transport duties,paratroop transport,and glider towing.RAF Albemarle squadrons participated in D-Day,and the assault on Arnhem during Operation Market Garden.

It was powered by 2 Bristol Hercules XI radial engines of 1590 hp each,giving it a top speed of 265 mph.The aircraft was always expected to be of use as a contingency and to be less than ideal,despite this a batch of 200 was ordered in Oct 1938.The first Albemarle (P1360) first flew on 20 March 1940 at Hamble Aerodrome.

Plans for using it as a bomber were dropped due to delays in reaching service,it was not an improvement over current medium bomber types.The Soviet Air Force placed a contract for delivery of 200 Albemarles in October 1942.In May 1943,the Soviets suspended deliveries and cancelled them in favour of Douglas C-47`s.

The first RAF operational flight was on 9 February 1943,by a 296 Squadron Albemarle which dropped leaflets over Lisieux in Normandy.RAF Albemarles took part in many British airborne operations,including Sicily,D-Day and Arnhem,towing various glider types such as the Horsa etc.
The RAF Heavy Glider Conversion Unit,replaced the Albemarles with Handley Page Halifaxes in February 1946 and the type was retired from operational units.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: smudge on January 15, 2019, 07:38:14 PM
For a while there was a painting of an Albemarle in the Clubhouse at EGAD!  In the narrow corridor from the apron-side door into the lounge.

Will have to check for it next time I'm down.

That has reminded me to find if there was any connection between the type and Newtownards, none comes to mind.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on January 16, 2019, 06:57:48 PM
Bristol Type 163 Buckingham

The Bristol Type 163 Buckingham,was a twin engine medium bomber for the RAF.It was built in small numbers,and was used mainly for transport and liaison duties.By the time the design entered production, requirements had changed,the Buckingham was not considered suitable for daytime use over Europe.In January 1944 it was decided that all Buckinghams would be sent overseas to replace Vickers Wellingtons.

Once the Buckingham's handling problems were revealed,it was soon realised that the type was of little use.As a result,it was cancelled in August 1944.A batch of 119 were built,while uses for the aircraft were sought,a conversion to a communications aircraft was devised.54 had been built as bombers,the remainder were converted for high-speed courier duties with RAF Transport Command as it had a useful 300mph top speed.

65 Buckingham bombers were unfinished on the production line,they ended up being rebuilt as the Buckmaster,a trainer for the similar Brigand.The Buckmaster continued to serve as a trainer until its eventual retirement in the mid-1950s.Powerplant: 2 × Bristol Centaurus VII air-cooled radial engine of 2,520 hp each.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on January 17, 2019, 08:07:48 PM
Boulton Paul Balliol

The Boulton Paul Balliol,and Sea Balliol were military advanced trainers,for the RAF and the FAA.Designed to replace the North American Harvard,it used the Rolls-Royce Merlin 35 1245hp engine.The second prototype,powered by the intended Armstrong Siddeley Mamba turboprop,first flew on 17 May 1948,the world's first single-engined turboprop aircraft to fly.The Merlin powered Balliol,designated Balliol T.2,first flew on 10 July 1948.

Due to the change in air-training policy,the Balliol was only delivered to one Flying Training School,No.7 at RAF Cottesmore,replacing their Harvards.They later served at the RAF College,Cranwell until replaced there by the de Havilland Vampire T.Mk 11 in 1956.The Balliol also saw limited squadron service from 1953 with No. 288 Squadron RAF based at RAF Middle Wallop,until the squadron was disbanded in September 1957.12 Mk.2s went to the Royal Ceylon Air Force,7 from cancelled RAF contracts,and five from RAF stocks.

Sea Balliol T21 WL732 former Royal Navy and A&AEE aircraft is on display at the RAF Museum Cosford.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on January 18, 2019, 07:46:39 PM
BAC TSR-2

The British Aircraft Corporation TSR-2 was a twinjet strike and reconnaissance aircraft for the RAF.The TSR-2 was designed to penetrate a well-defended forward battle area at low altitudes and very high speeds.Also to provide high-altitude,high-speed stand-off,side-looking radar and photographic imagery and signals intelligence,and aerial reconnaissance.TSR-2 was the victim of ever-rising costs and inter-service squabbling over Britain's future defence needs,which led to the controversial decision to scrap the programme in 1965.

The most advanced aviation technology of the period was incorporated in order to make it the highest-performing aircraft in the world in its projected missions.The USA put tremendous pressure on the UK government to order an adapted version of the General Dynamics F-111,a decision that itself was later rescinded as costs and development times increased.The replacements included the Blackburn Buccaneer and McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom II,both of which had previously been considered and rejected early in the TSR-2 procurement process.

Only one of the three airframes flew,and flight tests revealed vibration problems,and issues with the landing gear,but these niggles were soon addressed.Over a period of six months, a total of 24 test flights were conducted.The basic flying qualities of the aircraft which,according to the test pilots involved,were outstanding.Speeds of Mach 1.12 and sustained low-level flights down to 200 ft (above the Pennines) were achieved.The last test flight took place on 31 March 1965.
At two Cabinet meetings held on 1 April 1965,it was decided to cancel the TSR-2 on the grounds of projected cost,and instead to obtain an option agreement to acquire up to 110 F-111 aircraft with no immediate commitment to buy.

The TSR-2 tooling,jigs and many of the part completed aircraft were all scrapped at Brooklands within six months of the cancellation.Two airframes eventually survived: the complete XR220 at the RAF Museum,Cosford and XR222 much less complete at Duxford.The only airframe ever to fly XR219,along with the completed XR221 and part completed XR223 were taken to Shoeburyness and used as targets to test the vulnerability of a modern airframe and systems to gunfire and shrapnel.

The apparent haste with which the project was scrapped has been the source of much argument and bitterness since. The TSR-2, nonetheless, remains a lingering "what if?" of British aviation.
Aeronautical engineer Sir Sydney Camm (designer of the Hawker Hurricane) said of the TSR-2: "All modern aircraft have four dimensions: span, length, height and politics. TSR-2 simply got the first three right."
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: smudge on January 18, 2019, 11:06:24 PM
Many years ago when I visited Brooklands parts of the jigs and formers were still lying in the long grass. Such a sad story.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on January 19, 2019, 04:51:24 PM
I have a video (remember them?) called TSR2 The Untold Story,it features great footage of the test flights.
One in particular when it is being tailed by a BAC Lightening,the TSR2 fires up one engine on reheat (afterburner) only,as there was a problem with the other,but it leaves the Lightening for dead.
Even with both of it`s Avons on full burn it could barely keep up-impressive stuff.

It`s on You Tube....https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=edClNWhKFEU
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on January 19, 2019, 05:15:46 PM
de Havilland Flamingo

The de Havilland DH.95 Flamingo was a twin-engined high-wing monoplane airliner first flown on 22 December 1938.During the WWII some were used by the RAF as a transport and for general communications duties.
A product of chief designer R.E.Bishop,it was the first all-metal stressed-skin aircraft built by de Havilland;control surfaces were fabric covered.It was powered by two 890 hp Bristol Perseus XIIIC air-cooled radial engines driving three-bladed D.H hydromatic variable-pitch propellers.

Two pilots were seated side by side with a radio operator behind them in the cockpit,the cabin accommodating up to 17 passengers.It had a retractable undercarriage,slotted flaps,and was considered a promising sales prospect for the company,capable of competing with the American Douglas DC-3 and Lockheed Model 10 Electra.The first prototype flew on 22 December 1938,with an initial production run of twenty aircraft proposed.
A single military transport variant was built as the DH.95 Hertfordshire.It had oval cabin windows instead of rectangular ones,and seating for 22 troops.

Following the success of the first test flights,Jersey Airways ordered three 17-seat aircraft,and this was followed by orders from the Egyptian government and the Air Ministry.The Air Ministry aircraft were to be used by the Air Council and the King's Flight. The King's Flight aircraft was to be used in the event of the royal family having to leave the country but in the end it was passed to the RAF.

BOAC ordered eight aircraft to be powered by the Perseus XVI and originally intended as ten-seaters.BOAC were later allotted the aircraft ordered by the Egyptian Government.The BOAC Flamingoes were not popular,with a lack of spares,the airline decided to withdraw the type.RAF aircraft were withdrawn from use during the war and were slowly scrapped to provide spares for the remaining aircraft.
British Air Transport restored the original former Admiralty aircraft which flew again on 27 May 1952,based at Redhill Aerodrome,which was closed in 1954 and the last flying Flamingo was dismantled and scrapped.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on January 20, 2019, 09:14:07 PM
de Havilland Hornet

The de Havilland DH.103 Hornet was a twin-piston engined fighter aircraft.It was earmarked to conduct long range fighter operations in the Pacific theatre against Japan, but the war ended before the Hornet reached operational squadron status.
It bore a family resemblance to the larger Mosquito,but was an entirely fresh design,albeit one that drew extensively upon experiences from,the construction techniques used in the Mosquito.
The Hornet was powered by a pair of highly developed Rolls-Royce Merlin engines,producing 2,070 hp each,which drove four-bladed propellers.Main armament was four short-barrelled 20 mm Hispano V cannons,other munitions typically used included various rockets and bombs.

It was unusual for a British design in having propellers that rotated in opposite directions;the two engine crankshafts rotated in the same direction but the Merlin 131 added an idler gear to reverse its propeller's rotation (to clockwise, viewed from the front).This cancelled the torque effect of two propellers turning in the same direction that had affected earlier designs.On production Hornets the conventionally rotating Merlin 130 was on the port wing with the Merlin 131 on the starboard.

In mid-1946,the Hornet entered squadron service with 64 Squadron,based at RAF Horsham St Faith.Operationally,the Hornet F.I lasted only a short time before being superseded by the improved F.3 version,which flew at the Farnborough Air Show in June 1946.In 1951,considerable numbers of Hornets were redeployed from Fighter Command to the squadrons of the Far East Air Force (FEAF),and participated in combat operations during the Malayan Emergency.It proved to be very reliable; 45 Sqn Hornets, based in Singapore, achieved a total of 4,500 operational sorties over five years, more than any other squadron in the FEAF.

On 21 May 1955,the last operational Hornet sortie was flown;by mid-1956,all Hornets had been recorded as having been withdrawn from operational service.No complete examples of the Hornet remain in existence today.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on January 21, 2019, 07:44:44 PM
English Electric Kingston

The English Electric P.5 Kingston was a twin-engined biplane flying boat.When the English Electric Company was formed in 1918 from several companies,the Phoenix Dynamo Manufacturing Company brought with it the two prototype Phoenix P.5 Cork`s.After a redesign the Cork reappeared as the English Electric P.5 Kingston.
The first attempt at flight 12 May 1924 ended abruptly at the point of take off,the crew were thrown from the aircraft,which began to sink,but it was re-floated and repaired.

The second prototype`s attempt was onn 25 May 1925,changes had been made including four bladed props,just after becoming airborne the engines left their mountings and the wing structure failed causing cracks in the hull.The second Kingston I N9710 first flew on 13 November 1925 at Lytham and was flown to RAF Calshot for service trials along with the third flying-boat N9711.A fourth aircraft re-emerged as N9712 with a new duralumin hull and became the sole Kingston II.Test flights revealed it`s performance was not up to scratch,the metal hull was used for tests at Farnborough.

The last aircraft to be built, N9713,had a completely redesigned hull,but this reverted to wooden construction,and was known as the Kingston III.It was intended to produce a metal-hulled variant of the Kingston III but the day the Kingston III left Lytham for Felixstowe in 1926 the company closed its aircraft department,until the late 1930`s.
With War in Europe looming,English Electric was instructed by the Air Ministry to construct a "shadow factory" at Samlesbury Aerodrome in Lancashire to build Handley Page Hampden bombers.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on January 22, 2019, 07:39:53 PM
Fairey Gordon

The Fairey Gordon was a two crew biplane light bomber and utility aircraft.Powerplant was 1 × Armstrong Siddeley PantherIIa radial engine of 525 hp.Armament was one fixed, forward-firing .303-inch Vickers machine gun,and a .303-inch Lewis Gun in the rear cockpit,plus 500 pounds (230 kg) of bombs.
The prototype was first flown on 3 March 1931.178 new-built aircraft were made for the RAF,a handful of earlier Fairey IIIFs being converted on the production line.
154 Mark Is were built,before production switched to the Mark II which had a larger fin and rudder;only 24 of these were completed before production switched to the Swordfish.

It had mostly been retired from RAF and Royal Navy FAA service prior to the Second World War,but a few squadrons still operated them in Egypt.Six of these aircraft were transferred to the Egyptian Air Force.
49 Gordons were dispatched to the Royal New Zealand Air Force in April 1939,41 entering brief service as pilot trainers.The aircraft were worn out and showing signs of their service in the Middle East.The last of these – and the last intact Gordon anywhere – was struck from RNZAF service in 1943.

On 12 April 1940 two trainee pilots Walter Raphael (pilot) and Wilfred Everist (passenger) of 1 Service Flying Training School were flying NZ629 from Wigram on a flight over the Southern Alps,it entered a spin then recovered,only to crash into trees where it became entangled.
In 1976 it was relocated – still largely suspended from trees.It is the only known survivor of a Gordon Mark I,and is under long term restoration in New Zealand.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: smudge on January 22, 2019, 11:24:49 PM

In 1976 it was relocated – still largely suspended from trees.


Gordon Bennett, what a tale!
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on January 23, 2019, 09:01:10 PM
Gloster Gauntlet

The Gloster Gauntlet was a single-seat biplane fighter of the RAF,designed and built by in the 1930s.It was the last RAF fighter to have an open cockpit and the penultimate biplane fighter in service.A total of 204 Mk IIs were produced in the UK,this new model used a revised construction method based on that used by Hawker following it`s takeover of Gloster,it was much easier to build and repair than Gloster's welded structure.Powerplant was 1 × Bristol Mercury VI S2 9-cylinder radial engine,645 hp giving a useful top speed of 230mph.Armament was a pair of 0.303 in Vickers machine guns.

The Gauntlet Mk II entered service with 56 Squadron and 111 Squadron in May 1936,at the height of its career,it equipped 14 Squadrons of RAF Fighter Command.In the late 1930`s they were passed on to freshly formed units as their first equipment to allow them to gain training before receiving more modern fighters.A flight of Gauntlets remaining in service with No.3 Sqn RAAF in the Middle East when Italy declared war in 1940.These were briefly used for ground-attack operations against the Italians before being retired from operations.

Seventeen Gauntlets IIs were licence-produced in Denmark,while 25 ex-RAF machines were supplied by South Africa as support to Finland in 1940 as a result of the Winter War.Although obsolete,they were used as advanced trainers by the Finns.
The only airworthy Mk II in the world, GT-400,is registered in Finland,where it spends its summers in Kymi Airfield Aviation Museum near Kotka.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on January 24, 2019, 08:32:20 PM
Handley Page H.P.54 Harrow

The Handley Page H.P.54 Harrow was a heavy bomber of the 1930s,operated by the RAF,being used for most of the Second World War as a transport.It was a twin-engine,high-wing monoplane with a fixed undercarriage.Powerplant was 2 × Bristol Pegasus XX nine-cylinder radial engine,of 925 hp each.
On 14 August 1936,months before the first Harrow flew,the Ministry put in an order for 100 aircraft,the first Harrow flew on 10 October 1936 from Radlett.

The nose and dorsal turrets were armed with a single Lewis gun,while the tail turret carried two Lewis guns,(later replaced by Vickers K machine guns).A bombload of up to 3,000 lb (1,400 kg) could be carried under the cabin floor,with the aircraft being able to carry a single 2,000 lb (910 kg) bomb.
The first Harrow was delivered to No. 214 Squadron RAF on 13 January 1937,all 100 were delivered by the end of the year,with five bomber squadrons of the RAF being equipped.

It was phased out as a frontline bomber by the end of 1939 but continued to be used as a transport.At the height of the German night Blitz against Britain in the winter of 1940–1941.Six Harrows equipped No. 420 Flight RAF which used lone Harrows to tow Long Aerial Mines (LAM) into the path of enemy bombers.The LAM had an explosive charge on the end of a long cable.
Three Harrows were operated by Flight Refuelling Limited,and refuelled Short Empire Flying Boats on transatlantic services,two from Gander,Newfoundland and one based in Foynes Ireland.The last five Harrows were retired by the RAF 25th May 1945.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on January 25, 2019, 07:25:21 PM
Hawker Henley

The Hawker Henley was a two-seat target tug derived from the Hawker Hurricane,that was operated by the RAF during World War II.It was originally intended to be a light bomber that could also be deployed in a close-support role as a dive-bomber,but changes in requirements changed it`s role.
The Hawker design team chose to focus on developing an aircraft similar in size to the Hurricane fighter.There would be economies of scale if some assemblies were common to both aircraft.They shared identical outer wing panels and tailplane jigs,and both were equipped with the Rolls-Royce Merlin engine,as it offered the best power-weight ratio as well as a minimal frontal area.

It`s first flight was 10th March 1937 powered by a Merlin "F" engine,at Brooklands.Further test flights confirmed the excellence of its performance.It could reach a top speed of 300 mph.However the Air Ministry had by this point decided that it no longer required a light bomber,thus it was relegated to target-towing duty.Production was subcontracted to Gloster Aircraft and 200 were ordered.

Unfortunately,it was soon discovered that unless the aircraft were restricted to an unrealistically low towing speed of 220 mph,the rate of engine failures was unacceptably high,attributed to a cooling system matched to the Henley's original missions,but inadequate when towing a target at high engine speed but low airspeed.
They were relegated to towing larger drogue targets with anti-aircraft co-operation units,proving themselves even less well-suited to this role;the number of engine failures increased and there were difficulties releasing drogue targets.By mid-1942 the Henley had largely been withdrawn from service.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on January 26, 2019, 07:39:58 PM
Miles Monarch

The Miles M.17 Monarch was a light,touring aeroplane of the 1930s.It was a single-engine,three-seat,cabin monoplane with a fixed,tailwheel undercarriage.The Monarch was a development of their earlier Whitney Straight,with an enlarged fuselage,allowing a third seat in part of what had been the luggage space.

It first flew 20th Feb 1938,eleven aircraft were built between 1938 and 1939,six of these to British customers,the rest going to export.
Powerplant was a De Havilland Gipsy Major I four-cylinder air-cooled inline piston engine,of 130 hp.

On the outbreak of war,five of the British-registered machines were impressed by the Air Ministry; one machine belonging to Rolls-Royce acquired camouflage paint but remained in its owner's service.All but one of these survived the war,though a Dutch-registered aeroplane (PH-ATP) was destroyed in a German raid on Schiphol on 10 May 1940.The remaining Monarchs led uneventful but useful careers;a number survived into the Sixties.G-AFJU is displayed at the National Museum of Flight at RAF East Fortune near East Linton, Scotland.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on January 27, 2019, 02:14:47 PM
Nieuport Nighthawk

The Nieuport & General Aircraft Co. Ltd.was formed on 16 November 1916 to produce French Nieuport aircraft under licence.During 1917,the company started to design its own aircraft,( hiring Henry Folland as chief designer ),the second of which was the Nieuport Nighthawk,a single seat biplane fighter for the RAF and the RNFAA.
It was to be powered by the new ABC Dragonfly,a radial engine under development which was meant to deliver 340 hp while weighing only 600 lb.

An initial order for 150 Nighthawks was placed in August 1918,well before prototypes or flight-ready engines were available,the first prototype,F-2909 flew in Spring 1919.
By this time,it was clear that the Dragonfly had serious problems,being prone to extreme overheating,when the engine could be persuaded to work,the Nighthawk showed excellent performance.
In September 1919,it was finally recognised that the Dragonfly was unsalvagable and the engine programme was cancelled.

Seventy Nighthawks were completed by Nieuport and the Gloucestershire Aircraft Company,with a further 54 airframes without engines being completed.
In a vain attempt to work out the problems with the Dragonfly engine,four Nighthawks were retained by the R.A.E. with experiments carried out in 1920–21.
Nieuport & General closed down in August 1920,and the rights to the Nighthawk were purchased by the Gloster Aircraft Company,who also hired Folland as chief designer.
Gloster proceeded to produce a number of derivatives of the Nighthawk,using stocks of components acquired by the company from the cancelled production run,calling them the Gloster Mars.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on January 28, 2019, 06:43:32 PM
Saunders-Roe A.36 Lerwick

The Saunders-Roe A.36 Lerwick was a British flying boat built by Saunders-Roe Limited (Saro).An Air Ministry Specification was for a medium-range flying boat for anti-submarine,convoy escort and reconnaissance duties to replace the Royal Air Force's biplane flying boats.
The Lerwick was of all-metal construction,with a conventional flying boat hull,and two stabilising floats carried under the wings.It was powered by two Bristol Hercules radial engines and initially had twin fins and rudders.For defence,it was equipped with three powered gun turrets,it could also carry various bombs,and depth charges.

It first flew on 31 October 1938, after numerous delays during design and construction.It was immediately found to be unstable in the air,and on the water and not suited to "hands off" flying.This was a major problem in an aircraft designed for long-range patrols.Numerous adjustments,failed to remedy its poor handling characteristics,which included a vicious stall.In mid-1939,four were allocated to 240 Squadron but by October the squadron had stopped flying them.
The Lerwick programme was cancelled on 24 October but restarted just a week later,as with the start of the World War II,aircraft were urgently required.

April 1941,209 Squadron began receiving the Catalina.The last of a total of 21 Lerwicks was delivered in May,but the type was withdrawn from front-line service in the same month.Most of the remaining Lerwicks were transferred to Invergordon;three were sent to 240 Squadron for service trials at Helensburgh.
In mid-1942,the Lerwicks were briefly returned to service,for operational training with 422 Squadron and 423 Squadron of the Royal Canadian Air Force,based at Lough Erne. By the end of 1942 the type had been declared obsolete and by early 1943 the survivors had been scrapped.
Of the 21 aircraft built,10 were lost to accidents,and one for an unknown reason.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on January 29, 2019, 08:46:03 PM
Sopwith Snipe

The Sopwith 7F.1 Snipe was a single-seat biplane fighter of the RAF during WW I.It came into squadron service a few weeks before the end of the conflict,in late 1918.
The Snipe was not a fast aircraft by the standards of its time,but its excellent climb and manoeuvrability made it a good match for contemporary German fighters.The first prototype Snipe,powered by a Bentley AR.1 rotary engine was completed in October 1917.The 2nd with a new,more powerful Bentley BR.2 engine,which gave 230 hp,flew late November 1917--It was the last rotary to be used by the RAF.

It`s fixed armament consisted of two 0.303 in Vickers machine guns on the cowling,and it was also able to carry up to four 25 lb bombs for ground attack work,identical to the Camel's armament.The Snipe began production in 1918,with more than 4,500 being ordered,but the run ended in 1919,with just under 500 being built,the rest being cancelled due to the end of the war.There was only one variant,the Snipe I,although two aircraft were re-engined with a 320 hp ABC Dragonfly radial engine and these entered production as the Sopwith Dragon.

The first squadron to equip with the new fighter was No. 43,based at Fienvillers in France,replacing its Camels with 15 Snipes on 30 August 1918.
It flew its first operational patrols on 24 September 1918,it also saw service with No. 4 Squadron Australian Flying Corps (AFC) from October 1918.
By the end of 1919,only a single squadron,No 80 was equipped with the Snipe.It took part in the Allied intervention on the side of the White Russians during the Russian Civil War against the Bolsheviks,twelve being used by the RAF mission in north Russia.Most had been retired from service by the early 1920`s.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on January 30, 2019, 07:30:06 PM
Supermarine Southampton

The Supermarine Southampton was a 1920s biplane flying boat,one of the most successful flying boats of the interwar period.It was a twin-engine biplane,with the tractor engines mounted between the wings.The Mk I had both its hull and its wings manufactured from wood,but the Mk II had a hull with a single thickness of metal (duralumin) (the Mk I had a double wooden bottom).This change gave a weight saving of 900 lb (409 kg) allowing for an increase in range of approximately 200 miles.

The first flight of a production aircraft was made on 10 March 1925,and delivery to the RAF started in mid-1925,with No. 480 (Coastal Reconnaissance) Flight at RAF Calshot.The aircraft had three positions for machine guns,one in the nose and two staggered in the rear fuselage.The type quickly became famous for long-distance formation flights,the most notable was a 27,000 mile expedition in 1927 and 1928,carried out by four Southamptons of the Far East Flight,setting out from Felixstowe via the Mediterranean and India to Singapore.
 
Southamptons were sold to a number of other countries,eight new aircraft were sold to Argentina,with Turkey purchasing six and Australia buying two ex-RAF Mk 1 aircraft.
Japan also purchased a single example,which was later converted into an 18-passenger cabin airliner.One RAF aircraft was loaned to Imperial Airways,with British Civil Registration G-AASH,for three months from December 1929.83 Southamptons were constructed,over a ten year period.
The restored wooden fuselage of Supermarine Southampton 1 N9899 is on display at the Royal Air Force Museum in Hendon.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on January 31, 2019, 04:43:00 PM
Supermarine Spiteful

The Supermarine Spiteful was a Rolls-Royce Griffon-engined fighter,designed as a successor to the Spitfire.It featured an entirely new wing design,intended to improve its safe operations at higher speeds.It allowed the landing gear to be re-arranged to a modern inward-retracting design,also a larger vertical tail was added to improve the marginal stability of Spitfires with the Griffon engine.
It first flew 30th June 1944,and was ready for production as the war was ending,but was passed over in favour of jet-powered designs.Of the original order for 150 Spitefuls, only 19 aircraft were completed.

The main problem of the Spitfire's wing was the aeroelasticity,at high speeds the light structure behind the strong leading edge torsion box would flex,changing the airflow and limiting the maximum safe diving speed to 480 mph.To be able to fly higher and faster,a radically new wing would be needed.At high speeds compressibility had become a major problem with the increasingly powerful fighters,and the new wing went some way to addressing the issue.To improve the pilot's view over the nose,the 2375 hp RR Griffon 69 engines were mounted tilted downwards slightly.

There was some uncertainty over whether jet aircraft would be able to operate from the Royal Navy's aircraft carriers so it was decided to develop a naval version of the Spiteful,subsequently named Seafang.
The Seafang featured folding wingtips,a "sting"-type arrester hook and a Griffon 89 or 90 engine,driving two new Rotol three-bladed contra-rotating propellers.The first one produced was a converted Spiteful XV (RB520) but with the successful operation of the de Havilland Sea Vampire from the carrier HMS Ocean in 1945,the need for the Seafang also disappeared.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on February 01, 2019, 06:52:21 PM
Supermarine Attacker

The Supermarine Attacker was a single-seat naval jet fighter built for the Royal Navy's Fleet Air Arm (FAA).It has the distinction of being the first jet fighter to enter operational service with the FAA.Like most other first-generation jet fighters,it had a short service life due to the rapid development of increasingly advanced aircraft.
It used the laminar flow straight-wings of the Supermarine Spiteful,meant to replace the Spitfire.The Attacker project was intended to provide an interim fighter for the RAF while another aircraft,the Gloster E.1/44 also using the Nene engine,was developed.An order for 24 pre-production aircraft,six for the RAF and the remaining 18 for the Fleet Air Arm was placed on 7 July 1945.

The RAF rejected both designs (Spiteful and Attacker) since they offered no great performance advantage over the contemporary Gloster Meteor and the de Havilland Vampire,the RAF's first two operational jet aircraft.The prototype Attacker,TS409 land version was first flown on 27 July 1946,by test pilot Jeffrey Quill.The tail-down attitude meant that when operating from grass airfields the jet exhaust would create a long furrow in the ground,and made it more difficult to land on aircraft carriers.

The first navalised prototype,Type 398 TS413 flew on 17 June 1947 flown by test pilot Mike Lithgow.Orders for the FAA were placed in November 1949,and the first production aircraft to fly was the F.1 variant in 1950,entering service with the FAA in August 1951.The first squadron being 800 Naval Air Squadron; the F.1's armament consisted of four 20 mm Hispano cannons,with 125 rounds per gun.It was powered by a single Rolls-Royce Nene Mk. 101 turbojet engine.

The Attacker had a brief career with the FAA,not seeing any action during its time with the FAA and being taken out of first-line service in 1954.It remained in service with the Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve (RNVR) for a little while longer,being taken out of service in early 1957.The Attacker was replaced in the front line squadrons by the later and more capable Hawker Sea Hawk and de Havilland Sea Venom.182 were built,the Pakistan Air Force aquired 36,and operated them until the late 1950`s.
Attacker F.1 Serial number WA473 is on display at the Fleet Air Arm Museum in Somerset,UK.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: smudge on February 02, 2019, 09:10:16 AM
182 were built,the Pakistan Air Force aquired 36,and operated them until the late 1950`s.

I remember reading that the Attacker was very unpopular in Pakistan, whether due to its own faults or being their first jet with its learning curve.  There was a letter campaign by "Mothers of the Air Force" to have them grounded which culminated with the Chief of the Air Force saddling-up and flying a demo in one to prove that they were 'safe'.

I haven't the foggiest notion where I read that.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on February 02, 2019, 04:53:14 PM
Vickers Vixen


The Vickers Vixen was a general-purpose biplane of the 1920s.It was a single-bay biplane with a steel tube fuselage and wooden wings,powered by a 450 hp Napier Lion engine.
The first prototype the Type 71 Vixen I,civil registration G-EBEC,flew in February 1923.It was tested at Martlesham Heath and showed good performance,prompting modification to a day bomber role as the Type 87 Vixen II,which was fitted with a ventral radiator.The Vixen I and II formed the basis of the Venture army co-operation aircraft for the Royal Air Force and the Valparaiso for export purposes.

Next came the Vixen IV,which was intended for use as a night fighter,it showed improved performance over the Lion-powered versions,but it was not successful.It was later modified with the enlarged wings of the Vixen III as a general-purpose aircraft (the Type 124 Vixen VI) for evaluation as a private venture.

The Military Aviation Service of Chile placed an initial order for twelve Vixen Vs in May 1925,this being increased to 18 in July.Prone to engine problems owing to the problems with the special fuel (⅔ petrol to ⅓ benzol) required for the high-compression Lion V engine,and requiring frequent re-rigging owing to the use of wooden wings in the high temperature of Northern Chile,the Vixen Vs,operated by the Grupo Mixto de Aviación N° 3.were popular in Chilean service.
Vixens participated in bombing raids against mutinying ships of the Chilean Navy during the Sailors' mutiny of September 1931.
After rejection by the RAF,the Vixen VI,piloted by the Test pilot Joseph Summers and Colonel Charles Russell of the Irish Air Corps,carried the first Irish Air Mail, between Galway and London.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on February 03, 2019, 05:40:33 PM
Vickers Vildebeest

The Vickers Vildebeest,and the similar Vickers Vincent were two very large two/three-seat single-engined biplanes.The prototype was,an all-metal fuselage aircraft with single-bay unstaggered fabric-covered wings and tail.First flown in April 1928 as the Vickers Type 132,powered by a Bristol Jupiter VIII radial engine,later changed to the Bristol Pegasus II-M3 air-cooled radial,of 635hp.An initial production order was placed in 1931 for nine aircraft,with the first production machines flying in September 1932.

The RAF ordered 150 to serve as light bombers/torpedo bombers,and in army cooperation roles.In 1931 Vickers designed as a private venture a general purpose version of the Vildebeest to replace the RAF's Westland Wapitis and Fairey IIIFs,supporting the Army in the Middle East.
Named the Vickers Vincent:differences from the Vildebeest were minimal,principally removal of torpedo equipment,provision for an auxiliary fuel tank,and other minor changes.The Vincent was unveiled to the general public for the first time at the 1935 RAF flying display at Hendon,but deliveries had already been made to No.8 Sqn at Aden in late 1934.Between 1934 and 1936,197 Vincents were built for or converted from Vildebeests for the RAF.

The Vildebeest was purchased in moderately large numbers by the RAF from 1931,mainly based in Scotland and Singapore.By 1937,it equipped six squadrons in Iraq,Aden,Kenya,Sudan,and Egypt.At the outbreak of the Second World War,101 Vildebeests were still in service with the RAF.The two British-based squadrons flew coastal patrol and convoy escort missions until 1940,when their Vildebeests were replaced by the Bristol Beaufort.The two Singapore-based squadrons were still waiting for their Beauforts when Japan invaded Malaya in December 1941,and the obsolete biplanes had to be deployed against the Japanese attackers.

The Vildebeest also served in Spain,with the Spanish Republican forces,and 12 Vildebeests were purchased by the Royal New Zealand Air Force in 1935 for coastal defence duties,with a further 27 acquired from RAF stocks in 1940–41.A Vildebeest/Vincent composite airframe is being restored by the Royal New Zealand Air Force Museum at Wigram.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on February 06, 2019, 11:13:38 AM
Vickers Warwick

The Vickers Warwick was a multi-purpose twin-engined military aircraft developed and operated during WWII used mainly by the RAF,but also used by some Polish Sqds and the RAAF,as well as a small number of civil versions used by BOAC.
It was intended to serve as a larger counterpart to the Wellington bomber;the two aircraft shared similar construction and design.Unlike the smaller Wellington, development of the Warwick was protracted by a lack of suitable high-powered engines with which to power the type.First flight was on 13 August 1939,delays to its intended powerplant,the Napier Sabre,led to alternatives being explored in the form of the Bristol Centaurus and Pratt & Whitney R-2800 Double Wasp radial.

Due to the powerplant delays,it was no longer viable as a heavy bomber,and was placed into operational use by the RAF in various other capacities,such as under RAF Transport Command,in addition to its adoption by RAF Coastal Command as an air-sea rescue and maritime reconnaissance platform.During mid-1943,a single Warwick Mk I was converted to become the Warwick Mk II prototype;the main difference was the fitting of Centaurus IV engines.
A total of 219 Warwick Mk I aircraft were constructed,the last 95 of these with 2,000 horsepower R-2800-47 engines.Early testing showed the Warwick to be under-powered and with severe handling problems,especially when flown on a single engine.The version of Double Wasp fitted to early models proved extremely unreliable with many in-flight failures; later versions fitted with the Centaurus engine had better performance but the handling problems were never solved.

From 1943,Warwicks were loaded with the 1,700 lb (770 kg) Mk IA airborne lifeboat,and used for air-sea rescue.It was laden with supplies and powered by two 4 hp motors,it was aimed with a bombsight near to ditched aircrew,and dropped by parachute into the sea from an altitude of about 700 ft.
Warwicks were credited with rescuing crews from Halifaxes,Lancasters,Wellingtons and B-17`s,and during Operation Market Garden,and from Hamilcar gliders,all of which ditched in the English Channel or North Sea.
In total 846 aircraft in different versions were completed.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on February 07, 2019, 11:20:50 AM
Vickers Vanguard/Merchantman

The Vickers Vanguard was a British short/medium-range turboprop airliner introduced in 1959,a follow-up to its highly successful Viscount design,but with considerably more internal space.It was largely ignored by the market,only 44 were built,ordered by Trans-Canada Air Lines (TCA) and British European Airways (BEA).In the early 1970s most were converted to freighters,those from BEA becoming the Merchantman.These freighters remained in service for many years,with the last one not retiring until 1996.

The main difference between the Viscount and Vanguard was the fuselage.The revised larger upper portion gave a roomier interior,with increased cargo capacity below the floor.
Rolls-Royce delivered its new Tyne design with a nominal 4,000 hp,allowing a higher service ceiling and cruising speed.The Vanguard was one of the fastest turboprops ever flown,production aircraft had 4 × Rolls-Royce Tyne RTy.11 Mk 512 turboprops producing 5,545 hp each,so the Vanguard was certainly overpowered.

It entered service with BEA and TCA in late 1960,and soon took over many of BEA's busier European and UK trunk routes.Initial seating was 18 first-class at the rear and 108 tourist,but this was changed to 139 all-tourist,in which configuration,the Vanguard had very low operating costs per seat/mile.The remaining BEA fleet passed to British Airways on 1 April 1974 and the last BA passenger flight with the type was on 16 June 1974.TCA used their`s with two flights from Toronto and Montreal via intermediate stops to Vancouver.The fleet was also used on services from Toronto and Montreal to New York and Nassau.

BEA operated nine Vanguards modified to the V953C "Merchantman" all-cargo layout from 1969,a large forward cargo door was incorporated.The Merchantmen continued in service with BA until late 1979 when the remaining five were sold.Air Bridge Carriers purchased several,and operated them until 1992,when it changed its name to Hunting Cargo Airlines.Hunting Cargo operated its last V953C flight on 30 September 1996 and donated the aircraft,registered G-APEP,to Brooklands Museum on 17 October 1996.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on February 08, 2019, 09:28:43 PM
Westland Walrus

The Westland Walrus was a British spotter/reconnaissance biplane,developed from the Airco DH.9A.The initial attempt was carried out by Armstrong Whitworth Aircraft,adding provision for an observer and removing the stagger from the wings.Westland further modified the aircraft to produce the Walrus,with a 450 hp Napier Lion II engine replacing the Liberty of the DH.9A.

The Walrus was a single-engined,two-bay biplane,fitted with an extra cockpit for the observer/radio operator behind the gunner's cockpit.The observer also had a prone position for observing in a ventral pannier.The undercarriage was jettisonable and the aircraft was fitted with floatation bags for safe ditching,together with arresting gear to aid landing on aircraft carriers.

The prototype`s first flight was in early 1921,it proved to have poor flying characteristics,described by Westland's test pilot Stuart Keep as "a vicious beast.".However,a further 35 were ordered for the RAF and RN.Despite the extensive navalisation,for carrier borne deployment,the Walrus never operated from carriers.
Production aircraft began to be delivered to No. 3 Sqn RAF,at RAF Leuchars in Fife in 1921.No.3 Sqn was split up to form independent Fleet Spotter Flights in 1923.
It continued in service in the Fleet spotting role until it was replaced by the Avro Bison and Blackburn Blackburn in late 1925.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on February 16, 2019, 01:26:50 AM
Westland Whirlwind (fighter)

The Westland Whirlwind was a twin-engine heavy fighter,the first single-seat,twin-engine,cannon-armed fighter of the RAF.It first flew 11th Oct 1938,and was one of the fastest combat aircraft in the world,and with four Hispano-Suiza HS.404 20mm autocannon in its nose,the most heavily armed.Problems with its Rolls-Royce Peregrine engines badly delayed the project,and only 116 Whirlwinds were built.During WW II,just three RAF squadrons were equipped with the type,despite its success as a fighter and ground attack aircraft,it was withdrawn from service in 1943.

The airframe was built mainly of stressed-skin duraluminium,with the exception of the rear-fuselage,which used a magnesium alloy stressed skin.The pilot sat high under one of the world's first full bubble canopies,and with the low and forward location of the wing,visibility was good (except for directly over the nose).
Hopes were so high for the design that it remained "top secret" for much of its development.The Whirlwind was quite small,only slightly larger than the Hurricane but smaller in terms of frontal area.The landing gear was fully retractable and the entire aircraft was very "clean" with few openings or protuberances.Radiators were in the leading edge on the inner wings rather than below the engines.

The Whirlwind was most often used in ground-attack missions over France,attacking German airfields,marshalling yards,and railway traffic.It was also successful in hunting and destroying German E-boats which operated in the English Channel.At lower altitudes,it could hold its own against the Bf 109.
After retirement in December 1943,all but one of the surviving Whirlwinds were sent to 18 Maintenance Unit at Dumfries,where they were scrapped.P7048 was retained by Westland and was granted a civil certificate of airworthiness on 10 October 1946,with the registration G-AGOI.It was used as a company hack for a short time before being withdrawn in 1947 and scrapped.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on February 16, 2019, 01:48:52 PM
Westland Wyvern

The Wyvern began as a Westland project for a naval strike fighter,with the engine located behind the pilot,driving a propeller in the nose via a shaft that passed under the cockpit floor.The prototype W.34;the Wyvern TF.1,first flew at Boscombe Down on 16 December 1946 with Westland's test pilot Harald Penrose at the controls.
From prototype number three onwards,the aircraft were navalised and carried their intended armament of four Hispano 20 mm cannon in the wings,and have the ability to carry a torpedo under the fuselage or a selection of bombs and rockets under the wings.

Powerplant was 1 × Armstrong Siddeley Python turboprop engine of 3,560 hp driving 4-bladed Rotol contra-rotating,13 ft props.The first Python-powered TF.2 flew on 22 March 1949 and this aircraft introduced the ejection seat to the type.The Python engine responded poorly to minor throttle adjustments,so control was by running the engine at a constant speed and varying the pitch of the propellers.The aircraft was declared ready for service in 1952.

The Wyvern S.4 entered service with 813 Naval Air Squadron in May 1953,it had not yet obtained clearance for carrier operations,this was issued in April 1954.They were in service with the Fleet Air Arm from 1954 to 1958.Wyverns equipped 813 Squadron,827 Squadron,830 Squadron and 831 Squadron of the Fleet Air Arm.
The Wyvern soon showed a worrying habit for flameout on catapult launch;due to the high G forces resulting in fuel starvation.A number of aircraft were lost off HMS Albion's bows and Lt. B. D. Macfarlane made history on 13 October 1954 when he successfully ejected from under water after his aircraft had ditched on launch and had been cut in two by the carrier.
All Wyverns were withdrawn from service by 1958: while in service and testing there were 68 accidents,39 were lost and there were 13 fatalities;including two RAF pilots and one United States Navy pilot.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on February 17, 2019, 07:58:18 PM
Westland 30

The Westland 30 was a medium helicopter based on the Westland Lynx.Westland had studied a larger version of the Lynx for civil use,originally named "WG-30 Super Lynx" before being changed to "Westland 30".It shared transmission,rotor blade and other components with the Lynx,but had a new airframe.The fuselage is a conventionally built structure of aluminium while composites are used for the tail boom.The prototype WG30 made its first flight on 10 April 1979,and made an appearance at the Paris Air Show the same year.

As a civilian carrier,fitted with airstair or sliding doors it could carry up to 22 passengers with a baggage compartment at the rear of the fuselage.As a military aircraft it could carry 14 troops with equipment, 17 without or six stretchers and medical attendants.

The first of three Westland 30-100s was delivered to British Airways Helicopters on 6 January 1982,to support gas rigs in the southern sector of the North Sea.Omniflight Helicopter Services operated the type on behalf of Pan American World Airways,linking JFK Airport with Pan Am's heliport in central Manhattan.Services ended on 1 February 1988,and the helicopters were returned to Westland;most ending up at The Helicopter Museum in Weston-super-Mare.
Chief operator of the type was Pawan Hans of India.The UK government agreed with India to supply 21 Westland 30s for oil exploration duties using a British grant of 65 million pounds.It was soon found that they were ill-suited to Indian conditions,and after two fatal accidents,the fleet was grounded in 1991.The aircraft are believed to remain in storage in the UK and India.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on February 18, 2019, 10:02:10 PM
I think that`s most of the major UK types dealt with.I will move on to USA types,should be a few to keep me busy.

Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on February 18, 2019, 10:19:53 PM
American Eagle A-101

The American A-1 and A-101 were US-built light 2/3-seat biplanes of the 1920s.The American Eagle A-1 was designed in late 1925 as a training aircraft to replace the WW I biplanes of various types then in use by the Porterfield Flying School.
The prototype A-1 first flew on 9 April 1926.Modifications made to the design in 1927,including ailerons on the lower wings,led to the A-101 designation.
The 90 h.p.Curtiss OX-5 engine was initially fitted,but the upgraded 100 h.p.Curtiss OX-6 was fitted to later production A-101s.
A total of approximately 300 A-1/A-101 aircraft had been completed by 1929.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on February 19, 2019, 09:06:25 PM
Bell P-59 Airacomet

The Bell P-59 Airacomet was a twin jet-engined fighter aircraft, the first produced in the United States.Major General Henry H.Arnold became aware of the UK's jet program when he attended a demonstration of the Gloster E.28/39 in April 1941.He requested,and was given the plans for the aircraft's powerplant,the Power Jets W.1.
An example of the engine,the Whittle W.1X turbojet,was flown to the U.S in October 1941 along with drawings for the more powerful W.2B/23 and a small team of Power Jets engineers.On 4 September,the U.S. company General Electric was given a contract to produce an American version of the engine,which subsequently became the General Electric I-A.

The aircraft first flew during high-speed taxiing tests on 1 Oct 1942 with Bell test pilot Robert Stanley at the controls,although the first official flight was made by Col Laurence Craigie the next day.Tests on the three XP-59As revealed several problems including poor engine response and reliability,poor lateral stability,and general performance that was below expectations.

The 13 service test YP-59As had a more powerful engine than their predecessor,the General Electric J31,but the improvement in performance was negligible.One of these aircraft,the third YP-59A was supplied to the RAF (receiving serial RG362/G),in exchange for the first production Gloster Meteor I, EE210/G.British pilots found that the aircraft compared very unfavorably with the jets that they were already flying.
Bell eventually completed 50 production Airacomets,20 P-59As and 30 P-59BsEach was armed with one 37 mm M4 cannon and 44 rounds of ammunition and three .50 cal (12.7 mm) machine guns with 200 rounds per gun.By 1950, all examples of the Airacomet were no longer airworthy.Disposal of the aircraft included use as static displays,instructional aids in military training,and as static targets.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on February 20, 2019, 09:57:46 PM
Brewster SB2A Buccaneer

The Brewster SB2A Buccaneer was a single-engined mid-wing monoplane scout/bomber built for the RAF and USN between 1942 and 1944.It was also supplied to the USAAF and USMC.
It`s design was heavily based on the earlier Brewster SBA scout-bomber,sharing the single-engined,mid-winged monoplane layout,but was larger and had a more powerful engine.Power was a single Wright R-2600 engine which drove a three-bladed prop.It was armed with two forward-firing 0.50 inch calibre machine guns in the fuselage and two 0.30 machine guns in each wing.It was also intended to have an enclosed gun turret.The aircraft could carry up to 1,000 pounds (450 kg) of bombs in an internal bomb bay.

Serious problems within Brewster also caused major delays.The company was badly run,and its workforce frequently took strike action.After Brewster missed deadlines to deliver aircraft to the US Navy,it was taken over by the Navy in April 1942.Production continued to be slow,and many of the completed SB2As suffered from defects.
Deliveries of Brewster Bermudas to the RAF commenced in July 1942.They judged that the type was unsuitable for combat,and most of the Bermudas delivered to them were converted to target tugs.Five were transferred to the Fleet Air Arm of the Royal Navy for assessment – four as dive bombers and one as a target towing tug.

Due to the poor performance of the SB2A,many of the completed aircraft were scrapped by the RAF and US Navy without having been flown operationally.
The US Navy cancelled its remaining order of the type in 1943.A total of 771 SB2As were eventually completed.
Many historians regard the SB2A as one of the worst aircraft of WWII.The National Naval Aviation Museum's website notes that "overweight, underpowered, and lacking maneuverability,the Brewster SB2A Buccaneer was a classic failure".
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on February 21, 2019, 04:24:56 PM
Champion Lancer

The Champion 402 Lancer is a twin-engine tandem seat trainer based on the tricycle gear Champion 7FC Tri-Traveler,but powered by two wing-mounted Continental O-200-A engines.
The Lancer was the least expensive American-built twin engine airplane.Other design goals included simplicity,ease of maintenance,low operating costs,and the ability to operate from rough or unimproved strips.The high wing and high engine position give good propeller clearance.Built with metal tube construction and fiberglass covering and has fixed landing gear and propellers.

It first flew in 1961 and production began in 1963,it was designed specifically for flight schools seeking an inexpensive way to train students for a multi-engine rating.
The front seat was equipped with a control yoke,while the rear-seat pilot had a centre stick.Both seats were equipped with engine controls mounted overhead,with solo flight being performed from the front.Braking was controlled with a lever on the right-hand side of the front-seat instrument panel;differential braking was not possible, and no brake controls were provided for the rear-seat pilot.

Single engine performance was poor as was visibility due to the engine nacelles,particularly for the rear-seat pilot,and for both pilots during banked turns.Engine noise in the cockpit was a problem.The sidewall-mounted elevator trim lever looks very similar to the throttle lever of the single-engine Aeronca Champion which creates a risk that an experienced Champion pilot may confuse the two. In most respects, the Lancer's flight performance is equal or slightly inferior to that of the popular Cessna 150,an airplane that uses a single O-200 engine rather than two.

Some flight schools initially viewed the Lancer's marginal single-engine performance favorably,as students trained in a Lancer found other twin-engine types comparatively easy to fly.However,sales were very limited;production began in 1963 and ended later in the same year with only 25 to 36 aircraft built.As of November 2018,the highest serial number of any 402 Lancer in the FAA aircraft registry is 25.

Photo from Abpic.co.uk
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on February 22, 2019, 04:05:02 PM
Columbia XJL

The Columbia XJL is a large single-engined amphibious aircraft designed by Grumman Aircraft but built by the Columbia Aircraft Corp.It was intended to replace the Grumman J2F Duck but the type did not reach production status.
The final 330 examples of the Duck were built in 1941/42 under sub-contract by the Columbia Aircraft Corp,retaining the J2F-6 designation.
It had a crew of six and capacity for 6 passengers,powerplant was 1 × Wright R-1820-56,of 1,350 hp

Grumman completed a major re-design of the aircraft for the USN as a Wright R-1820-56 powered monoplane amphibian.
The new design was turned over to the Columbia Aircraft Corporation for development and construction so that Grumman could focus on the production of fighter aircraft for the USN.

The aircraft resembled the J2F Duck,except for its monoplane layout,and has been referred to as a "single-winged Duck" dispite being an new design.The USN ordered three XJL-1 experimental aircraft from Columbia.
Two,assigned USN BuAer Nos 31399 and 31400,were delivered to the USNs test establishment Maryland for evaluation in 1946.The two aircraft tested were found to have repeated structural failures of various components and testing was abandoned on 21 September 1948.
The aircraft were deleted from the USN inventory in February 1949.No further orders were placed for production of the JL design. 
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on February 23, 2019, 08:03:37 PM
Consolidated PB2Y Coronado

The PB2Y Coronado is a large flying boat patrol bomber used by the US Navy during World War II in bombing, antisubmarine, and transport roles.
The USN began planning for the next generation of patrol bombers,after deliveries of the PBY Catalina had begun in 1935.Orders for two prototypes,the XPB2Y-1 and the Sikorsky XPBS-1,were placed in 1936 and the prototype Coronado first flew in December 1937.

The design was finalized as the PB2Y-2,with a large cantilever wing,twin tail with very marked dihedral,and four Pratt & Whitney R-1830 radial engines.The inner engines were fitted with four-bladed reversible pitch propellers;outer engines had standard three-bladed feathering props,later marks had engines replaced with single-stage R-1830-92`s.

Coronados served in combat in the Pacific with the USN,in both bombing and antisubmarine roles,but many served as transport and hospital aircraft.RAF Coastal Command had hoped to use the Coronado as a maritime patrol bomber,but it`s range was unsuitable,consequently the Coronados supplied to the RAF were outfitted purely as transports, serving with RAF Transport Command.The 10 aircraft were used for transatlantic flights.
They served as a major component in the Naval Air Transport Service (NATS) during World War II in the Pacific theater,again range limited them to transport service in the American naval air fleet.

By the end of World War II,the Coronado was outmoded as both a bomber and a transport,and virtually all of them were quickly scrapped by the summer of 1946.
Only one known example remains,at the National Naval Aviation Museum at Naval Air Station Pensacola,Florida.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on February 24, 2019, 05:00:05 PM
Consolidated TBY Sea Wolf

The Consolidated TBY Sea Wolf was a USN torpedo bomber of WWII and a competitor and contemporary to the Grumman TBF Avenger.
The original design was not by Consolidated Aircraft,but rather by Vought,the first prototype flew two weeks after Pearl Harbor.It`s performance was deemed superior to the Avenger so the Navy placed an order for 1,000 examples.Powerplant was 1 × Pratt & Whitney R-2800-6 Double Wasp radial engine of 2,000 hp.
The aircraft was armed with 4 x.50inch machine guns and a single 0.30inch machine gun,also it could carry 2000lb of bombs,or one torpedo.

The prototype was damaged in a rough arrested landing trial,and when repaired a month later was again damaged in a collision with a training aircraft.
Due to flight test delays Vought had become heavily overcommitted to other contracts,especially for the F4U Corsair fighter,and had no production capacity. 
It was arranged that Consolidated-Vultee would produce the aircraft (as the TBY),but had to wait until the new production facility in Allentown,Pennsylvania,was complete, which took until late 1943.
 
The production TBYs were radar-equipped,with a radome under the right-hand wing.The first aircraft flew on 20 August 1944.By this time though,the Avenger equipped every torpedo squadron in the Navy,and there was no longer a requirement for the Sea Wolf.
Orders were cancelled after production started,and the 180 built were used for training.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on February 25, 2019, 07:00:08 PM
Convair XC-99

The Convair XC-99 was a prototype heavy cargo aircraft built by Convair for the USAF,developed from the Convair B-36 Peacemaker bomber,and shared the wings and some other structures with it.
It was the largest piston-engined land-based transport aircraft ever built,first flight was on 24 November 1947 in San Diego,after extensive testing it was delivered to the Air Force on 26 May 1949.
The capacity of the XC-99 was 45,000 kg of cargo or 400 fully equipped soldiers on its double cargo decks.A cargo lift was installed for easier loading.The engines face rearward in a pusher configuration like the B-36.

The Convair Model 37 was a large civil passenger design derived from the XC-99 but was never built.It was to be of similar proportions to the XC-99; 182 ft 6 in length,
230 ft wingspan,and a high-capacity,double-deck fuselage.The projected passenger load was to be 204,and the effective range of 4,200 miles.
Fifteen aircraft were ordered by Pan American Airways for transatlantic service.However,fuel and oil consumption of the six 3,500 hp Wasp Major radials meant that the design was not economically viable.The hoped-for turboprop powerplants did not materialize fast enough,and a low number of orders were not sufficient to initiate production.

The US Air Force determined that it had no need for such a large,long-range transport at that time,and no more were ordered.
The sole XC-99 served until 1957,including much use during the Korean War.It made twice weekly trips from Kelly AFB to the aircraft depot at McClellan Air Force Base,California,transporting supplies and parts for the B-36 bomber,returning by way of other bases or depots making pick-ups and deliveries along the way.
During its operational life,the XC-99 logged over 7,400 hours total time,and transported more than 60 million pounds (27,000 metric tons) of cargo.

The aircraft made its last flight on 19 March 1957, landing at Kelly Air Force Base, where it would remain for the next 47 years.It was subsequently transported in the summer of 2012 to Davis-Monthan AFB and is stored in Area 20 of the 309 AMARG complex,the so-called "Boneyard",pending financial resources sufficient to restore the aircraft and return it to NMUSAF for display.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on February 26, 2019, 05:51:15 PM
Convair R3Y Tradewind

The Convair R3Y Tradewind was an American 1950s turboprop-powered flying boat.The USN had requested Convair in 1945 to design a large flying boat using new technology developed during WW II,especially the laminar flow wing and developing turboprop technology.Their response was the Model 117.The Navy ordered two prototypes on 27 May 1946, designated XP5Y-1, the first aircraft first flew on 18 April 1950 at San Diego.The Navy decided not to proceed with the patrol boat version,instead directing that the design should be developed into a passenger and cargo aircraft.

It was designated the R3Y-1 Tradewind and first flew on 25 February 1954.Major changes were the removal of all armament and of the tailplane dihederal,the addition of a 10 ft port-side access hatch,and redesigned engine nacelles to accept improved T40-A-10 engines.Cabin soundproofing and airconditioning were added for pressurised accommodation for 103 passengers or 24 tons of cargo.As a medevac aircraft,92 stretcher cases could be carried.

A total of eleven aircraft were built.The first two prototypes built were in P5Y configuration armed with 8,000 lb of munitions (bombs, mines, depth charges, torpedoes) and five pairs of 20 mm cannon in fore and aft side emplacements and a tail turret.The next five were built as R3Y-1 aircraft,intended for troop transport and inflight refuelling tanker service.The final six were built as the R3Y-2 variant with a lifting nose and high cockpit (similar in concept to the C-5 Galaxy's nose and cockpit) for heavier transport and landing-ship duties.

The R3Y set a transcontinental seaplane record of 403 mph in 1954 by utilizing the speed of high-altitude jetstream winds,this record still stands.
After service trials the aircraft were delivered to US Navy transport squadron VR-2 on 31 March 1956. Problems with the engine/propeller combination led to the ending of Tradewind operations and the unit was disbanded on 16 April 1958.

The six R3Y-2s were converted into four-point in-flight tankers using the probe-and-drogue method.In September 1956 one example was the first aircraft to successfully refuel four others simultaneously in flight in 1956, refuelling four Grumman F9F Cougars.The program was halted after thirteen aircraft were built,the reason being the unreliability of the Allison T-40 turboprops.The crash of one of the two XP5Y-1 aircraft was judged due to catastrophic engine failure;when little progress was being made with the engine problems,All the P5Y and R3Y aircraft were grounded in 1958 and subsequently broken up.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on February 27, 2019, 10:25:46 PM
Convair 990 Coronado

The Convair 990 Coronado was an American narrow-body four-engined jet airliner,a stretched version of their earlier Convair 880 produced in response to a request from American Airlines.They wanted a larger passenger capacity than the 880,which was the smallest of the first-generation U.S. jet airliners and the 990 began flight testing January 24, 1961.One change from the 880 was the large anti-shock bodies on the upper trailing edge of the wings to increase the critical Mach and reduce transonic drag.The inboard shock bodies,which were larger,were also used for additional fuel tankage.

The 990 was lengthened by 10 ft (3.0 m),which increased the number of passengers from between 88 and 110 in the 880 to between 96 and 121 in the 990,still fewer passengers than the contemporary Boeing 707 (110 to 189) or Douglas DC-8 (105 to 173),although the 990 was 25–35 mph faster than either in cruise.The engines were also changed to the uprated General Electric CJ-805-23s,which were unique in that they used a fan stage at the rear of the engines,compared to the fan stage at the front of the engine found on the Pratt & Whitney JT3D that powered the 990's competitors.The engine was a simplified,non afterburning civil version of the J79,like most versions of the J79,the CJ805 and CJ805-23 were smoky, although secondary operator Spantax eventually had their 990 aircraft refitted with smokeless combustion chambers in the 1970s. 

The 990 did not meet the specifications promised,and American Airlines reduced their order as a result.The 990A was developed by adding fairings to the engine nacelles, among other changes.Despite the modifications the aircraft never lived up to its promise of coast-to-coast nonstop capability from JFK to LAX.AA began to dispose of their 990As in 1967.
The Convair 990A is still the fastest non-supersonic commercial transport to have ever been produced.During May 1961, one of the pre-production 990 prototype aircraft set a record of .97 Mach in level flight at an altitude of 22,500 ft.,equivalent to a true airspeed of 675 mph.This was before the various aerodynamic drag-reduction changes were applied to the later 990A,as such,it would have been capable of speeds slightly in excess of 700 mph.

Swissair bought eight 990As beginning in 1962,operating them on long-distance routes to South America, West Africa, the Middle and Far East, as well as on European routes with heavy traffic. Their fleet was withdrawn from service in 1975. Scandinavian Airlines also operated Coronados on their long-haul schedules to Tokyo and other destinations in the Far East.

The failure of airlines to broadly accept the Convair 880 and 990 led Convair's parent company,General Dynamics,to suffer what at the time was one of the largest corporate losses in history.Convair exited the jet airliner business,although they later profitably built fuselages for the McDonnell Douglas DC-10, KC-10 and MD-11.
When the major airlines retired their Convair 990s,they found a second life on charter airlines.Spantax of Spain had a large fleet until the mid-1980s and so did Denver Ports of Call.In 1967,Alaska Airlines purchased Convair 990 PP-VJE from Varig,and operated it as N987AS in scheduled airline service until 1975.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on February 28, 2019, 06:04:35 PM
Culver Model V

The Culver Model V was a two-seat cabin monoplane designed and built by the Culver Aircraft Company.It was based on the pre-World War II Cadet and using the wartime experience with radio-controlled aircraft the company designed a two-seat cabin monoplane.It had a low-set cantilever wing with the outer panels having a pronounced dihedral,it also featured a tricycle retractable landing gear and an enclosed cabin with side by side seating for two.

It was unique in that it had a system called Simpli-Fly Control where the aircraft was automatically trimmed for takeoff,landing and cruise.It operated by turning a small metal wheel between the two seats and lining up two arrows with the correct mode of flying the aircraft.Interconnecting controls then adjusted the trim according to the arrow settings.Only a limited production run of 350 Model Vs was achieved before the company went bankrupt.

In 1956 the Superior Aircraft Company bought the assets of Culver and put the Model V back into production as the Superior Satellite.The main difference was the use of a 95 hp Continental engine which increased the cruise speed to 130 mph.Only a prototype and five production aircraft were built.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on March 01, 2019, 03:39:06 PM
Curtiss F11C Goshawk

The Curtiss F11C Goshawk was a 1930s USN biplane fighter aircraft that saw limited success but was part of a long line of Curtiss Hawk airplanes.
The USN wanted an improved derivative of the Model 34C,F6C as the F11C.It contained major changes that included the 600 hp Wright R-1510-98 radial engine,single-leg cantilever main landing-gear units,metal covered control surfaces,and two .30 in machine guns supplemented by a hardpoint under the fuselage for a 474 lb bomb,or a fuel tank.

After tweeks and changes,the XF11C-2 came to be regarded as the prototype for the F11C-2,of which 28 examples were ordered as dual-role fighter-bombers in October 1932.
From March 1934,the aircraft were revised with a semi-enclosed cockpit and a number of other modifications before they received the revised designation BFC-2 in recognition of their fighter-bomber or,as the Navy would have it,bomber-fighter role.
The last aircraft in the XF11C-2 contract was converted to the prototype XF11C-3,featuring a more powerful R-1820-80 engine and manual operated retractable landing gear.
 
The only U.S. Navy units to operate the F11C-2 were the Navy's famous "High Hat Squadron",VF-1B aboard the carrier Saratoga,and VB-6 briefly assigned to Enterprise.In March 1934,when the aircraft were redesignated BFC-2,the "High Hat Squadron" was renumbered VB-2B,and then VB-3B,and retained its BFC-2s until February 1938.

The F11C-2 Goshawk was produced in two export versions as the Hawk I and Hawk II fighters.Both versions carried the same armament as the production F11C-2.
Only the Hawk II was exported in quantity with Turkey,the first customer taking delivery of 19 on August 30,1932.
Colombia placed an order at the end of October 1932,receiving an initial batch of four twin float-equipped Hawk IIs,the first of a total of 26 float fighters delivered by the end of July 1934.
They used Hawk II and F11C-2 based in floats in the Colombia-Peru War in 1932-1933.

Nine Hawk IIs were supplied to Bolivia,of which three had interchangeable wheel/float undercarriages;four went to Chile,four to Cuba,two to Germany,one to Norway and 12 to Thailand as Hawk IIIs.
The Chinese Nationalist Air Force received 52 F11Cs as Hawk IIs and fought against the Japanese during the Second Sino-Japanese War.
Thai Hawk IIIs saw action during World War II,including against the RAF.On 8 April 1944,a Thai Hawk III was shot down by a No. 211 Squadron RAF Bristol Beaufighter over Lamphun.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on March 03, 2019, 12:31:19 AM
Curtiss SBC Helldiver

The Curtiss SBC Helldiver was a two-seat scout bomber and dive bomber,it was the last military biplane procured by the United States Navy.On 30 June 1932,BuAer signed a contract with Curtiss to design a two-seat monoplane with a parasol wing and a retractable undercarriage.Powered by a 625 hp Wright R-1510-92 fourteen cylinder,two row,air-cooled radial engine driving a two-blade propeller.
This fighter was designated XF12C-1.Most production versions used the Wright R-1820-34 radial engine of 850 hp.
Two crewmen,pilot and radio operator/gunner,were housed in tandem cockpits enclosed by a sliding canopy and the turtledeck behind the rear cockpit could be folded down to allow the gunner to use his machine gun.

In August 1936,the Navy signed a contract for 83 SBC-3s (Curtiss Model 77A) Delivery of the SBC-3s to the fleet began on 17 July 1937 when the first aircraft were issued to Scouting Squadron Five (VS-5) serving in USS Yorktown (CV-5) however,Yorktown was not commissioned until 30 September 1937 and the ship then began sea trials.
On 10 December 1937,VS-5 went aboard Yorktown and served aboard her until replaced by Douglas SBD-3s Dauntlesses in 1940.They were obsolete even before World War II and were kept well away from combat with Axis fighters.

They were also operated by the USMC,the last SBC reported in Marine squadron service was an SBC-4 at American Samoa in service with VMSB-151 on 1 June 1943.The French Navy had ordered 90,50 were to be shipped to Brest from Halifax,there was only room for 44,due to other types being carried.
The two ships sailed from Halifax on 16 June 1940,two days later,Brest fell to the Germans and both ships were ordered to Fort-de-France,Martinique,in the eastern Caribbean Sea.
They arrived on 27 June,the SBC-4s were unloaded and rolled to a field at the Pointe des Sables region and stored in the open.Under tropical climatic conditions,the aircraft stored were slowly rotting and were no longer airworthy and were eventually scrapped.

Those left at RCAF Station Dartmouth were aquired by the RAF designated as "Cleveland Mk. Is" and shipped to England in the aircraft carrier HMS Furious.They were delivered to RAF Little Rissington,and later used by No.24 Squadron at RAF Hendon.These aircraft were never used operationally and became ground trainers.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on March 03, 2019, 01:32:44 PM
Curtiss SO3C Seamew

The Curtiss SO3C Seamew was developed as a replacement for the SOC Seagull as the USN's standard floatplane scout.Curtiss named the SO3C the Seamew but in 1941 the USN began calling it by the old name Seagull,causing some confusion.The Royal Navy kept the Curtiss name,(Seamew),for the SO3Cs that they ordered.
The main design requirements was that the Seamew had to be able to operate both from ocean vessels with a single center float,and from land bases with the float replaced by a wheeled landing gear.

Powerplant was 1 × Ranger XV-770-8 inline air-cooled inverted V12 engine,600 hp,which was an unreliable brute.Inflight stability problems were mostly resolved with the introduction of upturned wingtips and a larger rear tail surface that extended over the rear observer's cockpit.Poor flight performance and a poor maintenance record led to the SO3C being withdrawn from US Navy first line units by 1944.The older biplane SOC was taken from stateside training units and restored to first-line service on many US Navy warships until the end of World War II.

A fixed undercarriage version,was ordered by the Royal Navy Fleet Air Arm under the terms of Lend-Lease.Later versions,known as the Seamew Mk.I,were the SO3-2C variant. 250 Seamews were allocated and some 100 actually delivered.Deliveries to the RN started in January 1944,but it was declared obsolete in September the same year and completely removed from service in 1945.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on March 04, 2019, 05:05:52 PM
Dayton-Wright XPS-1

The Dayton-Wright XPS-1 was an American single-seat fighter interceptor aircraft.It was desgined and built as an United States Army Air Service Pursuit Alert (Special) requirement for an interceptor.
It used many of the advanced features of the earlier Dayton-Wright RB-1 Racer developed for the 1920 Gordon Bennett race.The racer had a pilot cockpit entirely enclosed in the streamlined fuselage.Construction consisted of a wooden semi-monocoque fuselage with the cantilever wing constructed entirely of wood and fitted with leading- and trailing-edge flaps.Powerplant was 1 × Lawrance J-1 radial piston engine of 200 hp

The XPS-1 had a parasol monoplane configuration with wooden flying surfaces whose fuselage was a fabric-covered steel-tube structure.The main feature retained from the RB Racer was its retractable undercarriage.The unusual design was a tailskid undercarriage with the main units designed to retract into the lower fuselage sides.
The landing gear was hand-operated using a chain-and-sprocket system,and could be raised or lowered fairly quickly.

Three aircraft were ordered as the XPS-1, one was used for ground tests while the remainder were slated for flight trials.Test flights began in 1923 but the performance was so poor the United States Army Air Service refused to accept the design.The three examples remained the only type produced for the PS category. 
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on March 05, 2019, 08:00:44 PM
Douglas A-33

The Douglas A-33 (Model 8A-5) was an updated version of the Northrop A-17 for the export market,with a more powerful engine and increased bomb load.The Northrop A-17,was a two-seat,single-engine,monoplane,attack bomber,in British Commonwealth service,A-17s were called Nomads.

The 8A-5 was powered by a 1,200 hp Wright R-1820-87 engine and was fitted with four wing mounted 0.30 in machine guns,two 0.50 in machine guns in pods below the wing and a rear-firing flexibly mounted 0.30 in gun,plus it could carry up to 2,000 lb of bombs.

The Norwegian government ordered 36 8A-5s which not had been delivered before Norway was invaded by the Germans.Completed between October 1940 and January 1941,the aircraft were delivered to a training center in Canada that had been set up for the Norwegian government-in-exile,at Toronto Island Airport,Ontario.
After the loss of two aircraft and a reassessment of the training needs now met by the use of other aircraft,the remaining 34 Model 8A-5Ps were sold to Peru.Later,31 were repossessed by the Army Air Corps at the start of World War II.These aircraft,designated A-33,were used for training,target tug,and utility duties.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on March 06, 2019, 03:32:39 PM
Douglas A2D Skyshark


The Douglas A2D Skyshark is an American turboprop-powered attack aircraft,developed from the highly successful A-1 Skyraider.While it resembled the Skyraider,the A2D was different in many ways.
The 5,100 hp Allison XT-40-A2 had more than double the horsepower of the Skyraider's R-3350.The XT40 installation on the Skyshark used contra-rotating propellers to harness all the available power.Wing root thickness decreased, from 17% to 12%,while both the height of the tail and its area grew.

Engine-development problems delayed the first flight until 26 May 1950,made at Edwards Air Force Base.The first prototype XA2D-1,BuNo 122988,on 19 December 1950,crashed on its 15th flight.Navy test pilot Cdr. Hugh Wood was killed attempting to land,he was unable to check the rate of descent,resulting in a high-impact crash.
Additional instrumentation and an automatic decoupler was added to the second prototype,but by the time it was ready to fly on 3 April 1952,16 months had passed,and with all-jet designs being developed,the A2D program was essentially dead.

By the summer of 1954,the A4 Skyhawk was ready to fly,and time had run out for the troubled A2D program.Due largely to the failure of the T40 program to produce a reliable engine, the Skyshark never entered operational service.
Twelve Skysharks were built, two prototypes and ten preproduction aircraft.Most were scrapped or destroyed in accidents,and only one has survived.
A2D-1 Skyshark, BuNo. 125485,is at the Gillespie Field Annex of the San Diego Air & Space Museum in El Cajon,California.It was restored for static display by Pacific Fighters.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on March 07, 2019, 07:53:48 PM
Douglas B-23 Dragon


The Douglas B-23 Dragon was a twin-engined bomber developed as a successor to the B-18 Bolo.The design incorporated a larger wingspan with a wing design very similar to that of the DC-3,a fully retractable undercarriage,and improved defensive armament.
The B-23 was the first operational American bomber equipped with a glazed tail gun position.The tail gun was a .50 calibre gun,which was fired from the prone position by a gunner using a telescopic sight.
Engines were 2 × Wright R-2600-3 radials,of 1,600 hp,which gave a top speed of 282mph and a cruise speed of 210 mph with a range of 1400 miles.
The first B-23 flew on July 27,1939 with the production series of 38 B-23s manufactured between July 1939 and September 1940.

The 38 B-23s built were never used in combat overseas,although for a brief period they were employed as patrol aircraft stationed on the west coast of the United States.The B-23s were primarily relegated to training duties,although 18 of the type were converted as transports and redesignated UC-67.
With its wartime experience with the type, GE bought and used five of them. Howard Hughes (among others) used converted B-23s as personal aircraft. 
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on March 08, 2019, 10:54:22 AM
Douglas BTD Destroyer

The Douglas BTD Destroyer was a dive/torpedo bomber developed for the United States Navy during World War II.A small number had been delivered before the end of the war, but none saw combat.On 20 June 1941, the USN placed an order with the Douglas Aircraft Company for two prototypes of a new two-seat dive bomber to replace both the Douglas SBD Dauntless and the new Curtiss SB2C Helldiver,designated XSB2D-1.

It was a large single-engined mid-winged monoplane.It had a laminar flow gull-wing,and unusually for a carrier-based aircraft of the time,a tricycle undercarriage.It was fitted with a bomb bay and underwing racks for up to 4,200 lb of bombs,defensive armament consisted of two wing-mounted 20 mm cannon and two remote-controlled turrets, each with two .50 in machine guns.

The prototype first flew on 8 April 1943,demonstrating excellent performance,being much faster and carrying nearly double the bombload of the Helldiver,and orders for 358 SB2D-1s quickly followed.The U.S.N changed its requirements,wanting single-seat carrier-based torpedo/dive bombers without defensive turrets, and Douglas reworked the SB2D by removing them and second crewman position.This allowed more fuel and armor,wing racks could carry not just one but two torpedoes,producing the BTD-1 Destroyer. The orders for SB2Ds were converted to BTD-1s, with the first BTD flying on 5 March 1944.

By the time Japan surrendered in August 1945,only 28 had been delivered,and production was cancelled,none saw combat action.Heinemann and his team were already working on developing the single-seat BT2D that became the Douglas A-1 Skyraider.
 
BTD-1 Destroyer,Bureau Number 4959, is under restoration for display at the Wings of Eagles Discovery Center, Elmira-Corning Regional Airport, Elmira, New York.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on March 09, 2019, 05:22:01 PM
Douglas C-133 Cargomaster


The Douglas C-133 Cargomaster was a 4 engine large turboprop cargo aircraft built between 1956 and 1961 for use with the USAF.It was designed to meet the requirements for the USAF's Logistic Carrier Support System SS402L for a new strategic transport.A featured a high-mounted wing,external blister fairings on each side for the landing gear, and rear and side-loading doors ensured that access to,and the volume of,the large cargo compartment were not compromised by these structures.The cargo compartment (90 ft/27 m in length and 12 ft/3.7 m high) was pressurized, heated, and ventilated.

The first Cargomaster flew on 23 April 1956 and first C-133As were delivered to the Military Air Transport Service (MATS) in August 1957 and began flying MATS air routes throughout the world.Two C-133s established transatlantic speed records for transport aircraft on their first flights to Europe.The fleet of 50 aircraft proved itself invaluable during the Vietnam War.The Cargomaster soldiered on until the Lockheed C-5 Galaxy entered service in the early 1970s.

Several hundred Minuteman and other ICBMs were airlifted to and from their operational bases by C-133s.They also transported Atlas,Saturn and Titan rockets to Cape Canaveral for use as launch boosters in the Gemini,Mercury and Apollo space programs.Of 50 aircraft built,nine were lost in crashes and one was destroyed in a ground fire.
By 1971,shortly before the introduction of the Lockheed C-5 Galaxy,the Cargomaster was obsolete as well as being worn out,and all were withdrawn from service.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: smudge on March 09, 2019, 10:37:14 PM
I remember they determined the cause of some of the crashes being that it vibrated itself to pieces, so the survivors were fitted with big metal reinforcing straps on the rear fuselage.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on March 09, 2019, 11:56:21 PM
That`s quite correct,it was discovered the airframe split at the cargo door.The fix was indeed a band around the airframe to strengthen it,rather like a big jubilee clip.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on March 10, 2019, 05:04:21 PM
Douglas DC-1

The Douglas DC-1 was the first model of the famous American DC (Douglas Commercial) commercial transport aircraft series.Only one example of the DC-1 was built,but the design formed the basis for the DC-2 and DC-3.
Boeing had launched the 247,a twin-engined all-metal monoplane with a retractable undercarriage,but their production capacity was reserved to meet the needs of United Airlines,part of United Aircraft and Transport Corporation which also owned Boeing.TWA needed a similar aircraft to respond to competition from the Boeing 247,five manufactures were invited to submit designs.

Donald Douglas doubted that there would be a market for 100 aircraft,the number of necessary to cover development costs.Nevertheless,he submitted a design consisting of an all-metal,low-wing,twin-engined aircraft seating 12 passengers,a crew of two and a flight attendant.
The aircraft exceeded the specifications of TWA even with only two engines,through the use of controllable pitch propellers.It was insulated against noise,heated,and fully capable of both flying and performing a controlled takeoff or landing on one engine.

Only one aircraft was produced.The prototype made its maiden flight on July 1,1933.During a half-year of testing it performed more than 200 test flights and demonstrated its superiority over the most popular airliners at that time.TWA accepted the aircraft on 15 September 1933 with a few modifications (mainly increasing seating to 14 passengers and adding more powerful engines) and subsequently ordered 20 examples of the developed production model which was named the Douglas DC-2.

The DC-1 was sold to Lord Forbes in the United Kingdom in May 1938, who operated it for a few months before selling it in France in October 1938.Later operated by Iberia Airlines from July 1939 with the name Negron it force-landed at Málaga,in December 1940 and was damaged beyond repair.
 
Almost 200 DC-2`s were built,entering service with TWA in May 1934,and then in 1936 came the DC-3,over 16,000 were produced in various civil and military versions.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on March 11, 2019, 05:59:57 PM
Douglas DT

The Douglas DT torpedo bomber was the Douglas Aircraft Company's first military contract,forging a link between the company and the United States Navy.USN Contract No. 53305 of April 1, 1921 set out the specifications that resulted in the purchase of three DT (D for Douglas, T for torpedo) folding-wing aircraft.
The first flight was in November 1921 and production continued until 1929.

The DT used a welded steel fuselage with aluminum covering the forward and center sections and fabric covering the rear section.Douglas built 46 DT-1 and DT-2 torpedo bombers for the U.S. Navy,Norwegian Navy,and Peruvian Navy.90 aircraft were completed in total,several under license.

It could be fitted either with pontoons or wheeled landing gear and could carry a 1,800 lb torpedo.They operated off the U.S. Navy's first aircraft carrier,USS Langley,from land bases,and from seaplane tenders.Several were flown by the Marine Corps.Powerplant was 1 × Liberty L-12 V-12 water-cooled piston engine,450 hp and it carried a crew of two.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on March 12, 2019, 07:20:13 PM
Douglas DC-5

The Douglas DC-5 was a 16-to-22-seat civilian,twin-engine propeller aircraft,designed to use either Pratt & Whitney R-1690 Hornet or Wright R-1820 Cyclone radial engines.
It was the first airliner to combine shoulder wings and tricycle landing gear,which was innovative for transport airplanes.It provided better ground handling and better ground visibility for the pilots.The fuselage was about two feet above the ground,so loading of passengers and cargo was easier than aircraft with the then-standard conventional landing gear.Prior to the US entry into World War II, one prototype and four production aircraft were built.

The aircraft made its first flight on February 20, 1939 with Carl A. Cover at the controls.This sole prototype (in 1940 configured with just eight seats) became the personal aircraft of William Boeing,who named it Rover.It was later impressed into the US Navy and converted for military use as an R3D-3 variant in February 1942.

The first customer for the DC-5 was KLM,the four aircraft sold to KLM were used in its colonial subsidiaries Surinam and Curaçao,and also in the Dutch East Indies.
A dozen DC-5s were completed.Some were pressed into military service with the USAAF.The Japanese operated one of the captured KLM machines,after repairing it and flying it back to Japan.
The USN ordered seven aircraft;3 were delivered as R3D-1s,the first of which crashed before delivery.The remaining four were R3D-2s for the USMC and were equipped with 1,015 hp R-1820-44 engines,a large cargo hold,and 22 seats for paratroopers.
After World War II,production of the DC-5 was not resumed because of the abundance of surplus C-47 aircraft released into civil service and converted to DC-3s.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on March 13, 2019, 04:41:26 PM
Douglas X-3 Stiletto

The Douglas X-3 Stiletto was a 1950s experimental jet aircraft with a slender fuselage and a long tapered nose.Its primary mission was to investigate the design features of an aircraft suitable for sustained supersonic speeds,it was,however seriously underpowered for this purpose and could not even exceed Mach 1 in level flight.

The goal of the aircraft was ambitious—it was to take off from the ground under its own power,climb to high altitude,maintain a sustained cruise speed of Mach 2,then land under its own power.The aircraft was also to test the feasibility of low-aspect-ratio wings,and the large-scale use of titanium in aircraft structures.
The X-3 featured an unusual slender,streamlined shape having a very long,gently-tapered nose and small trapezoidal wings.The aim was to create the thinnest and most slender shape possible in order to achieve low drag at supersonic speeds.The extended nose was to allow for the provision of test equipment while the semi-buried cockpit and windscreen were designed to alleviate the effects of "thermal thicket" conditions.

The low aspect ratio,unswept wings were designed for high speed and later the Lockheed design team used data from the X-3 tests for the similar F-104 Starfighter wing design.Due to both engine and airframe problems,the partially completed second aircraft was cancelled,and its components were used for spare parts.

The official first flight was made by Bridgeman on 20 October,and lasted about 20 minutes.He made a total of 26 flights (counting the hop) by the end of the Douglas tests in December 1953. These showed that the X-3 was severely under-powered and difficult to control. Its takeoff speed was an unusually high.More seriously,it did not approach its planned top speed.
Its first supersonic flight required that the airplane make a 15° dive to reach Mach 1.1.The X-3's fastest flight,made on 28 July 1953,reached Mach 1.208 in a 30° dive.A plan to re-engine the X-3 with rocket motors was considered but eventually dropped.

For the X-3,the roll test flight was the high point of its history when it had experienced "roll inertia coupling,"in which a manoeuver in one axis will cause an uncommanded manoeuver in one or two others.The aircraft was grounded for nearly a year after the flight,and never again explored its roll stability and control boundaries.It made another ten flights between 20 September 1955 and the last on 23 May 1956,then it was subsequently retired to the U.S. Air Force Museum.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on March 14, 2019, 01:32:06 PM
Fairchild 71

The Fairchild 71 was a high-wing monoplane passenger and cargo aircraft,for both military and civilian use as a rugged bush plane.It was a progressive development of the Fairchild FC-2W2 light transport.
Its first upgrade was the FC-2,whose several improvements included slightly swept-back wings; wingspan increased to 50 feet; engine power nearly doubled; and interior changes to improve passenger comfort.The FC-2 first flew in 1926.Powerplant: 1 × Pratt & Whitney Wasp B/C 9-cylinder radial piston of 420 hp,which gave it a cruising speed of 106mph.

The FC-2W was a further development,later known as the Model 71 was built in the USA between 1928 and 1930.In 1929 Fairchild formed a company in Canada (Fairchild Aircraft Limited) at Longueuil, Quebec in 1929 to support the Canadian operators of Fairchild aircraft. The Canadian company also set up a factory production line for the Model 71, developing a variant for the Canadian military.
The Canadian-built aircraft differed from the US version in that all the passenger-comfort features were removed, and the craft were built specifically for aerial photography.

The USAAS acquired one Model 71 for evaluation,eight more service-test aircraft,designated YF-1 were ordered; all nine were later redesignated C-8.
The RCAF,another major military operator,evaluated the Fairchild 71 in mid-June 1930.Thirty four RCAF FC-71s were operated from 1930 to 1946.Along with the earlier FC-2 series, the RCAF FC-71 was utilized primarily in the aerial photographic survey role as well as northern transport.

Most of the Model 71 production ended up in the hands of bush plane operators in Canada and the United States. Civilian operators likewise found the 71 a rugged, reliable and highly useful utility transport, well suited for northern and remote operations. 
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on March 15, 2019, 03:23:37 PM
Fairchild 45


The Fairchild Model 45 was a 1930s American five-seat cabin monoplane.It first flew on 31 May 1935 and it was a low-wing cantilever monoplane with a conventional cantilever tail unit and a retractable tailwheel landing gear.It was powered by a 225 hp Jacobs L-4 radial and had a luxury five-seat interior as standard.Flight testing showed that the aircraft performed well,although it was described as sedate.

Company predictions were that the Model 45 would have only limited market appeal in that form,therefore only the prototype was built.Fairchild then upgraded the prototype with a larger engine,the 320 hp Wright R-760 radial,for evaluation.In this configuration it was designated the Model 45-A and was placed in production,with about 16 units being completed.

One aircraft was bought as an executive transport by the USN as the JK-1.After the United States entered the Second World War,two aircraft were impressed into service with the USAAF as the UC-88.

Greg Herrick requested drawings of a Fairchild 45 tail section for an ongoing restoration project in 1997.The request was refused,claiming the design was a trade secret.
He then submitted a FOIA request,and a lawsuit followed that was debated in the US Supreme Court.This led to the "Herrick amendment" added to the FAA Air Transportation Modernization and Safety Improvement Act of 2012,releasing the ATC type certificate information for 1,257 aircraft first certified in 1927 through the beginning of WW II in 1939.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on March 16, 2019, 11:42:32 PM
Fairchild XC-120 Packplane

The Fairchild XC-120 Packplane was an experimental transport aircraft,developed from the company's C-119 Flying Boxcar,and was unique in the unconventional use of removable cargo pods that were attached below the fuselage,instead of possessing an internal cargo compartment.

The XC-120 Packplane began as a C-119B fuselage (48-330, c/n 10312) which was cut off at a point just below the flight deck.The wings were angled upwards between the engines and the fuselage,raising the fuselage by several feet and giving the plane an inverted gull wing appearance.Smaller diameter "twinned" wheels were installed forward of each of the main landing gear struts to serve as nosewheels,while the main struts were extended backwards.

All four landing gear units,in matching "nose" and "main" sets,could be raised and lowered in a scissorlike fashion to lower the aircraft and facilitate the removal of a planned variety of wheeled pods which would be attached below the fuselage for the transport of cargo.The goal was to allow cargo to be preloaded into the pods;it was claimed that such an arrangement would speed up loading and unloading cargo.

Powerplant was 2 × Pratt & Whitney R-4360 Wasp Major radials of 3,250 hp,the first flight was 11th august 1950,and production aircraft were to be designated C-128.
Only one XC-120 was built,though the aircraft was tested extensively and made several airshow appearances in the early 1950s,the project went no further.
It was tested by the Air Proving Ground Command at Eglin Air Force Base, Florida, in 1951,before the project was abandoned in 1952.The prototype was eventually scrapped.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=07PDAzxwA2M
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on March 17, 2019, 05:07:06 PM
Fairchild T-46

The Fairchild T-46 (nicknamed the "Eaglet") was a light jet trainer aircraft of the 1980s.The USAF launched its Next Generation Trainer (NGT) program to replace the Cessna T-37 Tweet primary trainer in 1981.
Fairchild-Republic submitted a shoulder-winged monoplane with a twin tail,powered by two Garrett F109 turbofans and with pilot and instructor sitting side by side.Part of the idea was an expectation of increasing levels of general aviation traffic.A pressurized trainer would permit training at higher altitude,leading to fewer restrictions on the new pilots.

A flyable 62% scale version known as the Model 73 NGT,this first flew on 10 September 1981.A major requirement was for the aircraft to be able to go into a spin,and to have easy recovery,this was demonstrated using the Model 73 NTG.
Fairchild's design,to be designated T-46, was announced winner of the NGT competition on 2 July 1982,with the USAF placing an order for two prototypes and options for 54 production aircraft.It was planned to build 650 T-46s for the USAF by the early 1990`s.

The aircraft first flew on 15 October 1985,six months later than originally programmed date of 15 April.Costs had increased significantly during the development process, with the predicted unit cost doubling from $1.5 million in 1982 to $3 million in February 1985.Testing did not reveal any major problems, but Secretary of the Air Force cancelled procurement of the T-46,while allowing limited development to continue.Attempts were made in Congress to reinstate the program,which resulted in the FY 1987 budget being delayed,an amendment was passed to the 1987 Appropriations Bill to forbid any spending on the T-46 until further evaluation of the T-46 against the T-37 and other trainers took place.

The project was cancelled a little more than a year later,for reasons that largely remain controversial.The T-46 was the last project of the Fairchild Republic Corporation,and after the program termination Fairchild had no more income.Without any new contracts and the NGT program cancelled,the company closed the Republic factory in Farmingdale,New York,bringing 60 years of Fairchild aircraft manufacturing to an end.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on March 18, 2019, 05:01:03 PM
Globe Swift

The Globe Swift,also known as the Globe/Temco Swift,is a light,two-seat sport monoplane from the post-WW II period.The Swift was designed by R.S."Pop"Johnson in 1940,the design was financially secured by John Kennedy,president of the Globe Medicine Company,to be built by his new Globe Aircraft Company,but WW II interrupted their plans.

The 85 hp GC-1A Swift advertised as the "All Metal Swift" re-designed by K.H."Bud" Knox,received its type certificate on 7 May 1946.Two prototypes were built but the design remained much the same as the type that entered production.Globe built about 408 GC-1As.
Later it received a more powerful engine of 125 hp making it the GC-1B.Globe,together with TEMCO,built 833 GC-1Bs in six months,however Globe was outpacing sales of the Swift,and did not have enough orders to sell all of the aircraft being built.As a result Globe was forced into insolvency.

TEMCO obtain the type certificate,tooling,aircraft,and parts to enable them to continue production in late 1947 in the hope that reviving production would enable TEMCO to recover their loss.
TEMCO went on to build 260 more aircraft before shutting Swift production down permanently in 1951.

The type certificate for the Swift was obtained by Universal Aircraft Industries (later Univair) along with all production tooling.Spare parts continued to be built until 1979 when the Swift Museum Foundation under the leadership of President Charlie Nelson purchased the Type Certificate,parts and tooling
 
The most unusual variant of the series became a separate design,the TEMCO TE-1/T-35 Buckaroo which was built in a short-run first as a contender for a USAF trainer aircraft contract,later transferred to foreign service as a military trainer.Several of these trainers have since returned to the civil market.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: smudge on March 18, 2019, 09:26:23 PM
Now I didn't know that the Buckaroo derived from the Swift!  Likewise the winning T-34 was based on the bigger Bonanza.

TEMCO had another go at a US Navy requirement with the TT-1 Pinto jet trainer, again the Navy took a handful and trained some pilots on it but chose the T-2 Buckeye instead.

Of course as part of LTV they later made the grade with the F-8
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on March 19, 2019, 06:07:57 PM
Gee Bee Model Z

The Granville Gee Bee Model Z was an American racing aircraft of the 1930s,the first of the Super Sportster aircraft built by Granville Brothers Aircraft of Springfield, Massachusetts,with the sole intent of winning the Thompson Trophy,which it did in 1931.However,it soon suffered a fatal crash during a world speed record attempt,starting the reputation of the Gee Bee aircraft as killers.

The Granville Brothers decided in July 1931 to build an aircraft to compete in that years Thompson Trophy competition at the National Air Races in Cleveland, Ohio.They hoped that a victory in the race would lead to additional orders for their line of sporting aircraft.
The Gee Bee (for "Granville Brothers") Model Z,was named City of Springfield.It was a small,stumpy airplane,basically the smallest possible airframe constructed around the most powerful available engine,a supercharged Pratt & Whitney R-985 "Wasp Junior" radial engine,producing 535 hp.

It first flew 22nd Aug 1931 and quickly proved to be tricky to fly,but fulfilled every expectation with regards to its speed.Flown by pilot Lowell Bayles,it attained the speed of 267.342 mph at the National Air Races during the Shell Speed Dash qualifying on September 1.It went on to win the Goodyear Trophy race,run over a course of 50 miles,the next day at an average speed of 205mph.On the September 5,Bob Hall,flew it to victory in the General Tire and Rubber Trophy race,then won again the next day in a free-for-all event.
In the Thompson Trophy Race on September 7,Bayles won with an average speed of 236.24 mph,winning over competitors including Jimmy Doolittle amongst others.

The Gee Bee Z was then re-engined with a larger,750-hp Wasp Senior radial,in preparation for an attempt at a world speed record for landplanes at Wayne County Airport in Detroit.Unofficially clocked at 314 mph on a trial run,beating the previous record of 278 mph by attaining 281.75 mph on December 1, 1931,but the margin was too small for the record to be officially registered.A further record attempt on December 5, 1931,ended in tragedy,the aircraft suffered a wing failure and rolled into the ground, killing Bayles.Tests of a reproduction aircraft have shown that the Gee Bee Z was susceptible to aerodynamic flutter at high speed.

Film of the crash of the Gee Bee Z has become some of the most well known footage from the era of air racing. The crash also helped to establish the reputation of Gee Bee racing aircraft as killers.The Super Sportster design would be refined into the Gee Bee Model R for the 1932 air race season.

Two reproductions of the Gee Bee Z have been constructed.One,a faithful reproduction of the original aircraft,was constructed by Jeff Eicher and Kevin Kimball of Mount Dora, Florida, and is housed in the Fantasy of Flight museum in Lakeland, Florida.The other was a movie prop for the Walt Disney feature film The Rocketeer.
The Granville Brothers built only 24 aircraft and only two original aircraft are known to exist.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on March 20, 2019, 05:54:09 PM
Grumman AF Guardian

The original design concept for what would become the Guardian,the XTB2F of 1944,was a twin-engine aircraft with a 3,600lb weapons load and a range of 3,700 miles,but it was considered to be too large for practical use from an Essex-class aircraft carrier,and was cancelled in 1945.

The XTB3F-1S carried a crew of two seated side-by-side and an armament of two 20 mm cannon and 4,000 lb of bombs,torpedoes and/or rockets,and made its first flight on 19 December 1945.Then on 24th Dec 1945,the Navy changed the role of the aircraft from torpedo-bomber to anti-submarine warfare.The required equipment could not be fitted into a single aircraft,so two variants would be produced, one as a hunter and another as a killer.

The hunter aircraft would not carry any armament,but instead two extra crew members and a ventral radome for APS-20 radar and ECM.This aircraft,the XTB3F-1S first flew in November 1948.The "killer" deleted the cannon of the torpedo bomber,but retained the bomb bay,added a third crewmember,a searchlight,and short-range radar,and as the XTB3F-2S first flew in January 1949.Powerplant was a single Pratt & Whitney R-2800-48W "Double Wasp" radial of 2,400 hp.

Redesignated as AF-2W and AF-2S,they entered fleet service on 27 September 1950 with three aircraft delivered to VS-24,with full service introduction shortly after with VS-25. A total of 193 AF-2S Guardians were built.In 1952,the AF-3S (hunter) was introduced,fitting a magnetic anomaly detector (MAD) for the detection of submerged submarines; 40 of this variant were built.The last Guardian was delivered to the Navy in March 1953,with a total of 389 built.

The Guardian saw service in the maritime patrol role during the Korean War,however it proved unpopular with pilots,underpowered and heavy on the controls;the aircraft suffered from a very high accident rate.Just after the Korean War ended,it began to be replaced by the Grumman S2F Tracker,the U.S. Navy first purpose-built ASW airplane to combine the hunter and killer roles in a single airframe.The Guardian remained in service with the US Naval Air Reserve until 1957.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on March 21, 2019, 04:33:18 PM
Grumman G-65 Tadpole / Colonial Skimmer

The Grumman G-65 Tadpole was an American prototype light amphibian.It was a two/three-seat shoulder-wing cantilever monoplane with retractable tricycle landing gear.It was powered by a 125hp Continental C125 engine above the rear fuselage driving a pusher propeller.

It first flew on 7 December 1944.Although not developed by Grumman,one of the design team,David Thurston,later developed the design into a family of amphibians including the Colonial Skimmer and Lake Buccaneer.

In 1946 David Thurston established the Colonial Aircraft Corporation at Sanford Maine to build his design for a small amphibian flying boat,the Skimmer.
The design was an all-metal shoulder-wing cantilever monoplane with a single-step hull and stabilizing floats fitted under each wing.A retractable tricycle landing gear allowed land operation.
The 115hp Avco Lycoming engine with a pusher propeller was pylon-mounted above and aft of the enclosed cockpit.
The cabin had side-by-side seating for a pilot and passenger with room behind for another passenger.

The prototype XC-1 Skimmer first flew on July 17 1948,powered by a 115 hp Lycoming O-235 engine,but was later re-engined with a 125 hp Lycoming O-290.
24 examples of the C-1 Skimmer were built and these were followed by 18 examples of the higher powered four-seat variant known as the C-2 Skimmer IV,which through a succession of companies became the Lake Buccaneer.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on March 22, 2019, 08:26:21 PM
Grumman XF5F Skyrocket

The Grumman XF5F Skyrocket was a prototype twin-engined shipboard fighter interceptor.In 1938 Grumman presented a proposal to the USN for a twin engine carrier based fighter with an unusual configuration.The design was was for a lightweight fighter powered by two 1,200 hp Wright R-1820 engines,with propellers geared to rotate in opposite directions to cancel out the effects of each engine's torque, promising high-speed,and climb rate.The XF5F Skyrocket was a low wing monoplane with a short fuselage that began aft of the wing's leading edge with a twin tail assembly that featured a pronounced dihedral to the horizontal stabilizer.The main landing gear and tail wheel were fully retractable.

The aircraft flew for the first time on 1 April 1940.Modifications were made to the prototype including reduction in the height of the cockpit canopy,revising the armament installation to four 0.5 in machine guns in place of cannon,a redesign of the engine nacelles,adding spinners to the propellers,and extending the fuselage forward of the wing.These changes were completed on 15 July 1941.

Later that year,USN Bureau pilots tested the XF5F-1 in a fly-off against the top allied fighters,analysis of all the data definitely favored the F5F,with the Spitfire in a distant second.
However the difficulty of building the twin-engine fighter had ruled out the Skyrocket,and that the Bureau had settled on the Wildcat for mass production.
Additional changes were needed after further flight tests that were not completed until 15 January 1942.Meantime Grumman began work on a more advanced twin-engine shipboard fighter,and further testing with the XF5F-1 supported the development of the newer design.
The prototype continued to be used in various tests,until it was struck from the list of active aircraft after it made a belly landing on 11 December 1944.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on March 23, 2019, 06:20:31 PM
Grumman XF10F Jaguar


The Grumman XF10F Jaguar was a prototype swing-wing fighter aircraft for the USN in the early 1950s.Although it never entered service,its research pointed the way toward the later General Dynamics F-111 and Grumman's own F-14 Tomcat.

The Navy's interest in the variable-geometry wing was based on concerns that the ever-increasing weight of its jet fighters was making aircraft carrier operations unduely hazardous,as existing aircraft already had marginal carrier performance.The requirement for high-speed performance demanded swept wing layouts that did not lend themselves to good takeoff characteristics,thus the prospect of combining the two in a single aircraft was enticing.

The XF10F featured a T-tail,with the horizontal stabilator,a small pivoting center body with a delta servo control at the nose and a larger rear delta main wing,mounted atop the vertical fin.The single  Westinghouse XJ40-WE-8 turbojet engine was fed by cheek intakes.The high,shoulder-mounted wing could be moved to two positions: a 13.5° sweep for takeoff and landing and a 42.5° sweep for high-speed flight.The XF10F-1 was not armed, but production aircraft would likely have had four 20 mm cannon and pylons for bombs and rockets,much like other contemporary Navy fighters.

It`s configuration presented many of the same handling problems as the earlier Bell X-5 experimental aircraft,with some vicious spin characteristics.Development was hampered by its use of the chronically unreliable turbojet engine,which,as on other aircraft of this period,made the Jaguar dangerously underpowered.
Test pilot Corwin "Corky" Meyer,the only pilot to fly the Jaguar,described it as entertaining to fly "because there was so much wrong with it.
The Navy was not encouraged by the results,and the rapid development of larger carriers with angled flight decks and steam-driven catapults made the swing-wing configuration unnecessary.

The prototype XF10F-1 first flew on 19 May 1952.It was used for some 32 test flights throughout the year,but in April 1953,the Navy canceled the program,and with it,the 112 production aircraft that had been ordered.The sole flying aircraft and the uncompleted second prototype were shipped to Naval Air Material Center in Philadelphia for barricade testing, and the static test aircraft was later used as a gunnery target.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on March 24, 2019, 05:05:58 PM
General Dynamics–Grumman F-111B

I know some of you may be thinking "F-111,that`s a very well known aircraft",but this version was a different beast,so it`s worthy of inclusion.

The General Dynamics/Grumman F-111B was a long-range carrier-based interceptor aircraft that was planned to be a follow-on to the F-4 Phantom II for the US Navy.
It was designed in parallel with the F-111 "Aardvark", which was adopted by the USAF as a strike aircraft,but the F-111B suffered development issues and changing Navy requirements for an aircraft with maneuverability for dogfighting.
The F-111B was not ordered into production and the prototypes were used for testing before being retired.It would be replaced by the smaller and lighter Grumman F-14 Tomcat, which carried over the engines,AWG-9/Phoenix weapons system,and similar swing-wing configuration.

The F-111B was part of the 1960s TFX program.The USAF's TAC was largely concerned with the fighter-bomber to be a follow-on to the F-105 Thunderchief.
Meanwhile,the USN sought a long-range,high-endurance interceptor to defend its aircraft carrier battle groups,they wanted an aircraft with a more powerful radar, and longer range missiles than the F-4 Phantom II to intercept both enemy bombers and missiles.
In June 1961,Secretary McNamara ordered the go ahead on TFX despite Air Force and the Navy efforts to keep their programs separate.The USAF wanted a tandem seat aircraft for low level penetration, while the Navy wanted a shorter, high altitude interceptor with side by side seating.Differences in required performance also became an issue.
General Dynamics' proposal was selected from 6 manufacurers in November 1962 due to its greater commonality between Air Force and Navy TFX versions.

The nose was 8.5 feet shorter due to its need to fit on existing carrier elevator decks,and had 3.5 feet longer wingspan to improve on-station endurance time.
General Dynamics teamed with Grumman for assembly and test of the aircraft.Grumman would build the F-111A's aft fuselage and the landing gear.The first test F-111A was powered by YTF30-P-1 turbofans and used a set of ejector seats,since the escape capsule was not yet available.It first flew on 21 December 1964.The first F-111B was also equipped with ejector seats and first flew on 18 May 1965.

Excessive weight plagued the F-111B throughout its development.The prototypes were far over the requirement weight.Design efforts reduced airframe weight but were offset by the addition of the escape capsule.The additional weight made the aircraft underpowered.
With the F-111B program in distress, Grumman began studying improvements and alternatives.In 1966,the Navy awarded Grumman a contract to begin studying advanced fighter designs.Grumman narrowed down these designs to its Model 303 design.With this the F-111B's end appeared near by mid-1967.By May 1968 both Armed Services committees of Congress voted not to fund production and in July 1968 the DoD ordered work stopped on F-111B.A total of seven were delivered by February 1969.

The replacement was the Grumman F-14 Tomcat,which derived from Grumman's initial Model 303 design,reused the TF30 engines from the F-111B,though the Navy planned on replacing them with an improved engine later.Although lighter than the F-111B,it was still the largest and heaviest U.S. fighter to takeoff and land from an aircraft carrier.

Flight tests on the continued at NAS Point Mugu,California and NAWS China Lake,California even after the program had been terminated.
The F-111B's last flight was with 151792 from California to New Jersey in mid-1971.The seven aircraft flew 1,748 hours over 1,173 flights.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on March 25, 2019, 06:51:28 PM
Harlow PC-5

Max Harlow was an aeronautical engineer and instructor at the Pasadena Junior College.Under his tutelage,the aircraft designated PJC-1 was designed and built as a class project.
It was destroyed in a spin test,but the PJC students then built a modified design,and incorporated a slightly larger vertical stabilizer.
This became the PJC-2 model,certified by the FAA on 20 May 1938.It was one of the first,airplanes designed and built in the U.S. with a stressed-skin semi-monocoque structure—a revolutionary design feature for the time. Harlow saw the potential and formed the Harlow Aircraft Company to build PJC-2 aircraft at Alhambra Airport.

Next they designed a version of the PJC-2 as a tandem two-seat training aircraft.The PC-5 had a revised fuselage with dual controls.The aircraft first flew in July 1939 but it failed to interest the USAAC.
Howard Hughes' business partner, J.B. Alexander,backed the project and had flown in early examples of the aircraft.

Harlow licensed the manufacturing rights to the PC-5 to Cub Aircraft of Canada during the wartime buildup.Only five aircraft had been built when the company was taken over by the Intercontinent Corporation.
Components for 50 aircraft were supplied to the Indian company Hindustan Aeronautics, who were to assemble the aircraft for use by the Indian Air Force as the PC-5A. The first PC-5A flew in August 1941,but it is not known how many were assembled and flown.
Powerplant was 1 × Warner Super Scarab 165-D 7-cylinder radial piston engine,of165 hp giving a max speed of around 150 mph.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on March 26, 2019, 04:51:10 PM
Howard Aircraft Corporation DGA-11

Howard Aircraft Corporation was a small United States aircraft manufacturer in the 1930s and 1940s. The factory was initially on the south side of Chicago Municipal Airport.
During World War II a second plant was opened at DuPage Airport west of Chicago.

One of the aircraft produced by the company was the DGA-11,powered by a nine-cylinder 450 hp Pratt & Whitney R-985 Wasp Junior radial engine,was purportedly the fastest four-seat civil aircraft of the late 1930s,able to achieve a top speed of about 200 mph.
A favorite of the high society and Hollywood circles,the DGA-11 cost about $16,500 in 1938 — expensive for the time,a slower and less costly version,the DGA-12,used a 300 hp Jacobs engine.

Production of the Howard Aircraft Corporation from 1936 to 1939 totaled about 30 aircraft.In 1939,Howard increased production and developed the 5-place DGA-15,building about 40 of the four/five-seater aircraft,powered by one of three different engines.Founder,Ben Howard,left the company at this time to join Douglas Aircraft Company as test pilot.

The onset of WW II signaled the end of the civil Howard aircraft line.The USN procured about 525 modified DGA-15s for use as the GH-2 Nightingale air ambulance,the GH-1 and GH-3 utility transport,and the NH-1 instrument trainer aircraft.
Exceptionally roomy and high-powered,the modified DGA-15 was known for being difficult to land and unforgiving—earning the unwanted nickname of “Ensign Eliminator.”The U.S. Army Air Corps also acquired a variety of prewar Howard aircraft as utility aircraft.

Stockholders elected not to produce civilian aircraft after the war,then sold the aviation assets,and used the proceeds to buy an electric-motor manufacturing company in Racine, Wisconsin,and named it Howard Industries.

Photo from abpics.co.uk
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on March 27, 2019, 10:30:14 PM
International F-18 Air Coach

The International F-18 Air Coach was a 1920s American biplane transport that was designed and manufactured by the International Aircraft Corporation in Long Beach, California.Perhaps better known for their F-17 Sportsman model.

Only six F-18's were ever built.One these aircraft,Miss Hollydale,flew in the 1927 Dole Air Race between Northern California and Hawaii.The F-18 had a cabin for four passengers and an open cockpit with side-by-side seating for a pilot and a fifth passenger.

Powerplant was 1 × Wright J-5 nine-cylinder air-cooled radial piston engine,of 220 hp giving a modest top speed of 120mph or 95 mph cruise.
The company stopped manufacturing F-18's by 1928 and sold its rights to the aircraft in 1931.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on March 28, 2019, 05:58:50 PM
Interstate Cadet

The Interstate Cadet was a two-seat tandem,high wing,single-engine monoplane light aircraft,similar looking to the Piper J-3 Cub and it`s variants.
The original version,the S1 prototype,was powered by the 50 hp Continental A50 engine,but was soon upgraded to the Continental A65 engine and redesignated as the S1-A-65F.
This was a popular and common engine used in many small American two-seat aircraft of the time.

During World War Two the S1-B1 version with a 90hp Franklin engine was produced,known in the US military under the L-6A Grasshopper designation.
An Interstate Cadet,flown by aviator Cornelia Fort and an unknown student,was one of the first aircraft to be attacked by IJNAS Japanese naval planes en route to the Pearl Harbor attack on December 7,1941.The aircraft was restored in 2012 and is still flying as N37266.

In 1945 the rights to the aircraft were sold to Harlow Aircraft Company,which in turn resold the tooling and parts to the Call Aircraft Company of Wyoming in 1946 for $5000. Callair rebuilt a number of S-1, S-1A and L-6s, some with engine upgrades,for local ranchers and bush pilots as well as two examples of their own serial numbered CallAir S-1A-90C before production ended.

One of the main reasons it did not sell well was,that it cost almost three times the amount of the comparable Piper J-3 Cub.However,a closer look at the two aircraft reveals that the Cadet was faster,stronger and could be operated in a more rugged environment with its Oleo strut/Compression spring suspension system.
Popular upgrades for this airframe included larger engines(75/85/90/100 hp), better brakes, and a different tailwheel system.

In the late 1960s the type certs and tooling were bought by the newly formed Arctic Aircraft Company who transformed the S-1B1 into a bush plane by upgrading structural elements of the fuselage,landing gear and wings.
This aircraft was designated the S-1B2, was used a Lycoming O-320 160 HP engine and a McCauley propeller for increased performance and was certified in 1975 as the Arctic Tern.
The new Type certification also covered installing the same engine in otherwise standard Interstate Cadets.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: smudge on March 29, 2019, 09:15:10 AM
I'm enjoying this series!

A few comments on recent items:

- Howard Industries is still going, they are now based in Mississippi.  Back in the 1950s they had a brand of electric motor called the Cyclohm which is a smudge-approved pun.

- Although maligned for being too heavy the Seapig was only three tonnes heavier than an F-14 and could launch with less wind over deck, and with more fuel.  And could land with plenty of fuel and all six Phoenix missiles.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on March 29, 2019, 06:15:07 PM
Thank you for your comments-good to know that this is of interest.

Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on March 29, 2019, 07:02:21 PM
Interstate TDR

The Interstate TDR was an early unmanned combat aerial vehicle — referred to at the time as an "assault drone" — developed during the WWWII for use by the United States Navy.
It was capable of being armed with bombs or torpedoes.
Due to the limitations of the technology of the time,development of the project was given a low priority,but by the early 1940s the radar altimeter and television made the project more feasible,and following trials using converted manned aircraft,the first operational test of a drone against a naval target was conducted in April 1942.

Interstate Aircraft received a contract from the Navy for two prototype and 100 production aircraft to a simplified and improved design,to be designated TDR-1.
Control of the aircraft would be conducted from either a control aircraft,usually a Grumman TBF Avenger,with the operator viewing a tv screen showing the view from a camera mounted aboard the drone along with the radar altimeter's readout,or via a pilot on board the TDR-1 for test flights.

It was powered by two Lycoming O-435 piston engines of 220 hp each,it had a remarkably simple steel-tube/moulded wooden skin design,making little use of strategic materials so as not to impede production of higher priority aircraft.

In 1944,under the control of the Special Air Task Force,the TDR-1 was deployed to the South Pacific for operations against the Japanese.
Aircraft equipped a single mixed squadron (Special Air Task Group 1) along with TBM Avenger control aircraft,and the first operational mission took place on September 27,conducting bombing operations against Japanese shipping.
Despite success,the assault drone program had already been canceled after the production of 189 TDR-1 aircraft,due to a combination of continued technical problems,and the fact that more conventional weaponry was proving adequate.
The final mission was flown on October 27,with 50 drones having been expended on operations,31 aircraft successfully striking their targets,without loss to the pilots of STAG-1.Following the war,some TDR-1s were converted for operation as private sportsplanes.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on March 30, 2019, 04:53:35 PM
Javelin Wichawk

The Javelin Wichawk is a sporting biplane designed in the early 1970s and marketed in plan form for amateur construction.
It is a conventional design with staggered single-bay wings of equal span braced with N-struts and having fixed,tailwheel undercarriage.
Powerplant usually 1 × Lycoming O-360 of 180 hp,giving a max speed of 140mph,with a cruise of around 110mph.

The pilot and a single passenger sit in side-by-side configuration in an open cockpit,but the plans include options for the aircraft to be built in two- or three-seat tandem configuration instead.The fuselage and empennage are of welded steel tube construction,with the wings built with wooden spars and aluminium alloy ribs,all covered in doped aircraft fabric.
In January 2014 nine examples were registered in the USA with the FAA,but a total of 18 had been registered at one time.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on March 31, 2019, 05:19:56 PM
Kellett KD-1 / XO-60

The Kellett KD-1 was a 1930s American autogyro built by the Kellett Autogiro Company,using the experience gained in building Cierva autogyros under licence.
It developed the KD-1 which was similar to the contemporary Cierva C.30.It had two open cockpits,a fixed tailwheel landing gear and was powered by a 225 hp Jacobs L-4 radial engine.
It had the distinction of being the first practical rotary-wing aircraft used by the United States Army and inaugurated the first scheduled air-mail service using a rotary-wing aircraft.

After testing of the prototype a commercial variant designated the KD-1A was put into production.It had a three-bladed rotor with folding blades and a number of minor detail improvements.A KD-1B which was a KD-1A with an enclosed cockpit for the pilot was operated by Eastern Airlines and inaugurated the first scheduled rotary-wing air-mail service on 6 July 1939.

In 1935 the US Army bought a KD-1 for evaluation and designated it the YG-1,then a second aircraft followed which had additional radio equipment and was designated the YG-1A; these two aircraft were followed by a batch of seven designated YG-1B.In 1942 seven more were bought for use in the observation role as the XO-60.Six XO-60s were re-engined with 300 hp Jacobs R-915-3s and re-designated YO-60.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on April 01, 2019, 09:07:12 PM
Kellett XR-10

The Kellett XR-10 was a military transport helicopter developed in the 1940s that only flew in prototype form.It was designed in response to a USAAF Instruction issued for the development of a helicopter to transport passengers,cargo,or wounded personnel within an enclosed fuselage.Kellet was already developing in the XR-8,with twin intermeshing rotors,and was accepted by the Air Force on 16 October over proposals by Sikorsky, Bell, and Platt-LePage.

The XR-10 resembled a scaled-up XR-8,although its twin engines were carried in nacelles at the fuselage sides,driving the rotors via long driveshafts and the aircraft was skinned entirely in metal.The first of two prototypes flew on 24 April 1947.Powerplant was 2 × Continental R-975-15,of 425 hp

During test-flights,the same problem that had been encountered with the XR-8's rotor system emerged when blades from the two rotors collided in flight.With fixes in place, flight testing continued,but on 3 October 1949,the first prototype crashed due to a control system failure which killed Kellett's chief test pilot.
The project was abandoned shortly after,and a 16-seat civil variant design,the KH-2,never left the drawing board. 
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: smudge on April 02, 2019, 07:10:36 AM
Kellett KD-1 / XO-60

The Kellett KD-1 was a 1930s American autogyro built by the Kellett Autogiro Company,using the experience gained in building Cierva autogyros under licence.

One was delivered to the Japanese army and reverse-engineered by Kayaba as the Ka-1.  A couple of hundred were built and as well as observation they flew off a carrier for coastal anti-submarine patrols with depth charges, that's the only armed use of a gyro I can think of outside a Bond film!

The KD-1 / Ka-1 could hover by holding the nose high and applying full power.

Afer the war Kayaba had another go at gyros by hacking-up a Cessna 170:
http://www.aviastar.org/helicopters_eng/kayaba_heliplane.php
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on April 02, 2019, 10:53:34 PM
Kinner Envoy

The Kinner C-7 Envoy was a 1930s four-seat cabin monoplane built by Kinner Airplane & Motor Corporation.The Envoy was a four-seat version of the Kinner Sportwing.It had low wings fitted with wire bracing from fuselage points just below the cabin windows.The fixed tailwheel undercarriage was fitted with streamlined spats.The low-set tailplane was braced by wires from the middle of the fin.All very 1930`s chic.

Four civil examples were completed from 1934,when the aircraft had it`s first flight.These were fitted with a 300 h.p. Kinner C-7 engines and were sold to civil pilot owners.These were followed in 1936 by three aircraft for the United States Navy for use in communications work and designated XRK-1.The USN machines served until the early years of World War II.The Imperial Japanese Navy evaluated a single example as the LXK.
When delivered the USN examples were fitted with a 340 h.p. Kinner R-1044-2 engine,one example used for VIP transport was later fitted with a 400 h.p. Pratt & Whitney R-985-38 radial engine.
The C-7 was the last of Kinner's production models.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on April 03, 2019, 07:37:17 PM
LTV XC-142

The Ling-Temco-Vought (LTV) XC-142 was a tiltwing experimental aircraft designed to investigate the operational suitability of vertical/short takeoff and landing (V/STOL) transports.In 1959 the United States Army,Navy and Air Force began work on the development of a prototype V/STOL aircraft that could augment helicopters in transport-type missions.Vought responded with a proposal combining engineering from their own design arm,their proposal won the design contest,and a contract for five prototypes was signed in early 1962.

During the prototype development the Navy decided to exit the program,they were concerned that the strong propeller downwash would make it difficult to operate.
The first prototype made its first conventional flight on 29 September 1964,first hover on 29 December 1964,and first transition on 11 January 1965.The first XC-142A was delivered to the Air Force test team in July 1965.During the test program,a total of 420 hours were flown in 488 flights.
The five XC-142As were flown by 39 different military and civilian pilots.Tests included carrier operations,simulated rescues,paratroop drops,and cargo extraction.

The basic design was fairly typical for a cargo aircraft,consisting of a large boxy fuselage with a tilted rear area featuring a loading ramp.It had a wingspan of 67 ft (20 m) and was 58 ft (18 m) long overall.The boxy cockpit accomedated the crew of two pilots and a loadmaster.The wing was high-mounted and the tail surfaces were a "semi-T-tail" to keep the rear area clear during loading.Tricycle landing gear were used,with the main legs retracting into blisters on the fuselage sides.In normal parked configuration it would appear to be a conventional cargo plane.

For V/STOL operations,the aircraft "converted" by tilting its wing to the vertical.Roll control during hover was provided by differential clutching of the propellers, while yaw used the ailerons,which were in the airflow.For pitch control the aircraft featured a separate tail rotor,oriented horizontally to lift the tail,as opposed to the more conventional anti-torque rotors on helicopters that are mounted vertically.

When on the ground,the tail rotor folded against the tail to avoid being damaged during loading.The wing could be rotated to 100 degrees,past vertical,in order to hover in a tailwind.The C-142 was powered by four General Electric T64 turboshaft engines cross-linked on a common driveshaft,which eliminated engine-out asymmetric thrust problems during V/STOL operations, to drive four 15.5-foot (4.7 m) Hamilton Standard fiberglass propellers,giving the aircraft excellent all-around performance which included a maximum speed of over 400 mph,making it one of the fastest VTOL transport aircraft of the era.

After reviewing the C-142B proposal,the tri-services management team could not develop a requirement for a V/STOL transport.XC-142A testing ended,and the remaining flying copy was turned over to NASA for research testing from May 1966 to May 1970.
In service it would carry 32 equipped troops or 8,000 pounds of cargo.A civilian version,the Downtowner,was also proposed.This was designed to carry 40–50 passengers at a cruise speed of 290 mph using only two of its engines.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: smudge on April 04, 2019, 02:56:39 PM
Kinner Envoy
one example used for VIP transport was later fitted with a 400 h.p. Pratt & Whitney R-985-38 radial engine.

That seems like an hellacious amount of power for a four-seater.  In contrast even a top-line Cessna 182 only has 235hp!

LTV XC-142

Shorts took out a license for European production of the C-142, had it gone ahead with backing from the US forces.  Such a shame that it didn't.  42 years later the Osprey entered service...
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on April 04, 2019, 07:20:35 PM
LTV L450F


The LTV L450F,also known as the L45ØF,was a prototype quiet reconnaissance aircraft,developed by Ling-Temco-Vought in the late 1960s for use in the Vietnam War by the US Military.Under a $1 million USD contract by LTV Electrosystems,the L450F was developed from a Schweizer SGS 2-32 sailplane,modified by Schweizer to LTV's specifications.

The modifications included stronger wing spars,a thicker wing skin,installation of a Pratt & Whitney PT6A turboprop engine driving a three-bladed prop,and main landing gear based on that of the Grumman Ag-Cat agricultural aircraft.An alternative configuration,using a piston engine,was also proposed.
The prototype flew in February 1970,but was destroyed during its third flight,on 23 March that year,the pilot successfully bailed out.

A second prototype was then completed and flown,successfully completing the testing program,and a third prototype was ordered as the unmanned XQM-93 drone.
Four examples of the XQM-93 were contracted for by the USAF,however the Compass Dwell project was subsequently cancelled.

On the 27 March 1972 Donald R.Wilson reached the altitude of 15 456 m (50 708 ft) in horizontal flight flying the remaining L450F,registered N2450F,setting a new Fédération Aéronautique Internationale international record,this record still stood as of 27 March 2012.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on April 05, 2019, 07:13:46 PM
Lockheed Model 18 Lodestar


The Lockheed Model 18 Lodestar is a passenger transport aircraft of the WWII era.Sales of the 10–14 passenger Lockheed Model 14 Super Electra,had proved disappointing,so in order to improve the type's economics,Lockheed decided to stretch the aircraft's fuselage by 5ft 6",allowing an extra two rows of seats to be fitted.
The prototype for the revised airliner,designated Model 18 by Lockheed,was converted from the fourth Model 14,one of a batch which had been returned to the manufacturer by Northwest Airlines.
The modified aircraft first flew in this form on September 21st 1939,another two prototypes being converted from Model 14s,with the first newly built Model 18 flying on February 2, 1940.

The Lodestar received its Type certificate on March 30,1940,allowing it to enter service with the first customer,Mid-Continent Airlines that month.Sales to US domestic customers were relatively slow as most US airlines were already committed to the DC-3,with only 31 Lodestars going to US airlines.Overseas sales were a little better, with 84 aircraft ordered by various airlines.Pratt & Whitney or Wright Cyclone powerplants were installed.

When the United States started to build up its military air strength in 1940–41, many American-operated Lodestars were impressed as the C-56. This was followed by the construction of many new-build Lodestars which were flown by the U.S. Army Air Forces as the C-60 and by the U.S. Navy and U.S. Marine Corps as the R5O. Lend-lease aircraft were used by the RNZAF as transports.
One was purchased in 1942 to serve as Brazilian President Getúlio Vargas' personal aircraft.This aircraft was specially designed for that purpose and had 11 seats.
Many Air Forces operated the type including the RAF,RAAF,RNZAF,SAAF,RCAF,NAF,BAF and several others.

After the war many Lodestars were overhauled and returned to civilian service, mostly as executive transports.A few were even converted to tricycle landing gear. 
Surviving New Zealand NZNAC aircraft were sold back overseas in 1951/52,six more were later imported and converted for aerial topdressing.A single Lodestar served with the Israeli Air Force during the 1948 Arab-Israeli War.A number of skydiving operations in the United States used Lodestars during the 1970s and 1980s. 
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on April 06, 2019, 04:50:14 PM
Lockheed R6V Constitution

The Lockheed R6V Constitution was a large,four propeller-driven,double-decker transport aircraft developed in the 1940s by Lockheed as a long-range,high-capacity transport and airliner for the U.S. Navy and Pan American Airways.Only two of the aircraft were ever built,both prototypes.

The design requirements,initially designated Lockheed Model 89,called for a large transport aircraft to improve upon the Navy's fleet of flying boats.
Pan Am was involved in the study because such an aircraft had potential use as a commercial airliner.This transport would carry 17,500 lb pounds of cargo 5,000 miles at a cruising altitude of 25,000 feet and a speed greater than 250 mph.The aircraft would be fully pressurized and large enough so that most major components could be accessed and possibly repaired in flight.For example,tunnels led through the thick wings to all four engines.

The Constitution design had a "double bubble" fuselage, the cross section of which was a "figure eight".This unorthodox design,originally created in 1937 by Curtiss-Wright's chief aircraft designer and first introduced with the Curtiss C-46 Commando,utilized the structural advantages of a cylinder for cabin pressurization,without the wasted space that would result from a single large cylinder of the same volume.
The original order was for 50 aircraft,but this was drastically cut back to just two aircraft after VJ Day.

The Constitution had operational difficulties which prevented it from meeting its original design objectives.The large airframe needed more power than the four Pratt & Whitney R-4360s could deliver,and the engines had cooling problems.While this could be compensated for by flying with engine cowl flaps partially open,it increased drag and decreased range.
The Navy operated the two Constitutions through the end of the 1940s and into the 1950s. By 1949 the Navy announced that it could no longer afford to operate them, and offered them to airlines on a five-year lease.There was no interest from airlines in using the Constitutions (the airline version was named the Model 189), so the Navy retired both aircraft in 1953.

They went into storage at NAS Litchfield Park,Arizona in 1955.Both aircraft and 13 spare engines were sold for $97,785.Lockheed proposed the Model 389 and Model 489 airliners based on the Constitution, which would have accommodated up to 169 passengers.Neither of these "paper" projects received much interest from civil operators.
The first Constitution was brought to Las Vegas,where it served as an enormous billboard for Alamo Airways,before being scrapped by Howard Hughes when he acquired the property.The second example was scrapped sometime later near Opa-Locka Florida.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on April 07, 2019, 05:12:28 PM
Martin B-10

The Martin B-10 was the first all-metal monoplane bomber to be regularly used by the United States Army Air Corps,entering service in June 1934.Along with its features of closed cockpits,rotating gun turrets retractable landing gear,internal bomb bay,and full engine cowlings,which would become the standard for bomber designs worldwide for decades.It made all existing bombers completely obsolete.In 1932,Martin received the Collier Trophy for designing the XB-10.

Following the success of the XB-10,a number of changes were made,including reduction to a three-man crew,addition of canopies for all crew positions,and an upgrade to 675 hp engines.The Army ordered 48 of these on 17 January 1933.The first 14 aircraft were designated YB-10 and delivered to Wright Field,starting in November 1933, and used in the Army Air Corps Mail Operation.The production model of the XB-10, the YB-10 was very similar to its prototype.

In 1935,the Army ordered an additional 103 aircraft designated B-10B.These had only minor changes from the YB-10.Shipments began in July 1935.B-10Bs served with the 2d Bomb Group at Langley Field,the 9th Bomb Group at Mitchel Field,the 19th Bomb Group at March Field,the 6th Composite Group in the Panama Canal Zone,and the 4th Composite Group in the Philippines.In addition to conventional duties in the bomber role,some modified YB-10s and B-12As were operated for a time on large twin floats for coastal patrol.

With an advanced performance,the Martin company fully expected that export orders for the B-10 would flood in.The U.S. Army owned the rights to the Model 139 design.Once the Army's orders had been filled in 1936,Martin received permission to export Model 139s,and delivered versions to several air forces.Six Model 139Ws were sold to Siam in April 1937,powered by Wright R-1820-G3 Cyclone engines;20 Model 139Ws were sold to Turkey in September 1937,powered by R-1820-G2 engines.

Rapid advances in bomber design in the late 1930s meant that the B-10 was eclipsed by the time the United States entered World War II. The Model 139s in combat in China and South East Asia suffered the same disadvantages as the other early war medium bombers,i.e. not enough armour and guns,while it could not outrun the latest fighters.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on April 08, 2019, 09:25:57 PM
Martin Maryland

The Martin Model 167 was an American-designed medium bomber that first flew in 1939.In response to a USAAC light bomber requirement issued in 1938,the Glenn L. Martin Company produced its Model 167,which was given the official designation XA-22.Martin's design was a twin-engine all-metal monoplane,capable of around 310 mph with a crew of three.The XA-22 was not adopted for operational service in the U.S.,the contract was won by the Douglas DB-7,which became the A-20 Havoc,but Martin received foreign orders,and about 450 of these fast,twin-engined bombers were built.

The prototype Model 167W was powered by twin-row Pratt & Whitney R-1830-37 Twin Wasp engines,which were replaced in French production aircraft by single-row nine-cylinder Wright R-1820 Cyclone engines,the Twin Wasps were then restored for the British Maryland.
All versions of the Model 167 were armed with six machine guns,four fixed guns in the wings,one dorsal gun and one ventral gun.In the prototype,these guns were all 0.30 in Browning machine guns.The dorsal gun was mounted in a fully retractable turret,but he French aircraft used license-built Belgian Fabrique Nationale FN-Brownings,with a lighter semi-retractable dorsal turret.

The most unusual feature of the Model 167 was the very narrow fuselage,the crew of three was carried in two isolated compartments:the bombardier sat in the nose below the pilot and the gunner was in the mid-upper twin-machine gun turret in a separate rear compartment,isolated by a bulkhead.
Due to a U.S. embargo on arms exports after the beginning of WW II,many aircraft were impounded for two months before being shipped to Europe.When the Germans invaded France there were only four bomber squadrons equipped.They were quickly sent to the front lines where they performed well with their adequate speed and excellent maneuverability for an aircraft in this class.Approximately 215 Martin 167s were delivered to France.

32 aircraft had been completed to French specifications and were later converted to British requirements in the UK.Engines were changed to the Pratt and Whitney Twin Wasp and various weapons and instruments were replaced.The last 43 of the order were completed as required by Glenn Martin.All these aircraft received the designation Maryland Mk.I. A further 150 aircraft had been ordered directly by Britain with two-speed superchargers on their Twin Wasps and were designated Maryland Mk.II.

Many of the aircraft were shipped to Egypt and Malta in time for the 1941 fighting there.The RAF used it mainly for photo-recon operations in North and East Africa,being faster than the Blenheim.
A Maryland bomber was the aircraft that photographed the Italian fleet before and after the Battle of Taranto on 11 November 1940.The pilot of that Maryland was Adrian Warburton,who scored his five confirmed kills with the Maryland's forward-firing guns.
Three Maryland Mk.I aircraft were transferred to the Fleet Air Arm and were mainly used for target towing duties.On 22 May 1941,an example of 771 Naval Air Squadron based at Hatston in the Orkney Islands,reported that the German battleship Bismarck had left Bergen,confirming that she was breaking out into the Atlantic.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on April 09, 2019, 07:48:04 PM
Martin MO-1

The Martin MO was an observation monoplane built for the United States Navy.The Navy's Bureau of Aeronautics designed a three-seat observation monoplane to use a cantilever wing,similar to one developed by the Dutch company Fokker.
Production of the aircraft,designated the MO-1,was contracted to the Glenn L. Martin Company with an order for 36 aircraft.The MO-1 was a shoulder-wing cantilever monoplane with a slab-sided fuselage and a fixed tailwheel landing gear.
It had an all-metal structure with a fabric covering,and was powered by a 435hp Curtiss D-12 engine.,and had a crew of three.In 1924 one aircraft was fitted with float landing gear for evaluation.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on April 10, 2019, 07:40:37 PM
Martin P6M SeaMaster

The Martin P6M SeaMaster,was a 1950s strategic bomber flying boat for the United States Navy.A victim of budget cuts and USAF interference,the Navy chose to create a "Seaplane Striking Force",useful for both nuclear and conventional warfare,including reconnaissance and minelaying.
Groups of these planes supported by seaplane tenders or special submarines could be located close to the enemy,and being mobile,they would be hard to neutralize.
Both Convair and Martin submitted proposals,and Martin`s was chosen as more promising.An order for two prototypes was issued which was projected to lead to six pre-production aircraft and a projected twenty-four production aircraft.

The Allison J71-A-4 turbojet was employed,fitted in pairs in overwing pods to keep the spray out of the intakes.Wings swept at 40° were used; they displayed a notable anhedral and were designed with tip tanks that doubled as floats on the water.Many features of Martin's XB-51 bomber prototype were used,including an all-flying "T" tail and a rotating bomb bay—pneumatically sealed against seawater in the P6M.

The first flight of the XP6M-1 came on 14 July 1955,early tests showed that the engines were mounted too close to the fuselage and scorched it when afterburners were used,leading to angling the engines slightly outward in subsequent aircraft.Flight testing was initially successful,but,on 7 December 1955,a control system fault destroyed the first prototype with the loss of all aboard.
The first pre-production YP6M-1 was completed about a year later,testing resuming in January 1958.

The Navy and Martin felt that a new version,the P6M-2,would be a more useful aircraft.The first was rolled out in early 1959.Changes included new,more powerful Pratt & Whitney J75 engines,an aerial refueling probe,improved avionics,and a canopy with better visibility.A buddy refueling drogue kit had also been developed to fit in the bomb bay.Three had been built by summer 1959 and Navy crews were moving them through operational conversion when the program was abruptly canceled in August of that year.
 
Also problems had been identified due to the larger engine nacelles required for the J75s.There were also handling issues on the water,including a tendency for the tip floats to dig in under certain situations,and engine surges.
These were eventually solved,but time had run out just as the first crews were training for its operational debut.Eisenhower's administration was making major defense budget cuts that forced the Navy to make tough choices.

Martin tried unsuccessfully to market the technology in the civilian market,with a version called the SeaMistress but there were no takers,the company soon abandoned the aircraft business entirely to focus on missiles and electronics.The P6M was the final aircraft constructed by the Glenn L. Martin Company.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on April 11, 2019, 07:24:11 PM
Martin 4-0-4

The Martin 4-0-4 was a pressurized passenger airliner,in addition to airline use initially in the United States,it was used by the United States Coast Guard and United States Navy as the RM-1G (later as the VC-3A).
A development of the earlier Martin 2-0-2 it had structural changes to the wings,pressurization and was lengthened slightly to take 40 passengers.Like the earlier 2-0-2, the 4-0-4 was a cantilever monoplane with a standard tail unit.It had an airstair in the lower tail section and retractable tricycle landing gear and was powered by two Pratt & Whitney R-2800-CB16 radial piston engines.

First deliveries in 1951 were made to Eastern Air Lines (EAL),which had ordered 60 and Trans World Airlines (TWA),which had ordered 40.The only other new aircraft from the production line were delivered to the United States Coast Guard which had ordered two as executive transports with the designation RM-1G later changed to RM-1 and then in 1962 to VC-3A.In 1969 they were transferred to the USN and were withdrawn from use by 1970.

TWA operated its 40 4-0-4s under the name "Skyliner" on scheduled services between 1 September 1950 and the last flight on 29 April 1961.EAL operated its 4-0-4s in the eastern USA using the class name "Silver Falcon".The first EAL schedule was flown on 5 January 1952 and retirement came in late 1962.
Later in their airline career,as they became displaced from the EAL and TWA fleets by turbine-powered aircraft,4-0-4s became popular with "second level" operators, Southern Airways operated 25 model 4-0-4s on a network of scheduled services from Atlanta in October 1961,all were ex-Eastern Airlines aircraft.Southern Airways' last 4-0-4 service was flown on 30 April 1978.

A total of 103 aircraft were built at the Glenn L. Martin factory in Baltimore.In February 2008 the last airworthy 4-0-4,an ex TWA aircraft,was ferried to the Planes of Fame Museum in Arizona.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on April 12, 2019, 08:07:54 PM
McDonnell FH Phantom


The McDonnell FH Phantom was a twinjet fighter aircraft designed and first flown during WW II for the US Navy.The Phantom was the first purely jet-powered aircraft to land on an American aircraft carrier and the first jet deployed by the United States Marine Corps.Although with the end of the war,only 62 FH-1s were built,it helped prove the viability of carrier-based jet fighters.

McDonnell was invited by the navy to cooperate in the development of a shipboard jet fighter,using an engine from the turbojets under development by Westinghouse Electric Corporation.Three prototypes were ordered on 30 August 1943 and the designation XFD-1 was assigned.Under the 1922 US Navy aircraft designation system,the letter "D" before the dash designated the aircraft's manufacturer.The Douglas Aircraft Company had previously been assigned this letter,but the USN elected to reassign it to McDonnell because Douglas had not provided any fighters for navy service in years.

The engines were buried in the wing root to keep intake and exhaust ducts short,offering greater aerodynamic efficiency than underwing nacelles,and they were angled slightly outwards to protect the fuselage from the hot exhaust blast.Placement of the engines in the middle of the airframe allowed the cockpit with its bubble-style canopy to be placed ahead of the wing, giving the pilot excellent visibility in all directions.

Folding wings were used to reduce the width of the aircraft in storage configuration.Provisions for four .50-caliber machine guns were made in the nose,while racks for eight 5 in rockets could be fitted under the wings,although these were seldom used in service.Adapting a jet to carrier use was a much greater challenge than producing a land-based fighter because of slower landing and takeoff speeds required on a small carrier deck.The Phantom used split flaps on both the folding and fixed wing sections to enhance low-speed landing performance,but no other high-lift devices were used.Provisions were also made for Rocket Assisted Take Off (RATO) bottles to improve takeoff performance.

When the first XFD-1,serial number 48235,was completed in January 1945,only one Westinghouse 19XB-2B engine was available for installation.Ground runs and taxi tests were conducted with the single engine,and such was the confidence in the aircraft that the first flight on 26 January 1945 was made with only the one turbojet engine.With successful completion of tests,a production contract was awarded on 7 March 1945 for 100 FD-1 aircraft.With the end of the war,the Phantom production contract was reduced to 30 aircraft,but was soon increased back to 60.

Production models used Westinghouse J30-WE-20 engines with 1,600 lbf (7.1 kN) of thrust per engine.Halfway through the production run,the Navy reassigned the designation letter "D" back to Douglas,with the Phantom being redesignated FH-1.

The first Phantoms were delivered to USN fighter squadron VF-17A (later redesignated VF-171) in August 1947;the squadron received a full complement of 24 aircraft on 29 May 1948.The Phantom's service as a frontline fighter would be short-lived due to limited range and light armament – notably,its inability to carry bombs,made it best suited for duty as a point-defence interceptor aircraft.Also,its speed and rate of climb were only slightly better than existing propeller-powered fighters and fell short of other contemporary jets.
Including the two prototypes,a total of 62 Phantoms were finally produced,with the last FH-1 rolling off the assembly line in May 1948.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on April 13, 2019, 12:35:01 PM
McDonnell 119/220

The McDonnell 119/220 was a business jet from the mid-1950s.It was originally designed to compete for the USAF UTX/UCX (Utility-Trainer Experimental/Utility-Cargo Experimental) contract,but it lost out to the Lockheed L-1329 JetStar (C-140 in Air Force service),the McDonnell corporation began efforts to market the type commercially.

It had a configuration that was unique by bizjet standards,with four jet engines mounted in individual pods underneath a low wing;it could accommodate ten passengers in a luxury executive configuration but could carry as many as 26.
McDonnell`s tactic was to draw up a deal with Pan American World Airways that would have involved the airline leasing 170 jets for five years,but when no other airline orders where forth coming.

They renamed the plane the Model 220 and started urgent marketing efforts to sell the aircraft as a business jet,including contacting the 750 largest corporations in the United States.There were no takers,even for the single prototype that had already been constructed.
The McDonnell Corporation used the airplane as a VIP transport for a few years before donating it to the Flight Safety Foundation's research facility in Phoenix, Arizona.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on April 14, 2019, 06:14:08 PM
McDonnell XV-1

In 1951,the USAF/USAA announced a competition to develop a compound helicopter, an aircraft that could take off and land vertically, like a helicopter, but could cruise at higher airspeeds than conventional helicopters.

On 20 June 1951, the Air Force and Army signed a Letter of Intent with McDonnell to award a contract to develop an aircraft based on their design.McDonnell had benefited from previous design work on the Model M-28 and had a complete mockup ready for inspection by the Army and Air Force by November 1951.They were given approval to begin fabrication of what was then designated the XL-25 ("L" for Liaison),later the designation was changed to XH-35. Finally, the aircraft became the first vehicle in the convertiplane series as the XV-1.

McDonnell enlisted Kurt Hohenemser and Friedrich von Doblhoff,the Austrian helicopter designer of the WNF 342,to provide technical direction in developing the tip-jet driven rotor system.After almost 2 years the first aircraft (serial 53-4016) was ready for flight testing by early 1954.
The XV-1 fuselage consisted of a streamlined tube mounted on skid landing gear,with a rear-mounted engine and a pusher propeller.It also had tapered stub wings mounted high on the fuselage.In turn,twin tailbooms and twin vertical surfaces,interconnected by a horizontal stabilizer elevator,were mounted to the wings.A three-bladed main rotor powered by blade tip pressure jets was mounted on top of the fuselage,above the wing roots.

It featured a single Continental-built R-975 radial piston engine that powered twin air compressors,which pumped air via ducts to the main rotor for vertical flight,while the engine drove the two-bladed pusher propeller for horizontal flight.The cockpit consisted of tandem pilot and copilot stations,or the aircraft could accommodate a pilot and three passengers,or a pilot and two stretchers.

As flight testing continued, McDonnell completed the second machine,which was modified from the original XV-1.The second XV-1 also featured two small tail rotors mounted on the outboard side at the end of each tailboom.These were a result of the hover test flights that showed the lack of yaw authority when using rudders only.The original XV-1 would later be modified with the tail rotors.The second XV-1 became the first rotorcraft to exceed 200 mph nearly 45 mph faster than the helicopter speed record at the time.

After three years and nearly 600 hours between the two aircraft,the XV-1 contract was canceled in 1957.Ultimately,it was determined that the XV-1's convertiplane configuration was too complex for the small advantages gained over conventional helicopters.
The Army retained 53-4016,which was transferred to the USAA Museum at Fort Rucker, Alabama.53-4017,the record-setting,second prototype,was donated by the Army to the Smithsonian Institution's National Air and Space Museum, Washington, D.C. in 1964.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on April 15, 2019, 07:06:02 PM
McDonnell Douglas YC-15

The McDonnell Douglas YC-15 was a prototype four-engine short take-off and landing (STOL) tactical transport.In 1968, the USAF started work on a series of prototype proposals,submitted by Bell, Boeing, Fairchild, McDonnell Douglas and the Lockheed/North American Rockwell team.On 10 November 1972,the two top bids (from Boeing and McDonnell Douglas) were selected and the companies were awarded development contracts for two prototypes each.McDonnell Douglas' prototype was designated YC-15.

McDonnell Douglas's design incorporated a non-swept supercritical wing,which dramatically lowers transonic wave drag compared to more conventional shapes,at the same time offering excellent low-speed lift.Most contemporary aircraft used swept wings to lower wave drag,but this led to poor low-speed handling,which made them unsuitable for STOL operations.The design team featured externally blown flaps to increase lift.This system uses double-slotted flaps to direct part of the jet exhaust downwards,while the rest of the exhaust passed through the flap and then followed the downward curve,until the introduction of the turbofan the hot and concentrated exhaust of existing engines made the system difficult to use.

A four engine layout was used,the YC-15 borrowed components from other McDonnell Douglas aircraft,with its nose gear coming from the Douglas DC-8 and the nose section & cockpit being derived from the Douglas DC-10.
Two YC-15s were built,one with a wingspan of 110 feet (72-1876) and one of 132 feet (72-1875).Both were 124 feet long and powered by four Pratt & Whitney JT8D-17 engines, each with 15,500 pounds-force of thrust.
The first flight was on 26 August 1975 and the second prototype followed in December.They were tested for some time at McDonnell Douglas as the Boeing entry was not ready until almost a year later.In November 1976,both designs were transferred to Edwards Air Force Base for head-to-head testing,including lifting heavy loads like tanks and artillery.

The YC-15s completed a 600-hour flight test program in 1977.Then the Air Force asked if it was possible to use a single model of the AMST for both strategic and tactical airlift roles, or alternatively,if it was possible to develop non-STOL derivatives of the AMST for the strategic airlift role.   
Both the YC-14 and YC-15 met or exceeded the AMST specifications under most conditions,however the increasing importance of the strategic vs. tactical mission eventually led to the end of the AMST program in December 1979.
In the end,neither the YC-15 nor the Boeing YC-14 was ordered into production,although the YC-15's basic design would be used to form the successful McDonnell Douglas (later Boeing) C-17 Globemaster III.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on April 16, 2019, 07:24:09 PM
McDonnell Douglas X-36

The McDonnell Douglas (later Boeing) X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft was a stealthy subscale prototype jet designed to fly without the usual tail assembly.
This configuration was designed to reduce weight,drag and radar cross section,and increase range,agility and survivability.

The X-36 was built to 28% scale of a possible fighter aircraft,and was controlled by a pilot in a ground-based virtual cockpit with a view provided by a video camera mounted in the canopy of the aircraft.A canard forward of the wing was used as well as split ailerons and an advanced thrust vectoring nozzle for directional control.The X-36 was unstable in both pitch and yaw axes,so an advanced digital fly-by-wire control system was used.

It`s first flight was 17 May 1997,it made 31 successful research flights.It handled very well,and the program is reported to have met or exceeded all project goals. McDonnell Douglas merged with Boeing in August 1997 while the test program was in progress; the aircraft is sometimes referred to as the Boeing X-36.Despite its potential suitability,and highly successful test program,there have been no reports regarding further development of the X-36 or any derived design as of 2017.

Powerplant was 1 × Williams International F112 turbofan,700 lbf,giving a max speed of around 230mph,and a service ceiling of 20,000ft.
The two protypes are reserved in the USA,one in Ohio,and the other in California.
   
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on April 17, 2019, 08:13:23 PM
Meyers OTW

The Meyers OTW (Out To Win) was a 1930s training biplane designed by Allen Meyers and built by his Meyers Aircraft Company from 1936 to 1944.The OTW was a conventional biplane with tandem seating for two in open cockpits and a fixed tailwheel landing gear.It first flew on 10 May 1936 with a 125hp engine.

The aircraft was produced in two main variants;the OTW-145 powered by a 145 hp Warner Super Scarab,and the OTW-160 powered by a 160 hp Kinner R-5 engine.
The 160hp version had a modest top speed of 120mph and a cruise of just over 100mph.It had a 2-bladed fixed pitch propeller.Just over 100 were built.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on April 18, 2019, 08:52:54 PM
Monocoupe 90

The Monocoupe 90 was a two-seat, light cabin airplane built by Donald A. Luscombe for Monocoupe Aircraft.The Monocoupes were side-by-side two-seat lightplanes of mixed wood and steel-tube basic construction with fabric covering.It was a braced high-wing monoplane with fixed tailskid landing gear,and the rear fuselage lines that were to become one of the signature features of the Monocoupes.

Early models of the aircraft was powered originally by either a 60 hp Anzani engine or the unsuccessful 65 hp Detroit Air Cat radial.In 1930 Monocoupe introduced the Model 90 with refined lines and a fuselage that was slightly longer and wider,marketed as Model 90 and Model 90A versions with a 90 hp Lambert R-266 radial engine.
The final two high performance Monocoupe models developed from the Model 90 were the Model 110 with a 110 hp Warner Scarab,and the Model 125 with a 125-hp Kinner B-5 engine.

The majority of the Monocoupe 90s to be built were sold to and flown by private pilot owners.However they were operated by Free French Forces,later Armée de l'Air as the  Monocoupe 90 AF.
Nineteen delivered early 1943 by sea to Egypt,to be reassembled by RAF MU 109.Main delivery to create a flying school (GE 11) in Syria,opening September 1,1943.The Monocoupe 90 proved too sensitive to be used for basic training and many accidents occurred until the school disbanded January 4, 1944.One aircraft survived the war and remained on the French civil register until written-off in 1962.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on April 19, 2019, 08:46:27 PM
Naval Aircraft Factory N3N

The Naval Aircraft Factory N3N was a tandem-seat,open cockpit,primary training biplane aircraft from the 1930`s.
The N3N was successfully tested as both a conventional airplane and a seaplane,the seaplane used a single float under the fuselage and floats under the outer tips of the lower wing.
The prototype XN3N-1 was powered by a radial Wright designed Wright J-5 engine and had a fixed undercarriage.An intial order for 179 production aircraft was received;towards the end of the first production run the engine was replaced with the Wright R-760-2 Whirlwind radial.

The N.A.F. delivered 997 N3N aircraft beginning in 1935.These included 180 N3N-1s and 816 N3N-3s.Four N3N-3s were delivered to the United States Coast Guard in 1941. Production ended in January 1942 but the type remained in use through the rest of World War II.The N3N was the last biplane in US military service.
The N3N was unique in that it was an aircraft designed and manufactured by an aviation firm wholly owned and operated by the U.S. government (the Navy, in this case) as opposed to private industry.For this purpose,the USN bought the rights and the tooling for the Wright R-760 series engine and produced their own engines.These Navy built engines were installed on Navy built airframes.

Postwar,surviving aircraft were sold on the US civil aircraft market and bought for operation by agricultural aerial spraying firms and private pilot owners.A number are still active in the USA.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on April 20, 2019, 01:17:32 PM
Naval Aircraft Factory SBN

The Naval Aircraft Factory SBN was a three-seat mid-wing monoplane scout bomber/torpedo aircraft designed by the Brewster Aeronautical Corporation,built under license by the Naval Aircraft Factory in Philadelphia.

The USN issued specifications for a scout bomber in 1934 and Brewster won the competition.The Navy ordered one prototype,designated the XSBA-1,on 15 October 1934.
It was a two-seat,single-engine monoplane with retractable landing gear and an internal bomb bay that could accommodate a 500-pound bomb.A crewman in the rear seat was armed with a flexible machine gun.

The prototype XSBA-1 first flew on 15 April 1936,and was delivered to the Navy for testing,fitted with a Wright R-1820-4 Cyclone 770-horsepower engine.
It achieved a top speed of 254 mph with a range of 1,000 miles at cruising speed.Problems were found during testing and the aircraft was given a revised tail and rudder and a more powerful Wright R-1820-22 Cyclone 950-horsepower engine,with which it reached a top speed of 263 mph.At the time, it was believed to be the fastest single-engine bomber in the world.

Brewster was unable to manufacture production models of the XSBA-1,so the Navy acquired a license to produce the aircraft itself at the Naval Aircraft Factory.
In September 1938,the Navy placed an order for 30 aircraft,but due to pressures of work at the NAF,it did not deliver the first aircraft,re-designated the SBN, until November 1940;he remaining aircraft were delivered between June 1941 and March 1942.

They were bsolete before their delivery in 1941,however some of the early production aircraft were used for carrier operations trials with Torpedo Squadron Eight (VT-8) in 1941 and then passed on for use as trainers aboard the aircraft carrier USS Hornet (CV-8).None of the SBNs saw combat.With a lack of spare parts,the aircraft were withdrawn from service from August 1942.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on April 21, 2019, 10:58:57 PM
North American AJ Savage

The North American AJ Savage (later A-2 Savage) was a carrier-based medium bomber built for the United States Navy.At the end of World War II, the USN began a design competition on 13 August 1945 for a carrier-based bomber which could carry a 10,000-pound bomb.Later that year,the Navy decided that it needed to be able to deliver atomic bombs and that the AJ Savage design would be adapted to accommodate the latest Mark 4 nuclear bomb.

The first prototype made its maiden flight two years later on 3 July 1948,The AJ-1 was a three-seat,high-wing monoplane with tricycle landing gear.For carrier operations, the outer wing panels and the tailfin could be manually folded.It was fitted with two 2,300-brake-horsepower Pratt & Whitney R-2800-44W Double Wasp piston engines, mounted in nacelles under each wing with a large turbocharger fitted inside each engine nacelle,and a 4,600-pound-force Allison J33-A-10 turbojet in the rear fuselage. Intended to be used for takeoff and maximum speed near the target,the jet was fed by an air inlet on top of the fuselage that was normally kept closed to reduce drag.

A photo-reconnaissance version of the Savage,initially known as the AJ-1P but later as the AJ-2P,was ordered on 18 August 1950.It had improved R-2800-48 piston engines and the tail was redesigned to add 1 foot of height to the tailfin.The 12° dihedral of the tail stabilizers was eliminated and the rudder enlarged which slightly lengthened the aircraft.Early AJ-2Ps retained the three-man crew,but late-model aircraft added a fourth crewman to the upper cockpit facing aft.

Around 1954, NATC modified the sole surviving XAJ-1 to conduct inflight refueling tests using the probe and drogue configuration.The turbojet engine was removed and the fuel hose and its drogue extended out from the jet's former exhaust opening.Aircraft in service retained the turbojet and had their bomb bay doors modified to accommodate the hose and drogue.They were refueling aircraft during late 1954.

The aircraft was not popular aboard ship as "it was so big and cumbersome that it complicated any other flight operations the ship was required to conduct."One problem was that the wings had to be folded one at a time by a crewman on top of the fuselage with a portable hydraulic pump,a time-consuming process,so that the bomber could be moved out of the way to allow other aircraft to land or take off.

Most of the USN examples had been retired from 1960,but a small number were converted to operate as water bombers in the fire fighting role.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on April 22, 2019, 05:36:13 PM
North American B-45 Tornado

The B-45 began development in 1944,when the U.S. War Department,called for a group of jet bombers grossing between 80,000 lb and 200,000 lb.The proposal from North American Aviation (NA-130) won,and on September 8, 1944,the company began production of three prototypes based on the NA-130.
The B-45 proved a superior design, and on January 2, 1947, a contract for immediate production of B-45As was signed,but not long after the future of the B-45 became increasingly uncertain,and in mid-1948 the U.S. Air Staff began to question its value.Soon afterwards,President Truman's budget restraints reduced Air Force expenditure and B-45 production was reduced to a total of 142 airframes.

Plagued by engine problems along with numerous other minor flaws,the B-45 regained importance when after the US entered the Korean War in 1950,it proved its value both as a bomber and as a reconnaissance aircraft.The progress of weapons technology had led to a great reduction in the weight and size of nuclear weapons in the U.S.inventory, allowing smaller aircraft to carry out nuclear strikes,a mission which had initially been confined to heavy bombers.Suddenly,the small fleet of B-45s had great value again as a nuclear deterrent.

RB-45s of the 323rd Strategic Reconnaissance Squadron began to arrive in Japan supplementing the World War II-era piston-engine RB-29s which had proved to be easy targets for North Korean MiGs.The RB-45s provided valuable intelligence throughout the remainder of the Korean War,despite the limited number of airframes available.RB-45Cs flew many daylight missions until early 1952,when they were switched to night operations after an RB-45 was almost lost to a MiG-15.

By 1954 the RB-45C had been replaced by the RB-47E.The phased-out RB-45Cs then went to the 19th Tactical Reconnaissance Squadron,which operated them until they were withdrawn from operational use in the spring of 1958.By the end of the 1950s,all B-45s had been removed from active service.However,a few continued to act as test aircraft into the early 1970s.

Under Operation Ju-jitsu,in July 1951 four aircraft were leased to Britain from the 91st SRW  to form 'Special Duties Flight, Sculthorpe'.Stripped of all USAF markings and then applied with RAF markings,the four aircraft were attached to a USAF squadron based at RAF Sculthorpe,in eastern England.They were tasked with flying deep-level reconnaissance missions over the Soviet Union to gather electronic and photographic intelligence.The Special Duties Flight conducted missions during the period 1952–54.
Subsequent flights over the Soviet Union were carried out using English Electric Canberras under the codename Project Robin,operating at much higher altitudes of around 54,000 ft.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on April 23, 2019, 07:23:41 PM
North American P-64

The North American P-64 was the designation assigned by the USAAC to the North American Aviation NA-68 fighter,an upgraded variant of the NA-50 developed during the late 1930s.Seven NA-50s were purchased by the Peruvian Air Force,which nicknamed it Torito ("Little Bull").
Six NA-68s ordered by the Royal Thai Air Force were seized before export by the US government in 1941,after the Franco-Thai War and growing ties between Thailand and the Empire of Japan.These aircraft were used by the USAAC as unarmed fighter trainers.

It was developed as a simple single-seat,low-wing,single-engined fighter for export.The design was based on the NA-16/BT-9 basic training aircraft of 1935.The NA-16 evolved into a series of aircraft that were some of the most widely used advanced and basic training aircraft produced by any country,and provided the basic design for a single-engined fighter intended for small countries that needed a simple aircraft with modern capabilities and features.

The NA-50 was powered by an 840 hp Wright R-1820-G3 radial air-cooled engine that gave the NA-50 a top speed of 295 mph at 9,500 feet.It was armed with two .30 in (7.62 mm) M1919 Browning machine guns.The aircraft were manufactured in May 1939.
One of the six intercepted Thailand-bound P-64s which survived being used for training and liaison is now displayed at the EAA AirVenture Museum. This aircraft has been restored to flying condition, with the engine running again in 2013, followed by its first flying appearance at the 2016 EAA AirVenture Oshkosh airshow.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on April 24, 2019, 06:57:24 PM
North American FJ-1 Fury

The North American FJ-1 Fury was the first operational jet aircraft in USN service,and was developed by North American Aviation as the NA-135.Ordered in late 1944 as the XFJ-1 in competition with proposals from Douglas and Vought,the Fury began as a straight-wing,tricycle gear fighter with a single turbojet passing through the fuselage.

The first flight of the prototype XFJ-1 took place on 11 September 1946,with the first of 30 deliveries beginning in October 1947.The FJ-1 made the USN's first operational aircraft carrier landing with a jet fighter at sea on 10 March 1948 aboard USS Boxer,pioneering US jet-powered carrier operations and showing the need for catapult-equipped carriers.The Fury was capable of launching without catapult assistance,but on a crowded flight deck the capability was of limited use.Taking off without a catapult launch limited the FJ-1 to a perilous,slow climb that was considered too risky for normal operations.

No provision for wing-folding had been made as dive brakes mounted in the wings made that option unfeasible.In order to conserve carrier deck space,a "kneeling" nose undercarriage along with a swivelling "jockey wheel" allowed the FJ-1 to be stacked tail-high,close to another FJ-1.
Powerplant was an Allison J35-A-2 turbojet of 4,000 lbf,with armament of 6 × 0.50 in (12.7 mm) M2 Browning machine guns in the nose.The initial order for 100 units was trimmed to only 30 aircraft which were mainly used in testing at NAS North Island, California.

Although VF-51 went to sea on Boxer by May 1949,the FJ-1s were phased out in favor of the new F9F-2 Panther.Ending its service career in U.S. Naval Reserve units, the FJ-1 eventually was retired in 1953.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on April 25, 2019, 07:12:43 PM
North American Navion

The Navion was originally designed at the end of World War II by North American Aviation as the NA-143 (but produced under the NA-145 designation).It was designed for the civilian market but also attracted the interest of the USAAF.
It is a single-engine,unpressurized,retractable gear,four-seat aircraft.It was later built by Ryan Aeronautical Company and the Tubular Steel Corporation (TUSCO).

The Army Air Force ordered 83 of the NA-154 version,designated the L-17A,to be used as a liaison aircraft personnel and cargo carrier,and trainer for the university-based Reserve Officers Training Corps flight training program,35 of which were later converted to L-17C standard by the Schweizer Aircraft Company by fitting them with L-17B model features such as an auxiliary fuel tank.

Ryan Aeronautical Company bought the design in 1948,and built approximately 1,200 examples over the following three years.Ryan designated the aircraft the Navion A with a 205 hp Continental E-185-3 or -9 and,later,the Navion B with 260 hp engines of either the Lycoming GO-435-C2,or optionally the Continental IO-470 engine.The Navion A`s became the basis for the military L-17B.
 
TUSCO took over production of the Navion in the mid-1950s,manufacturing D, E and F models with a variety of enhancements including tip tanks and flush rivets.Navion Rangemaster aircraft were manufactured from 1961 to 1976.Their production followed that of earlier canopy-models.TUSCO also introduced the Navion Rangemaster G model in 1960,which incorporated all previous advancements,replaced the Navion's sliding canopy with a side door,enlarged the cabin,created five separate seats,and standardized use of tiptanks and larger,late-model Continental engines.

The last few Navions were manufactured by Navion Aircraft Company during a short production run ending in 1976 during one of several attempts to restore the airplane to commercial viability.As of 2010,many Navions are still flying and there is an active Navion owners community.On 18 March 2003 Sierra Hotel Aero Inc of South St. Paul, Minnesota purchased the type certificate.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on April 26, 2019, 05:40:07 PM
North American O-47

The North American O-47 is an American observation fixed-wing aircraft monoplane used by the United States Army Air Corps.It had a low-wing configuration,retractable landing gear,and a three-blade propeller.
The O-47 was developed as a replacement for the older biplane types such as the Douglas O-38,however it was larger and heavier than most preceding observation aircraft.It`s crew of three sat in tandem under the long canopy,it also had windows in the belly as the wings presented a problem to downward observation and photography.

Design for the XO-47 prototype originated as the GA-15 with General Aviation in 1934,it was a subsidiary of North American Aviation,it had a 850 hp Wright R-1820-41 engine.
The Air Corps ordered 174 O-47s in 1937 to 1938,roughly half of which were assigned to National Guard units.In 1938, the Army ordered 74 O-47Bs with a redesigned engine cowling for better cooling, an uprated engine,a 1,060 hp Wright R-1820-57 and improved radio equipment.

The O-47 was a heavy aircraft,it lacked manoeuvrability and during WWII single-engined aircraft like the Piper L-4 and Stinson L-5 proved more capable of operating with ground troops,while fighters and twin engine bombers showed greater ability to perform recon and photo duties.The O-47s during World War II,except for those caught at overseas bases by the Japanese attacks,were relegated to secondary duties such as towing targets,coastal patrol,and anti-submarine patrol.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on April 27, 2019, 08:53:29 PM
OT Timm N2T Tutor

The Timm N2T Tutor was a training monoplane built by the Timm Aircraft Corporation,founded by Otto Timm for the United States Navy as the N2T-1.
It was a conventional tandem open-cockpit monoplane trainer first flown on the 22 May 1940.Power was a 160 hp Kinner R-5 radial engine,the N2T was a low-wing cantilever monoplane with a tailwheel landing gear.

It had an unusual feature in that the airframe structure was made from resin,impregnated and molded plywood,creating a composite material stronger and lighter than plywood.This process was patented as the Nuyon process and marketed as the Aeromold process.
The PT-175-K variant was fitted with a Kinner R-53 engine,this was followed by the PT-220-C with a 220 hp Continental W-670-6 engine and larger tail.

It was evaluated by the USN,which ordered 262 aircraft in 1943 as the N2T-1,with only slight changes from the prototypes.The Navy nicknamed it "Tiny Timm.",the entire initial order was delivered in 1943 with no follow-on contract due to the military placing too many orders for Army and Navy trainers.

Although popular and relatively reliable,the N2T-1 was not built for long-term use,especially being made almost entirely of a wood based composite material that proved to be susceptible to decomposing.
N2Ts are preserved in U.S. museums including examples at the National Museum of Naval Aviation at NAS Pensacola, Florida and at the Air Zoo at Kalamazoo Municipal Airport,Michigan.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on April 28, 2019, 05:53:31 PM
Orenco D

The Orenco D was a biplane fighter aircraft,designed by Orenco and built by Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Company.It was the first fighter type of completely indigenous design to enter US military service.

The D prototype was offered to the US Army Air Service at the end of 1918.It was a two-bay biplane of all-wood construction,and fabric covered.It was powered by a 300 hp Hispano-Suiza engine which give it a top speed of around 140mph,it was armed by 2 × .30 in (7.6 mm) machine guns.Intial tests showed the aircraft had excellent handling and performance.

The military ordered 50 production aircraft,but put the production order up for bidding.Curtiss Aircraft entered the lowest bid and built the fighter,modifying it slightly with a wider wingspan and redesigned ailerons.The first Curtiss Orenco D flew on 26 August 1921.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on April 29, 2019, 06:42:36 PM
On Mark Marksman

The On Mark Marksman was a high-speed civil executive aircraft converted from surplus Douglas A-26 Invader airframes.They also produced the On Mark Executive and the On Mark Marketeer.The first conversions mainly involved the removal of military equipment and replacement with fairings and civil avionics, sealing of the bomb bay doors, soundproofing, and additional cabin windows.

In 1957 the company had developed a major modification that replaced the "carry-through" section of the rear wing spar with a circumferential steel "ring spar" that freed the fuselage space for better passenger accommodation and cockpit access.Other major improvements included a broad-chord metal-skinned rudder,Douglas DC-6 wheels and brakes, an APU,autopilot and additional fuel tanks inside the wing and the addition of wingtip tanks.It also had an extended fiberglass nose for baggage (or a radar) which increased the overall length by about 26".

Further development continued into the 1960s into what became the On Mark Marksman.The major difference was the addition of full pressurization.Improvements were also made to the cockpit with the incorporation of Douglas DC-6 flat glass windscreens and cockpit side windows.A replacement fuselage roof structure was added from the new windscreens,tapering back to the original tail section.By 1963, six Marksman conversions had been carried out for civil customers, the final seventh and eighth being a special purpose version with terrain-following radar and a cargo-dropping hatch for low level air-drops,designed by and delivered to CIA-associated companies.(Sssh!)

Between June and October 1967,the first of two aircraft,conducted low level nighttime supply drops to CIA related forces in Laos during the so-called "Secret War". The program was discontinued because the aircraft was too fast for accurate drops even with the special onboard equipment,and looked too much like a type of strike aircraft known to operate in the area.This was cited as often causing forces on the ground to be wary of turning on their marking lamps.The aircraft was damaged on takeoff at Takhli Royal Thai Air Force Base after being transferred to Overseas Aeromarine, Inc.

In the end,both aircraft were handed over to the 1198th Operational Evaluation and Training (OT&E) Squadron at Norton Air Force Base,California,a unit known for alleged participation in agent dropping and other clandestine missions in Southeast Asia eg (Project Heavy Chain).The Squadron evaluated the two Marksman,but apparently found no use for them and scrapped both aircraft,which suffered from a chronic Invader issue of nose gear failure.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: smudge on April 29, 2019, 07:02:01 PM
Oh how I lusted after the Marksman as a Small Smudge...  those huge props and svelte fuselage. 

One oddity I remember was that it could be loaded with full fuel, all five passengers and maximum payload and still be below its structural maximum weight.  Probably unique in aviation history!
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on April 30, 2019, 08:04:25 PM
Paramount Cabinaire

The Paramount Cabinaire was a 1920s designed cabin biplane, designed by Walter J.Carr.The prototype Cabinaire was formed around a welded steel tube Travel Air 2000 fuselage modified for an enclosed cabin.A new center section of wing was added and Travel air wings were reinstalled onto the center sections.The upper wing was modified and mounted several inches above the enclosed cabin.

The biplane aircraft featured a radial engine, and conventional landing gear.The upscale cabin used two individual upholstered wicker seats in the front and a wicker bench seat for passengers. The interior used velor finishing, nickel plating, mohair rugs, mahogany panels and roll-down windows.Each production model differed slightly from each other with choices of engines, and landing gear and aileron improvements.

In 1929, Viola Gentry and Jack Ashcroft attempted an endurance record for flight with aerial refueling in a modified Cabinaire SN#5 named The Answer.The name was chosen in response to the Army aircraft that had completed previous endurance records, the Question Mark.Just a tad sarcastic!
The aircraft had a 55-gallon cabin tank, and 21 gallon wing tanks installed for the attempt.The Answer crew was unable to refuel after the first ten hours of flight due to fog and crashed 28 June 1929, killing Ashcroft.

In 1930, a Cabinaire was entered in the 4814 mile long Ford National Reliability Air Tour, placing 15th out of 18.The same aircraft has been restored and was still flown in 2011.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on May 01, 2019, 07:02:37 PM
Pazmany PL-1/PL-2

The Pazmany PL-1 Laminar and Pazmany PL-2 are US two-seat trainer and personal light aircraft, designed by Ladislao Pazmany to be marketed as a homebuilt aircraft by his company Pazmany Aircraft Corporation.

The PL-1 Laminar was the first design,the prototype first flew on the 23 March 1962.It is a cantilever low-wing monoplane with a fixed tricycle landing gear.It has side-by-side seating for a crew of two and is powered by a 95 hp Continental C-90 piston engine.The Aerospace Industrial Development Corporation (AIDC) acquired plans and built a PL-1 for evaluation with a first flight on 26 October 1968.
AIDC then built 58 aircraft designated the PL-1B for the Republic of China Air Force and fitted with a 150 hp Avco Lycoming O-320 engine.

The PL-2 which had a slight increase in cockpit width and changes to the structure to make it`s construction easier for homebuilders.The PL-2 was evaluated by a number of air forces in south-east Asia. It was built under license in Indonesia as the Lipnur LT-200.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on May 02, 2019, 06:34:17 PM
Piper PA-14 Family Cruiser

The Piper PA-14 Family Cruiser is a small touring aircraft of the late 1940s.
In 1947,the PA-12 design was adapted to a four-seat layout by widening the cabin at the instrument panel and adding slotted flaps.The original high-wing and fixed tailwheel undercarriage layout features remained.The PA-14 prototype made its first flight from the company's Lock Haven Pennsylvania factory on 21 March 1947.
A second PA-14 was completed on 6 February 1948 and the first deliveries were made later that year.Powerplant was a Lycoming O-235-C1 air-cooled flat four, of 115 hp

238 examples were completed,mainly sold to private owner pilots in the United States,but overseas sales included several to France.The aircraft was launched at a time of serious financial difficulty for the company,soon after the release of the Family Cruiser, Piper was placed in receivership, from which it later successfully emerged.
126 examples remained registered in the US in April 2011, of which 81 were based in Alaska and 13 aircraft were registered in Canada.Some were fitted with floats.                 
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on May 03, 2019, 04:36:58 PM
Piper-PA-28R-300 Pillán

The PA-28R-300 Pillán was developed by Piper Aircraft as a two-seat military trainer for assembly in Chile,based on a PA-32R fuselage with a new center-section and stronger wing stressed for aerobatics.The first prototype designated XBT first flew on 6 March 1981 and was followed by a second prototype,designated YBT.

The second prototype first flew on 31 August 1981 and was then delivered to Chile.The prototype XBT was delivered in January 1982 but was written off on 10 March 1982.
Production of kits at Vero Beach commenced with three pre-production kits which were delivered for assembly in Chile,then it produced 120 kits for assembly again in Chile, for the Chilean and Spanish Air Force.
The first production aircraft was delivered by ENAER to the Chilean Air Force Air Academy in August 1985, the Spanish aircraft were assembled in Spain by CASA.

Apart from a small number of turbine powered aircraft, all Pilláns were powered by a 300 hp Textron Lycoming AEIO-540-K1K5 six cylinder horizontally opposed piston engine.
Performance is 192mph max sea level speed,and a cruise of 165mph,in 1985 a turboprop variant was developed by ENAER as the T-35A Aucan.

Spain and Chile are the main operator of the type,but it is also in use with several South American Air Arms, but only in small numbers.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: smudge on May 03, 2019, 10:06:14 PM
Piper-PA-28R-300

The Spanish air force name for the type translates as 'sieve' because it sifts potential pilots from no-hopers.  Always seemed a bit blunt to me!

Ah the word finally came back to me: Tamiz
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on May 04, 2019, 04:21:09 PM
In Mapuche which is spoken in south-central Chile and west central Argentina,it means volcano or ancestral spirit--that would make more sense. :-)
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on May 04, 2019, 04:39:46 PM
Piper PA-35 Pocono

The Piper PA-35 Pocono was a 16/18 seat commuter airliner developed in the late 1960s.
Piper started the design work in 1965 for a twin-engined piston non-pressurized commuter airliner and the prototype first flew on 13 May 1968.It was a low-wing monoplane that was intended to be powered by two 475 hp Lycoming TIO-720-B1A piston engines, but during development the tail area was increased, the fuselage stretched and the engines uprated to 520 hp variants.

Development was stopped in 1969 initially to let the company develop other aircraft, but the halt was also influenced by the lack of a suitable engine and a number of third-level airline operators in the US going out of business.In 1970 the company proposed a four-engined and a turboprop version, but they were not developed.

In 1978 a cooperation program between Piper and WSK Mielec (Poland) was planned.As part of this one fuselage with wings was transported from Florida to Poland and a team of designers was assembled at the R&D Center in Mielec.The program was named M-19,but the program was abandoned when the An-28 program was launched in Mielec and the PA-35 fuselage was moved to the city of Widełka.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on May 05, 2019, 08:01:21 PM
Piper PA-48 Enforcer

The Piper PA-48 Enforcer is a turboprop-powered light close air support aircraft built by Piper in the 1970s. It is a development of the World War II-era North American P-51 Mustang fighter.The concept was originally created and flown as the Cavalier Mustang by David Lindsay, owner of Cavalier Aircraft, in response to the USAF PAVE COIN program, but Cavalier did not have the manufacturing abilities to mass-produce the Enforcer, so the program was sold to Piper by Lindsay in 1970.

Cavalier initially mated a Rolls-Royce Dart 510 turboprop to a Mustang II airframe.This privately funded prototype was also intended for the same CAS/COIN mission that the Mustang II was built for.

In 1971, Piper built two Enforcers by heavily modifying two existing Mustang airframes, fitting them with Lycoming YT55-L-9A turboprop engines along with numerous other significant modifications. One airframe was a single seat (called the PE-1 and FAA registered as N201PE), the other a dual-control aircraft (the PE-2, registered N202PE). Prior to the Pave COIN evaluation, N202PE was lost in a crash off the Florida coast on 12 July 1971 due to flutter caused by a Piper-modified elevator trim tab. Although the Enforcer performed well in the 1971–1972 Pave COIN test flown by USAF pilots, Piper failed to secure a USAF contract.

In 1984, with a $US12 million appropriation from Congress, Piper built two new Enforcers, giving the new prototypes the designation PA-48.These aircraft were evaluated by the USAF, but flown only by Piper test pilots.
By the time the PA-48s were completed, they shared less than 10 percent of their structure with the P-51,and were longer and larger.
The two PA-48s were tested during 1983 and 1984 at Eglin Air Force Base,and Edwards Air Force Base.As in the Pave COIN tests of 1971, the PA-48s were found to perform well in their intended role, but the Air Force again decided not to purchase the aircraft.

Two still exist,in 2014, PA-48 N482PE completed restoration and is on display at the Air Force Flight Test Museum at Edwards Air Force Base.N481PE has been fully restored and is currently in storage at the National Museum of the United States Air Force at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on May 06, 2019, 10:02:06 PM
Piper PA-47 PiperJet

The Piper PA-47 PiperJet was a single-engined very light jet (VLJ) that was intended to be developed and built by Piper,however following a change of ownership at Piper, it was decided to redesign the aircraft into the PiperJet Altaire.

The PiperJet was announced in October 2006,as a competitor to the Eclipse 500 and Cessna Citation Mustang.The aircraft's fuselage was the same cross section as the propeller-driven Piper PA-46 series, with a 4 feet increase in length.It was to be capable of carrying up to 7 passengers and cruise at 360 knots at a maximum altitude of 35,000 feet Maximum range was expected to be 1,300 nautical miles with a full-fuel payload of 800 pounds.Piper selected Williams International to supply its FJ44-3AP turbofan engine for the PiperJet.

Due to the engine being mounted above the center of gravity,addition of power would push the nose down,Piper designers incorporated an automatic pitch trim system to coordinate horizontal stabilizer angle of incidence with power setting.This system was later replaced by a vectored thrust nozzle,developed by Williams International, which resulted in reduced weight and simplified manufacturing processes.
Piper announced that it had received 180 pre-orders.An entry-into-service date of early 2010 was initially anticipated,later changed to 2011-12.In October 2009 the company indicated that it had delayed the delivery of the first customer aircraft to mid-2013 and had informed depositors.

The PiperJet did not enter production and in October 2010 Piper announced it would instead develop an aircraft with a larger circular-section fuselage known as the Piper PiperJet Altaire.The 160 customers who had placed orders for the PiperJet retained their delivery positions with the new aircraft and at the same price. On 24 October 2011, despite the Altaire's development being "on schedule and on budget", the program was indefinitely suspended by Piper due to economic issues, with the company laying off a number of workers who had been assigned to the project.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on May 07, 2019, 06:53:31 PM
Quest Kodiak

The Quest Kodiak is an US utility aircraft featuring a high-wing,unpressurized,a single-engine turboprop with a fixed tricycle landing gear and is suitable for STOL operations from unimproved airfields.
Design began in 1999,it made its maiden flight on October 16, 2004 and was certified on 31 May 2007 before first delivery in January 2008.

The aircraft can accommodate 10 people.It features short-field capability and good useful load,with its STOL performance coming from a fixed, discontinuous leading edge on the outboard wing and the 750 hp Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-34 turboprop engine.Passenger seats are track-mounted and removable, it has access doors for the pilots and the aft clamshell door, with automatic steps, allows cargo loading or eight passengers boarding.The Kodiak's aluminum fuselage can be repaired in the field and offers a 54 in × 57 in (137 cm × 145 cm) cargo door.

In June 2010, Wipaire, Inc. was granted certification allowing Wipline 7000 Amphibious Floats to be installed on Kodiaks.In November of that same year it was also certified for flight into known icing after the installation of a TKS system,which protects exposed surfaces via glycol-based fluids.
The Kodiak is bigger than the DHC-2 Beaver, but smaller than the DHC-3 Otter or Cessna Caravan. It has more power than the older deHavillands and takes off in less space than the Caravan.

The first Kodiak was delivered to launch customer Spirit Air in January 2008.By September 2013, 100 Kodiaks had been built, with the 100th aircraft being delivered to US operator Sunstate Aviation.
The 200th aircraft was delivered in December 2016 for a record yearly production of 36 Kodiaks, while the production facility was extended by 25 percent in September to cope with growing demand.
The 250th was delivered in 2018, as the highest time aircraft surpassed 5,000 hours.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on May 08, 2019, 05:49:37 PM
Rans S-9 Chaos

The Rans S-9 Chaos is a US single-engined, tractor configuration, single-seat, mid-wing monoplane designed by Randy Schlitter in 1986 for aerobatics.
The idea was for an inexpensive aerobatic aircraft that will allow sportsman competition aerobatics to be flown or even advanced aerobatics if inverted fuel and oil systems are installed.The Chaos is also a capable cross country aircraft.

The S-9 features a welded 4130 steel tube cockpit, with a bolted aluminum tube rear fuselage. All fuselage, wing and tail surfaces are covered in dope and fabric. The reported construction time is 500 hours.The basic engine is the Rotax 503 of 50 hp, with the Rotax 582 of 64 hp and the Hirth 3701 of 100 hp available as options.
The S-10 Sakota aerobatic two-seater was later developed from the S-9,there were 215 S-9s built and flown by December 2011.Two are based in the UK.

Pic from abpics
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on May 09, 2019, 06:13:10 PM
Rans S-19 Venterra

The Rans S-19 Venterra is a single-engined,tractor configuration,two-seats in side-by-side config,low-wing monoplane designed by Randy Schlitter as a light-sport aircraft.
The S-19 is an aluminum semi-monocoque design, with stressed skin construction supported with bulkheads, formers and stringers.The fuselage, wing and tail surfaces are covered in sheet aluminum.

It has tricycle landing gear with a fully castering nosewheel and steering via differential main wheel braking.The standard engine is the Rotax 912ULS of 100 hp allowing a cruise speed of 128mph.The Venterra is available as a complete factory-built aircraft and in kit form for amateur construction.

Around 40 have been built so far,mainly US registered,but there is one on the UK register.G-SXIX
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: smudge on May 09, 2019, 06:26:13 PM
Well that's a lot prettier than the Coyote...
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on May 10, 2019, 06:29:22 PM
Rud Aero RA-3

The RA-3 is a single engine two-seat,side-by-side configuration,low wing,tricycle gear of composite construction.The aircraft is built using carbon fiber throughout.
It has a cambered training wing that can be exchanged for a constant chord symmetrical wing for advanced aerobatic training.
The aircraft is designed to operate as an FAR Part 21.24 aircraft, with future modifications to meet American LSA standards.

Powerplant is a Lycoming IO-360 Horizontally opposed piston aircraft engine of 180 hp.Maximum speed is 150mph,with a cruise speed of 135mph.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on May 11, 2019, 05:06:58 PM
Rutan VariViggen

The Rutan VariViggen is a homebuilt aircraft designed by Burt Rutan.The aircraft is a tandem two-seater of primarily wooden construction with a delta wing and a canard foreplane.The prototype was designated Model 27, and the production version was Model 32.

The VariViggen was named after the Swedish fighter,the Saab 37 Viggen.Rutan became interested in aircraft which resisted stalls and spins,and the VariViggen was his first full scale design.After four years of work, the aircraft made its first flight in April, 1972.In order to increase efficiency, the Model 32 (also known as the VariViggen SP) had a slightly longer fuselage, a larger wingspan and winglets.It is powered by a 150 hp Lycoming O-320 aero engine in pusher configuration.

The Rutan Aircraft Factory sold 600 plan sets for the VariViggen to homebuilders,eventually only about 20 of the aircraft were built.Following the crash of one in New Brunswick, Canada in September 2006 due to wing tank fuel contamination,fewer than five are currently still flying.The prototype aircraft, N27VV, was donated to the EAA AirVenture Museum in 1988.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on May 12, 2019, 06:46:13 PM
Rutan Defiant

The Rutan Model 40 Defiant is a four-seat,twin-engine aircraft with the engines in a push-pull configuration.
The prototype Defiant, N78RA, was first flown on 30 June 1978.It had been intended as a proof-of-concept of a very safe light twin design, requiring little trim change and no pilot action in case of engine failure,and with good single engine performance.

In 1979 the Rutan Aircraft Factory announced they would proceed with certification of a Defiant-based light twin.Adequate financing was not secured for this project,and the design was modified for homebuilt construction as the Model 74.

Powerplant is 2 × Lycoming O-320,of 160 hp each,giving a max speed of 210mph.The Defiant is built using fiberglass layup over Styrofoam core shapes in the same manner as the Rutan VariEze. The main gear is fixed, and there are no flaps. The Propellers are fixed-pitch non-feathering.176 sets of plans were purchased before RAF discontinued selling them in 1985.Nineteen are registered with the FAA as of 2005.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on May 13, 2019, 05:40:12 PM
Rutan Model 72 Grizzly

The Rutan Model 72 Grizzly is a tandem-wing STOL research aircraft.
It is a composite-construction aircraft featuring three lifting surfaces:A front wing with approximately half the span of the main wing and a classical cruciform empennage. Front and main wings are connected by a pair of struts with square cross-section which also serve as fuel tanks.Both wings carry flaps on part of their span for STOL.

The Grizzly is intended for use as a bush plane with unique safety and comfort, the four-seater could be used by two persons as a camper for back-country activities with its seats folded to become a 6 ft long bed. A planned amphibian version of the Grizzly was never realized.

The unusual undercarriage has four low-pressure,small-diameter main-wheels,on two cantilever spring struts,with a spring mounted tail-wheel assembly.The four-seat cabin is completely enclosed with a combination of flat, squared and outward-bulged tear-drop shaped windows.It`s first flight was on 22 January 1982 and lasted over two hours.
Powerplant is 1 × Lycoming O-360B 4-cylinder air-cooled horizontally-opposed piston engine,180 hp.
After completion of testing the Grizzly was donated to the EAA AirVenture Museum, Oshkosh in 1997
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on May 14, 2019, 06:40:03 PM
Republic P-43 Lancer

The Republic P-43 Lancer was a single-engine,all-metal,low-wing monoplane fighter,first delivered to the United States Army Air Corps in 1940.
The Seversky Aircraft Company,which in 1939 changed its name to Republic,constructed a range of private venture,one-off variants of its P-35 design,featuring different powerplants and enhancements,from which the P-43 was derived.

The YP-43 prototype was powered by an R-1830-35 14-cylinder air-cooled radial engine with a General Electric B-2 turbo-supercharger generating 1,200 hp and driving a three-blade variable-pitch propeller.Armament consisted of two synchronized .50 in (12.7 mm) machine guns in the cowl and a single .30 in (7.62 mm) machine gun in each wing.

The first of 13 YP-43s was delivered in September 1940, the last in April 1941.Early testing revealed a strong tendency to yaw during takeoff and landing rolls,fixed by redesigning the tailwheel.Although the aircraft exceeded the initial USAAC performance requirements,by 1941 it was clearly obsolete.The USAAC felt the basic P-35/P-43 design had run it`s course for further improvement in performance and shifted its interest to the new promising P-47.

Due to delays with the P-47,it was decided to order 54 P-43s to keep the Republic production lines operating. An additional 125 P-43A-1s were ordered for China through the Lend-Lease program, originally intended to equip the Third American Volunteer Group (AVG). These initially differed in the Air Materiel Command specification from earlier P-43s in being armed with two 0.50 in machine guns in each wing and no fuselage guns, and having basic armor and fuel tank protection.By 1942, a total of 272 P-43s were built, including all its variants, a remarkable number considering the original intention was to not build any.

The Lend-Lease aircraft were delivered to China through Claire Chennault's American Volunteer Group, the Flying Tigers.The P-43 performed poorly in combat in the hands of the Chinese Air Force against Japan due to its great vulnerability;it was replaced by other types in early 1944. 
The aircraft that were not sent to China were modified for photo-reconn duties or training.Eight P-43s (four P-43A-1s and four P-43Ds) were loaned to the Royal Australian Air Force in 1942 and served with No. 1 Photo Reconnaissance Unit.The RAAF flew many long range, high-altitude photo reconnaissance missions before the six survivors were returned to the USAAF in 1943.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on May 15, 2019, 08:47:47 PM
Republic XF-12 Rainbow

The Republic XF-12 Rainbow was a four-engine, all-metal prototype reconnaissance aircraft designed in the 1940`s.
The proposal was for a reconnaissance aircraft which included a requirement for speed (400 mph), ceiling (40,000 ft), and range (4,000 nmi).It`s primary objective was for high-speed overflights of the Japanese homeland and key enemy installations.During World War II, due to the extended range requirements of operating in the Pacific, existing fighters and bombers were being used for missions for which they were never intended. The need existed for an aircraft specifically designed for the photo-reconnaissance mission with adequate speed, range, and altitude capabilities for its missions to be successful.

The XF-12's first flight was made on 4 February 1946.During the flight testing and development period,it demonstrated the capability of operating at 45,000 feet (14,000 m), at a speed of 470 mph (760 km/h), over a range of 4,500 mi (7,200 km), so it met and exceeded the design goals for which it had been designed.
It was powered by four of the new Pratt & Whitney R-4360-31 Wasp Major 28-cyl. four-row air-cooled radial piston engines,of 3,250 hp each.
The original design called for contra-rotating propellers,due to the added complexity and reliability issues,the propellers were never installed.The aircraft used standard four-bladed Curtiss Electric propellers for all flights.

The USAF canceled the entire XF-12 program in late 1948.The primary reason for its demise was the availability of both Boeing B-29 Superfortress and B-50 types to meet the long-range photo-reconnaissance requirement.
Republic had intended to also build an airline version of the aircraft to be known as the RC-2.This variant was supposed to be a "stretched" version of the XF-12, growing in length from 93 ft 9 in to 98 ft 9 in, with the addition of a fuselage "plug" in front of the wing.Also the complex Plexiglas nose section was supposed to be replaced with a solid metal nose,changes to the engines and superchargers were also included in the civil design.

Had the XF-12 Rainbow been available in 1944,it almost inevitably would have been ordered in quantity,and along with its civilian counterpart, the whole postwar structure of aircraft markets might have been altered. As it was, the XF-12 disappeared into oblivion, despite its graceful lines and high performance.
It`s high speed, near-perfect streamlined form, and neatly cowled engines make it a design classic, often unappreciated, and not very well known. The XF-12 was the fastest, four engine pure piston-powered aircraft of its day, and the only one ever to exceed 450 mph in level flight.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on May 16, 2019, 08:40:02 PM
Republic XF-84H Thunderscreech

The Republic XF-84H "Thunderscreech" was an experimental turboprop aircraft derived from the F-84F Thunderstreak. Powered by a turbine engine that was mated to a supersonic propeller, the XF-84H had the potential of setting the unofficial air speed record for propeller-driven aircraft.
The USAF Wright Air Development Center was the key sponsor of the Republic Project 3347 turboprop fighter, the initial inception came from a U.S. Navy requirement for a carrier fighter not requiring catapult assistance.Originally known as XF-106,the project and its resultant prototype aircraft were redesignated XF-84H.

A projected contract for three prototypes was scrubbed when the US Navy cancelled its order,the remaining XF-84H prototypes became pure research aircraft built for the Air Force’s Propeller Laboratory at Wright-Patterson AFB to test supersonic propellers.
The XF-84H was created by modifying a F-84F airframe, installing a 5,850 hp Allison XT40-A-1 turboprop engine in a centrally-located housing behind the cockpit with a long extension shaft to the nose-mounted propeller.The turbine engine also provided thrust through its exhaust; an afterburner which could further increase power to 7,230 hp was installed but never used.

It was destabilized by the powerful torque from the propeller, as well as inherent problems with supersonic propeller blades. A number of exotic blade configurations were tested before settling on a final design.
First flown on July 22, 1955, the XF-84F had incredible acceleration but soon its impracticality was discovered.It was unsuited to combat due to the engine's 30 minute warm up time but the most serious concerns were vibration generated from the 12-foot propeller diameter and mechanical failures of the prop pitch gearing.

Lin Hendrix, one of the Republic test pilots assigned to the program, flew the aircraft once and refused to ever fly it again, claiming "You aren't big enough and there aren't enough of you to get me in that thing again".Test pilot Hank Beaird took the XF-84H up 11 times, with 10 of these flights ending in forced landings.

The XF-84H was almost certainly the loudest aircraft ever built, earning the nickname "Thunderscreech" as well as the "Mighty Ear Banger".On the ground "run ups", the prototypes could reportedly be heard 25 miles away.Unlike standard propellers that turn at subsonic speeds, the outer 24–30 inches (61–76 cm) of the blades on the XF-84H's propeller traveled faster than the speed of sound even at idle thrust.The aircraft was notorious for inducing severe nausea and headaches among ground crews.In one report, a Republic engineer suffered a seizure after close range exposure to the shock waves emanating from a powered-up XF-84H.

Engine and equipment failures coupled with the inability to reach design speeds and subsequent instability experienced were insurmountable problems, the USAF cancelled the program in September 1956.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on May 17, 2019, 06:16:27 PM
Taylorcraft F-19 Sportsman

The Taylorcraft Model F-19 Sportsman is a two-seat cabin monoplane designed and built by Taylorcraft Aircraft as the first new product of the reformed Taylorcraft Aviation Company.

C.G. Taylor and his brother formed the Taylor Brothers Aviation Corporation in 1929,it had produced several thousand light single-engines by the time it went bankrupt in 1946. It emerged in 1947 as Taylorcraft Inc. and produced light airplanes until 1958, when it ceased production.
In 1968 a new company, Taylorcraft Aviation Corporation, was formed, primarily to provide support for the thousands of airplanes still operational.

In 1973 the company geared up to produce an updated Taylorcraft B, now named the Model F-19 Sportsman.It was similar to the Model B but incorporated more power,and better performance.Production continued until early 1980, when the company chose to switch to the higher-powered Model F-21.
Powerplant was 1 × Continental O-200 of 100 hp,giving a max speed of 127mph and a cruise speed of 115mph with a range of 400 miles.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on May 21, 2019, 03:31:37 PM
Due to a line fault, I have had no tinterweb since Saturday morning, 3x KN vans just away after much fiddling and gadget testing.

Hopefully normal service will resume shortly.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on May 21, 2019, 05:38:47 PM
Taylorcraft Ranch Wagon

The Taylorcraft Model 20 Ranch Wagon was a four-seat cabin monoplane designed as a development of the earlier experimental Model 18.
It`s construction  was  of moulded fibreglass over a tubular framework.It had a conventional landing gear and powerplant was a nose-mounted 225 hp Continental O-470-J engine,which was sufficent to give a max speed of 160mph and a 150mph cruise.

It came in four main versions,

Model 20 Ranch Wagon   Utility model powered by a 225hp Continental O-470-J engine.
Model 20 Zephyr 400      Tourer variant of 1958 with detailed changes from the basic Model 20.
Model 20AG Topper        Agricultural variant. Chemical hopper or tank in rear of cabin.
Model 20 Seabird            Floatplane variant.

Approx 40 were built.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on May 22, 2019, 09:20:27 PM
VanGrunsven RV-1

The RV-1 is a Stits Playboy that was constructed with modifications by Richard VanGrunsven.The aircraft was the first of a series of Van's aircraft that became popular homebuilt aircraft.

The first RV-1 was a Stits SA-3A completed on 3 October 1965.It is a single seat strut-braced, low-wing aircraft with conventional landing gear. The engine was upgraded from the normally-fitted 65 hp powerplant to a 125 hp Lycoming O-290G.The resulting aircraft had good performance,but a high landing speed.On 16 August 1965,the aircraft was registered as an RV-1.

Other modifications included a new aluminum wing with flaps,and a bubble canopy.The fuselage uses welded steel tube construction in contrast to the RV series that followed which uses all-aluminum fuselage construction.The flaps reduced the stall speed to 50 mph. A second series of modifications included a more streamlined cowling, wheel pants and modified horizontal tail surfaces.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on May 23, 2019, 06:23:31 PM
Van's Aircraft RV-9

The Van's RV-9 and RV-9A are two-seat, single-engine, low-wing homebuilt airplanes sold in kit form.The RV-9 is the tail-wheel equipped version while the RV-9A features a nose-wheel.

The RV-9 was designed from the start as a two-seater, side-by-side, touring aircraft and as such it forgoes the aerobatic capabilities and the lighter handling for more stability and economy.Design horsepower is 118-160 and the prototype was flown with a Lycoming O-235 powerplant of 118 hp as a proof-of-concept.
Compared to the similar RV-7, the RV-9 has a wing of increased span and higher aspect ratio using a Roncz airfoil. The RV-9 has a slow stall speed, and docile handling suitable for low-time pilots.Cruise speed is 167 mph even with the 118 hp engine.

The RV-9 is unique in Van’s aircraft history in that the tricycle gear RV-9A version was flown first on June 15, 2000, three years before the tail wheel version flew. The later conventional landing gear equipped RV-9 was first flown by its designer in 2002. The RV-9A features solid circular spring steel landing gear, the aircraft is steered with differential braking.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on May 24, 2019, 07:29:53 PM
Viking SF-2A Cygnet

The Viking SF-2A Cygnet, also called the Sisler SF-2A Cygnet and the HAPI SF-2A Cygnet, is a STOL amateur-built aircraft,designed by Bert Sisler and produced by Viking Aircraft LLC.The aircraft is supplied in the form of plans for amateur construction.

It is a development of the earlier Sisler SF-2 Whistler introduced in 1973.The design features a strut-braced shoulder-wing, a two-seats-side-by-side configuration enclosed cockpit under a bubble canopy, fixed conventional landing gear and a single engine in tractor configuration.
The aircraft's recommended engine power range is 60 to 82 hp and standard engines used include the 82 hp Volkswagen four-stroke powerplant.Construction time from the supplied kit is estimated as 1700–1800 hours.The aircraft is made from wood, 4130 steel tubing and covered in doped aircraft fabric.

In July 2016 a total of 19 SF-2A Cygnets were registered in the US with the FAA,four with Transport Canada and seven with the CAA in the United Kingdom.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on May 25, 2019, 06:32:04 PM
Vought FU-1 / FU-2

The Vought FU was a biplane fighter aircraft in service with the USN during the late 1920s.
 
In 1926 the Navy gave Vought a contract for 20 convertible land/sea fighters.Vought already had a two-seat observation plane, the UO-1, basically a VE with additional fuselage streamlining and a Wright J-3 radial engine.This was made into a fighter by closing one cockpit and adding machine guns, and upgrading to a 220 hp Wright R-790 Whirlwind with a supercharger.
The newly designated FU-1 was able to reach a speed of 147 mph at 13,000 ft.

The FU-1s were delivered to VF-2B based in San Diego, California.One was assigned to each of the battleships of the Pacific Fleet, where they were launched from catapults. They spent eight months in this role, but as the squadron went to aircraft carrier operations, the further-aft cockpit proved to have a visibility problem when maneuvering around a carrier deck.In response,the forward cockpit was re-opened,the resulting aircraft being designated FU-2.

As well as the USN,the Peruvian Air Force and Navy operated two aircraft each.Twenty aircraft were built in total.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on May 26, 2019, 04:37:34 PM
Vought SBU Corsair

The Vought SBU-1 Corsair was a two-seat, all-metal biplane dive bomber, built for the USN.
The aircraft was equipped with a closed cockpit, had fixed landing gear, and was powered by a Pratt & Whitney R-1535 700hp radial air-cooled engine, as had the F3U-1, but also included a controllable pitch propeller and a new NACA cowl with adjustable cowling gills on the trailing edge of the cowl.
The adjustable cowling gills permitted better control of cooling airflow over the engine.Max speed was 205mph, with a cruising speed of a more sedate 122mph.

Armament consisted of 1 x fixed forward firing 0.30in Browning machine gun, and 1 x 0.30inch rear firing machine gun in the rear cockpit,it could also carry a 500lb bomb.
It`s first flight was in May 1933,the SBU-1 completed flight tests in 1934 and went into production under a contract awarded in January 1935.The Corsair was the first aircraft of its type, a scout bomber, to fly faster than 200 mph. The last SBU Corsairs were retired from active service in 1941, being reassigned as trainers.

As well as being operated by the USN,the type also served with the Argentine Navy,125 aircraft were built.The name "Corsair" was used several times by Vought's planes; the O2U/O3U, SBU, F4U, and the A-7 Corsair II.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on May 27, 2019, 05:28:49 PM
Vought F6U Pirate

The Vought F6U Pirate was the Vought company's first jet fighter,designed for US Navy during the mid-1940s.The XF6U was a small aircraft with tricycle landing gear and with straight wings and tail surfaces.The wings were short enough that they did not need to fold.

The most unusual feature of the aircraft was its use of "Metalite" for its skin,made of balsa,sandwiched between two thin sheets of aluminum. "Fabrilite" was also used for the surfaces of the vertical stabilizer and rudder; this was similar to Metalite but used fiberglass instead of aluminum.Underneath the cockpit were four 20 mm (0.79 in) M3 autocannon.
After a company contest to name the aircraft,the initial prototype received the name Pirate and made its first flight on 2 October 1946.Flight tests revealed severe aerodynamic problems,mainly caused by the airfoil section and thickness of the wing. The vertical stabilizer also had to be redesigned to smooth out the airflow at the intersection of the horizontal and vertical stabilizers.Other changes included the addition of dive brakes on the sides of the fuselage and the replacement of the Metalite panels near the engine exhaust with stainless steel ones.

To improve the lacklustre performance, the 3rd prototype,which first flew on 10 Nov 1947,was lengthened by 8 feet to use a Westinghouse J34-WE-30 afterburning engine of 4,224 lbf thrust,the first USN fighter to have such a powerplant.
Before the flight testing of the prototypes was completed,30 production aircraft were ordered.They incorporated an ejection seat and a redesigned vertical stabilizer as well as two auxiliary fins.
The first production F6U-1 performed its initial flight on 29 June 1949,and 20 of the aircraft were provided to VX-3, an OES based at NAS Patuxent River.The judgment from the evaluation was that the Pirate was unacceptable for operational use.On 30 October 1950, BuAer informed Vought of the Navy's opinion of the Pirate "The F6U-1 had proven so sub-marginal in performance that combat utilization is not feasible.".

The 30 production aircraft had only a total of 945 hours of flight time,31.5 hrs each.Some aircraft flew only 6 hrs which was enough for little more than their acceptance flight and the flight to their disposition.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on May 28, 2019, 04:09:57 PM
Vought F7U Cutlass

The Vought F7U Cutlass is a USN carrier-based jet fighter and fighter-bomber of the early Cold War era. Allegedly based on aerodynamic data and plans captured from the German Arado company at the end of World War II, though Vought designers denied any link to the German research at the time.It`s first flight was 29th Sept 1948.

Former Messerschmitt AG senior designer Waldemar Voigt, who supervised the development of numerous experimental jet fighters in Nazi Germany, contributed to its design with his experience in the development of the Messerschmitt P.1110 and P.1112 projects.
The design featured low aspect ratio,swept wings,with twin wing-mounted tail fins either side of a short fuselage.The cockpit was situated well forward to provide good visibility for the pilot during aircraft carrier approaches.The design was given the company type number of V-346 and then the official designation of "F7U" when it was announced the winner of a USN competition.

The aircraft had all-hydraulic controls which provided artificial feedback so the pilot could feel aerodynamic forces acting on the plane.The hydraulic system was not ready for front-line service and was unreliable.
The F7U was also largely let down by its underpowered Westinghouse J34 turbojets,an engine that some pilots liked to say "put out less heat than Westinghouse's toasters." Naval aviators called the F7U the "Gutless Cutlass".None of the 14 F7U-1s built between 1950 and 1952 became approved to be used in squadron service.Test pilots found it a stable weapons platform, maneuverable, fun to fly and the strengthened airframe to be sturdy.Test pilots particularly praised its high roll rate at 570 degrees/s, three times faster than most production jets at the time.

The F7U's performance suffered due to a lack of sufficient engine thrust;its carrier landing and takeoff performance was notoriously poor.The J35 was known to flame out in rain, a very serious fault.
The first fleet squadron to receive F7Us was Fighter Squadron 81 (VF-81) in April 1954.Few squadrons made deployments with the type, and most "beached" them ashore during part of the cruise owing to operating difficulties.
The US.Navy Flight Demonstration Squadron, the Blue Angels, flew two F7U-1 Cutlasses as a side demonstration during their 1953 show season in an effort to promote the new aircraft,but did not use them as part of their regular formation demonstration.

During a flight to an airshow at Naval Air Station Glenview in Chicago, one of the two Blue Angels aircraft had an engine flameout  forcing the pilot to make an emergency landing at NAS Glenview.His wingman Lt Edward "Whitey" Feightner, was redirected to make his landing at Chicago's former Orchard Airpark, which had been expanded and renamed O'Hare Airport. The runway had just been completed and was covered with peach baskets to prevent aircraft from landing until it was opened. Feightner was told to ignore the baskets and land on the new runway. As a result, Feightner's F7U became the first aircraft to land on the new runway for Chicago's O'Hare International Airport.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on May 29, 2019, 08:29:10 PM
Vought SB2U Vindicator

The Vought SB2U Vindicator is a carrier-based dive bomber developed for the US Navy in the 1930s, the first monoplane in this role.
In 1934,the USN issued a requirement for a new monoplane Scout Bomber for carrier use,Vought submitted the XSB2U-1,a conventional low-wing monoplane configuration with a retractable tailwheel landing gear,the pilot and gunner being seated in tandem under a long greenhouse-style canopy.A Pratt & Whitney R-1535 Twin-Wasp Junior 750hp radial engine drove a two-blade constant-speed propeller, which was intended to act as a dive brake.A single 1,000 lb (450 kg) bomb could be carried on a swinging trapeze to allow it to clear the propeller in a steep dive, while further bombs could be carried under the wings to give a maximum bombload of 1,500 lb.

First flight was 4th Jan 1936,it was accepted for operational evaluation on 2 July 1936, the prototype XSB2U-1, BuNo 9725, crashed on 20 August 1936.However it`s successful completion of trials led to further orders.An export version for the French Navy was produced,it had an 825hp engine and was known as the the V-156-F,40 of this type were delivered and they saw action in the early part of WWII,but were outclassed by Luftwaffe aircraft.

Aside from the US Navy,the SB2U also served with the USMC,VMSB-131 and VMSB-241 were the only two USMC squadrons that fielded the Marine-specific SB2U-3 between March 1941 and September 1943. VMSB-241's Vindicators saw combat at the Battle of Midway in June 1942.

The Royal Navy's Fleet Air Arm,took over a French order for 50 V-156B-1 export versions similar to the SB2U-3 and powered by a 750hp R-1535-SB4-G engine,it was designated Chesapeake Mk.I,they were fitted with 4 x .303 forward firing machine guns.Fourteen Chesapeakes were used to equip a reformed 811 NAS on 14 July 1941 at RNAS Lee-on-Solent.The squadron crews referred to it as the "cheesecake", intended to use them for anti-submarine patrols, and they were earmarked for the escort carrier HMS Archer.
They were withdrawn from 811 Squadron in November 1941 for use as training aircraft and the unit was re-equipped with the biplane Fairey Swordfish.
 
There were 260 examples of all Vindicator variants produced, and a single example is preserved at the National Naval Aviation Museum at NAS Pensacola.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on May 30, 2019, 05:58:48 PM
Vought XF5U

The Vought XF5U "Flying Flapjack" was an experimental U.S. Navy fighter designed by Charles H. Zimmerman for Vought during World War II.The unorthodox design consisted of a flat,disc-shaped body serving as the lifting surface.Two piston engines buried in the body drove propellers located on the leading edge at the wingtips.

It was a much developed version of the original V-173 prototype,the XF5U-1 was a larger aircraft.With an all-metal construction, it was almost five times heavier, with two 1,600 hp P & W R-2000 radial engines.The unusual configuration was designed to create a low aspect ratio aircraft with low takeoff and landing speeds but high top speed.
The XF5U attempted to overcome the tip vortex problem using the propellers to actively cancel the drag-causing tip vortices.The propellers are arranged to rotate in the opposite direction to the tip vortices,the aim being retaining the higher-pressure air below the wing.With this source of drag eliminated, the aircraft would fly with a much smaller wing area, and the small wing would yield high maneuverability with greater structural strength.

An ejection seat was fitted to allow the pilot to clear the massive propellers in the event of an in-flight emergency.Although the prototype was unarmed, a combination of machine guns and cannons would have been installed under the nose.The XF5U design was promising,however,it came at the time when the USN was switching to jet propelled aircraft.By 1946,the project was already long over its expected development time,and well over budget.

The Navy finally canceled the project on 17 March 1947,the prototype aircraft (V-173) was transferred to the Smithsonian Museum for display.Although two aircraft were constructed, a lone XF5U-1 underwent ground runs but never overcame serious vibration problems.Taxi trials culminated in short "hops" that were not true flights.The only completed XF5U-1 proved to be so structurally solid that it had to be destroyed with a wrecking ball. 
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on May 31, 2019, 09:23:32 PM
Vought XF8U-3 Crusader III

The Vought XF8U-3 Crusader III was an aircraft developed by Chance Vought as a successor to the successful Vought F-8 Crusader program, and as a competitor to the McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom II.
The Crusader design team was also working on a larger aircraft with even greater performance, internally designated as the V-401.Externally similar to the Crusader and sharing with it such design elements as the variable incidence wing, the new fighter was larger and was powered by the Pratt & Whitney J75-P-5A engine generating 29,500 lbf of afterburning thrust.To deal with Mach 2+ flight conditions it was fitted with large vertical ventral fins under the tail which rotated to the horizontal position for landing.

The XF8U-3 was officially labeled "Crusader III and first flew on 2 June 1958.The first time that the aircraft exceeded Mach 2.0 in level flight was on August 14, during its 38th test flight,well before the rival F4H-1.In fly-offs against the Crusader III's main competitor, the future McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom II, demonstrated that the Vought design had a definite advantage in maneuverability. John Konrad, Vought's chief test pilot,stated that the Crusader III could fly circles around the Phantom II.However it emerged that combat workload was extremely high for the single seat Crusader.
The Phantom's considerably larger payload and the ability to perform air-to-ground as well as air-to-air missions, trumped Vought's fast but single-purposed fighter. For similar reasons, the Phantom would replace the Navy's F-8 Crusader as the primary daylight air superiority fighter in the Vietnam War.

The F8U-3 program was canceled with five aircraft built. Three aircraft flew during the test program, and, along with two other airframes, were transferred to NASA for atmospheric testing, as the Crusader III was capable of flying above 95% of the Earth's atmosphere. NASA pilots flying at NAS Patuxent River routinely intercepted and defeated U.S. Navy Phantom IIs in mock dogfights, until complaints from the Navy jocks put an end to the harassment.

All of the Crusader IIIs were later scrapped.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on June 01, 2019, 07:32:30 PM
Waco 9

The Waco 9 is an American-built three-seat biplane design that first flew in 1925.The Model 9 was of rugged construction to meet the barnstorming requirements of the period. The cost when new was between $2,025 and $2,500.A Waco 9 was flown in the 1926 Ford National Reliability Air Tour.

The Waco 9 was the first of the steel-tubed fuselage aircraft designs to be built by the Advance Aircraft Company,which became the Waco Aircraft Company circa 1929.
The Model 9 was a three-seat open cockpit biplane with the ailerons on the upper wings extending outboard of the main wing surfaces.
Model 9s were fitted with a variety of engines including the 90 hp Curtiss OX-5, the 100 hp Curtiss OXX-6, up to the 150 hp Hisso A.

By 2007, a few examples remained airworthy in the USA, and five aircraft were held by museums.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on June 02, 2019, 05:29:35 PM
Wittman Tailwind

The Wittman W-8 Tailwind is a popular two-seat light aircraft for homebuilding.It is a high-wing,braced cabin monoplane of taildragger configuration. Construction is with a steel tubing fuselage,wooden wings, and fabric covering.

The Tailwind is the third in a series of high-wing aircraft designed by Sylvester J."Steve" Wittman (1904–1995), a well-known air racing pilot and race plane designer.
A model of the 1965 Wittman Tailwind may be found in the Sun 'n Fun Museum.In 1953, the Tailwind became the first aircraft covered under the FAA's Experimental category to be certified to carry a passenger. Whilst crude looking by modern standards, it outperformed many similar factory-built planes, and only with the advent of composite construction were new designs able to achieve similar speed per horsepower and range.

Usual powerplant is 1 × Lycoming O-320, 160 hp giving a max speed of 200mph.The aircraft can be built as a taildragger or with a tricycle undercarriage, W-9 or W-10 Tailwind.

The example below G-CFON used to be a resident at Newtownards,but it now lives in Scotland.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on June 03, 2019, 07:43:26 PM
Wright Model R

The Wright Model R was a single-seat biplane built by the Wright Company in Ohio,in 1910.Sometimes known as the Roadster or the Baby Wright,it was designed for speed and altitude competitions.

It was derived from the Wright Model B, and was a two seat biplane with rear-mounted twin rudders mounted in front of a single elevator and carried on wire-braced wood booms behind the wing and was powered by a 30 hp Wright four-cylinder inline water-cooled engine driving a pair of pusher propellers via chains.

Two examples were flown at the International Aviation Tournament in November 1910, one being a standard model flown by Alec Ogilvie and the other being a special competition model known as the Baby Grand, which had a 60 hp V-8 engine and a reduced wingspan of 21 ft 5 in.Orville Wright succeeded in flying the Baby Grand at a speed of nearly 70 mph Both aircraft were entered for the second Gordon Bennett Trophy competition which was held at the meeting, but the Baby Grand, flown by Walter Brookins, suffered an engine failure during a trial flight on the race day and crashed heavily. Ogilvie's aircraft also had engine problems, but after repairs finished third.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on June 04, 2019, 07:05:31 PM
World Aircraft Vision / Sentinel

The World Aircraft Vision, also called the Sentinel, is an American STOL amateur-built aircraft, produced by the World Aircraft Company.
A development of the World Aircraft Spirit, the Vision has a strut-braced high-wing, a two-seats-in-side-by-side configuration enclosed cockpit that is 48.5 in (123 cm) wide, fixed tricycle landing gear and a single engine in tractor configuration. It also has large clear plastic doors and an enlarged front windshield to enhance visibility.

The aircraft's recommended engine is the 100 hp Rotax 912ULS four-stroke powerplant.The tricycle landing gear is strengthened for rough field operations and includes an adjustable nose strut shock absorber.Electric rudder trim is standard.
Vision kits are fully assembled at the factory and then disassembled for customer delivery and may be shipped pre-painted.
As of October 2012, the design appears on the Federal Aviation Administration's list of approved special light-sport aircraft.Two have been registered with the FAA to date.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on June 05, 2019, 08:00:58 PM
Oops, I forgot about some other "V" aircraft.

Vultee V-1

The Vultee V-1 was a 1930s single-engined airliner built by the Airplane Development Corporation, designed by Gerard Vultee.
The prototype (V-1) was an all-metal low-wing cantilever monoplane with a retractable tailwheel landing gear. It could carry a pilot and six passengers and first flew on February 19, 1933.It was powered by a 650 hp Wright SR-1820-F2 Cyclone engine.
Production aircraft were designated the V-1A and had a slightly larger and longer fuselage for two pilots and eight passengers,they had a 735 hp Wright Cyclone R-1820-F2 radial engine.

American Airlines bought at least 13 V-1As and the V-1 prototype ( it was modified for two pilot operation) and they entered service in 1934.On introduction, they were the fastest commercial airliners of their day.By 1936, they were sold, having been replaced with twin-engined aircraft when the Bureau of Air Commerce severely limited the use of single engine airliners.
V-1ADs were operated by several private companies or individuals as high-speed executive aircraft, they had an uprated 850hp engine.

Seven former American Airlines aircraft, plus eight others were used by the Republicans in the Spanish Civil War, with machine guns and under-fuselage bomb racks fitted. Four of the aircraft were captured by the Nationalists.
The V-1 was used in the filming of Jungle Queen (1944) with Clark Gable, and The Tarnished Angels (1957).

The V-1AD Special NC16099 ( with a 1,000 hp Wright Cyclone R-1820-G2 radial engine) is the sole survivor of the 25 V-1`s built,and is preserved on public display at KEZF Shannon Air Museum in Fredericksburg, Virginia.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on June 06, 2019, 08:15:24 PM
Vultee P-66 Vanguard

The Vultee P-66 Vanguard was a USAAF fighter aircraft.It was the product of a concept by the Vultee Aircraft Division of the AMC of developing four aircraft designed for different roles from a set of common wings and aft fuselage and tail assemblies.

In 1938,Richard W. Palmer started the detailed design of the V-48 fighter member of the quartet.The aircraft featured a metal-covered, semi-monocoque fuselage and fully retractable landing gear, and was powered by a Pratt & Whitney R-1830 air-cooled radial engine.
It first flew in Sept 1939,and was given the name Vanguard.The second aircraft first flew on February 11, 1940. As a result of flight tests, a number of changes were made to the design including substantially increasing the areas of the horizontal and vertical tail surfaces.

On 6 February 1940, the Swedish government ordered 144 Vanguards as the V-48C.The production prototype flew on 6 September 1940. The model V-48C was similar to the V-48X except for installation of a later version of the R-1830 engine with better higher altitude performance and provision for four .30 in (7.62 mm) machine guns in the wings and two .50 in (12.7 mm) machine guns in the fuselage.
Production deliveries began in September 1941, the U.S. government placed an embargo on exporting the aircraft to Sweden. In the aftermath of Pearl Harbor, all Vanguards were assigned the designation P-66. Production ended in April 1942.Approximately 50 aircraft were retained by the USAAF.
The British took possession of 100 P-66s as the Vanguard I with plans to use the aircraft as an advanced trainer in Canada.After trials however,the British then relinquished the aircraft to China where 104 Vanguards (including USAAC examples) were shipped under the Lend-Lease program.

The Chinese received the assembled fighters via India by late 1942; Chinese Vanguards had USAAF insignia and serials as well as Chinese markings and Vultee serials on factory models.It was no match for the agile Japanese fighters in high-g maneuvers and relied on hit-and-run tactics.The P-66 in Chinese service was largely replaced by Curtiss P-40s in 1943.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on June 07, 2019, 07:55:18 PM
Vultee XP-54

Vultee had submitted a proposal in response to a USAAC request for an unusual configuration prototype fighter.

The Vultee design won the competition,designating it Model 84, a descendant of their earlier Model 78. After completing preliminary engineering and wind tunnel tests, a contract for a prototype was awarded on 8 January 1941. A second prototype was ordered on 17 March 1942.

The XP-54 was designed with a pusher engine in the rear part of the fuselage. The tail was mounted rearward between two mid-wing booms, with the 12-ft propeller between them. The design included a "ducted wing section" developed by the NACA that enabled installation of cooling radiators and intercoolers in the inverted gull wing. The Pratt & Whitney X-1800 engine was initially proposed as the powerplant but after its development was discontinued, the liquid-cooled 2300hp Lycoming XH-2470 was substituted.
In September 1941, the XP-54 mission was changed from low altitude to high altitude interception,therefore a turbo-supercharger and heavier armor had to be added.

Unusual features included the nose section which could pivot through the vertical,up and down.In the nose, two 37 mm T-9 cannon were in rigid mounts while two .50 cal machine guns were in movable mounts. Movement of the nose and machine guns was controlled by a special compensating gun sight. Thus, the cannon trajectory could be elevated without altering the flight attitude of the aircraft.

Flight tests of the first prototype,began on 15 January 1943,with initial trials showing performance to be substantially less than expected.Development of the XH-2470 engine was discontinued and, although it appeared possible to substitute the Allison V-3420 engine without substantial airframe changes, the projected delay and costs resulted in a decision not to put it into production.The prototypes continued to be used in an experimental program until problems with the Lycoming engines and lack of spare parts caused termination.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on June 08, 2019, 06:37:51 PM
Vultee V-11

The Vultee V-11 and V-12 were American attack aircraft of the 1930s,developed from the Vultee V-1 single-engined airliner.
It retained the single-engined, low wing format and all-metal stressed skin structure of the V-1,but combined a new fuselage with accommodation for the two or three crew members under a long greenhouse canopy with the wings and tail surfaces of the Vultee V-1.

The V-11-G Original two-seat light bomber was powered by one 1,000 hp Wright R-1820-G2 Cyclone engine.An initial order for 30 two-seat V-11Gs was placed by China before the end of 1935.This was followed by orders in 1939 for two versions (the V-12-C and V-12D) of the more powerful V-12 variant.The majority of these were planned to be assembled from kits at the Central Aircraft Manufacturing Company factory near the China-Burma border.The V-11s and V-12s were used as light bombers and achieved some success,before the aircraft were withdrawn from bombing missions to training and liaison duties in 1940.

In February 1939 the Brazilian Army Air Corps acquired 10 Vultee V-11–GB2s for long range bombing.26 aircraft were eventually used by the Brazilian Air Force.

In the late 1930s, the USAAC was favoring twin engine light attack aircraft but seven YA-19 aircraft were ordered in the summer of 1938 for comparison purposes.The YA-19s were armed with six .30 in (7.62 mm) machine guns and 1,080 lb (490 kg) bombs in an internal bomb bay, powered by a 1,200 hp Twin Wasp radial engine and was manned by a crew of three – pilot, observer/gunner, and bombardier/photographer.Tests showed that twin engine attack aircraft were faster, could be better armed and carried a larger bomb load so no further YA-19s were ordered.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on June 09, 2019, 06:23:44 PM
Zenith STOL CH 801

The Zenith STOL CH 801 is a four-seat sport STOL aircraft available in kit form from the Zenith Aircraft Company.
The CH 801 is based on the general design and features of the smaller two-seater STOL CH 701 model.It offers a useful load of 1,000 lb (450 kg), which is double the 701's 500 lb (230 kg).While the aircraft look similar they do not share any common parts.

Usual powerplant is 1 × Lycoming O-360 of 180 hp,giving a leisurely cruise speed of 105mph and a stall speed of around 40mph.
The STOL CH 801 is made from sheet aluminium and employs a deep wing chord,with full-length leading edge slots and trailing edge flaperons to develop high lift at low speed, while maintaining a short wing-span for maximum strength and ground maneuverability.By the end of 2011 160 CH 801s had been completed and were flying.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on June 10, 2019, 06:56:54 PM
Zivko Edge 540

The Zivko Edge 540 manufactured by Zivko Aeronautics is a highly aerobatic aircraft.
It is capable of a 420 degree per second roll rate and a 3,700 foot per minute climb rate,it has been flown to victory on the international Unlimited aerobatics circuit several times since the mid-1990s.A tandem-seat version is sold as the Edge 540T.

Powerplant is 1 × Modified 340hp Lycoming AEIO-540 Hartzell composite,3 blade prop,giving a max speed of 230 kts or 265mph if you prefer.
The Zivko Edge 540 is a popular aircraft,often used in the Red Bull Air Race World Series.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on June 11, 2019, 06:20:59 PM
That`s the USA taken care of, now to Europe and first up France. Just to repeat these are military or civil aircraft that may not be so well known to some.

Abraham Iris

The Abraham Iris was a two-seat touring airplane produced in the early 1930s in two slightly different versions,the Iris I with a 100 hp Hispano-Suiza piston engine, and the Iris II with a 95hp Renault engine.The Iris was a conventional parasol wing monoplane with a neatly faired-in engine.

Max speed was around 110mph
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on June 12, 2019, 06:32:45 PM
ANF Les Mureaux 120

The ANF Les Mureaux 120 was a 1930s three-seat military night reconnaissance monoplane.

It was designed to meet a 1928 French Aéronautique Militaire requirement for a three-seat night reconnaissance aircraft.The prototype was first flown in 1931,powered by two 300 hp  Lorraine Algol engines.It was followed by a second aircraft, designated ANF Les Mureaux 121, powered by 300 hp Gnome-Rhône 7Kb engines, which flew later the same year.

Max speed was around 140mph with a range of 920 miles.It was armed with one twin machine-gun in nose cockpit and one in midship cockpit.
The aircraft failed to gain any interest from the French military and did not enter production.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on June 13, 2019, 09:58:42 PM
ANF Les Mureaux 180

The ANF Les Mureaux 180 was a prototype French fighter aircraft of the 1930s.It was designed and built by Les Ateliers de Construction du Nord de la France et des Mureaux.
It was a single-engined, two-seat, gull wing monoplane.
It first flew on 10 February 1935 with a 690 hp Hispano-Suiza 12X brs engine and a single fin and rudder.It had a max speed of 235 MPH and a range of around 460 miles.

In April 1935 the 180 was modified with a Hispano-Suiza 12X crs motor-canon engine, it had 20mm cannon that fired through the propeller hub. The aircraft was also fitted with two wing-mounted 7.5mm machine guns.The observer also had a machine gun mounted on a flexible mount and the tail unit was changed to two vertical surfaces.Testing continued until April 1936, but the project was abandoned when the design was considered to be obsolete.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on June 14, 2019, 08:14:49 PM
Arsenal VB 10

The Arsenal VB 10 was a French fighter aircraft developed during and shortly after WW II. It was a low-wing monoplane with retractable tailwheel undercarriage and of largely orthodox configuration. It was an evolution of a design that began with the Arsenal VG 10 before WW II, the VB 10 added a second engine behind the cockpit which drove a second propeller, coaxial with and contra-rotating to the propeller driven by the engine in the nose.

In January 1937 Arsenal were given a contract to develop a twin-engined heavy interceptor built from wood, powered by two 590 hp Hispano-Suiza 12X engines mounted in tandem inside the fuselage.Work on the VG 10 was abandoned in June 1937 in favour of the VG 20, which was essentially similar but powered by two 900 hp Hispano-Suiza 12Y engines. The VG 20 was abandoned in turn in January 1938, but the design work and studies were used for the design of the all-metal VB 10.

Due to WW II little progress was made during France's occupation, the prototype did not fly until after VE day. By then, it was clear that the future of the fighter lay with jet power, but development of the VB 10 continued as a safety net for France's jet fighter programmes.
In December 1945, a contract for 200 machines was placed by the French government, the first of which flew on 3 November 1947. By the time the fourth had been delivered in September 1948, the entire order was cancelled,only 6 examples were completed.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on June 15, 2019, 11:25:34 PM
Arsenal VG 90

The Arsenal VG 90 was a carrier-based fighter aircraft built in 1949, but which was not developed past the prototype stage.
It us up against the SNCAC NC 1080 and Nord N.2200 for an Aéronavale contract, tragically both VG 90 prototypes were destroyed in fatal crashes early in the development stages.
It was powered by 1 × Hispano-Suiza-built Rolls-Royce Nene,5,000 lbf thrust, giving a max speed of 570mph,it was armed with 3 × 30 mm cannons,
and could also carry a pair of 500kg bombs.
The VG 90 had a similar configuration to Arsenal's VG 70 and VG 80 research aircraft, with a high wing and all-swept flying surfaces, air intakes were mounted on the fuselage sides.

The first accident occurred on 25th May 1950,when an undercarriage door sheared off in flight and struck the aircraft's tail. Test Pilot Pierre Decroo was killed in the crash. The second claimed the life of pilot Claude Dellys, and took place on 21 st February 1952 when the tail was torn off due to aerodynamic flutter.The ejection seat system malfunctioned and did not fire. A third prototype, then under construction, was abandoned.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on June 16, 2019, 07:15:36 PM
Amiot 143

The Amiot 143M was a late 1930s French medium bomber designed to meet a requirement for a bomber capable of day/night bombing, long-range reconnaissance and bomber escort.
In 1928, the French Air Ministry issued a specification for a multi-seat combat aircraft to act as a light bomber, reconnaissance aircraft and long-range escort fighter.
Amiot received an order for two prototype Amiot 140s, to be evaluated against the competing Bleriot 137, Breguet 410 and SPCA 30.

The Amiot 140 was a high-winged cantilever monoplane of all-metal construction, with corrugated wing skinning and a fixed tail wheel undercarriage. The pilot sat in an open cockpit, with cockpits for gunners in the nose and dorsal positions. A glazed gondola under the forward fuselage carried a bombardier/gunner, ensuring that the gunners had a clear field of fire.

The first prototype was fitted with Hispano-Suiza 12Nbr engines to allow flight testing, making its maiden flight on 12th April 1931 with the second prototype completed in Feb 1932 but the continued non-availability of its intended engines, the Lorraine-Dietrichs or turbocharged Hispano-Suizas, meant that it never flew. Despite this, on 23 November 1933 an order was placed for 40 Amiot 140s, to be powered by 880 hp Lorraine 12Q Eider engines.

The FAM had revised its requirements,concentrating on the bombing role and for better performance. Amiot redesigned the aircraft and incorporate lessons learned during testing of the Amiot 140. The gondola under the fuselage was enlarged, allowing easier operation of the aircraft's guns and a radio-operator to be carried. Manually operated gun turrets were provided in the nose and dorsal positions.Orders were placed for two prototypes, differing only in the engines fitted, with the Amiot 142 having Hispano-Suiza 12Y engines and the Amiot 143 having Gnome-Rhone 14K radial engines. The 143 flew first, on 1 August 1934, with the 142 not flying until January 1935.As it was decided to allocate the Hispano-Suiza engines to fighters, the Amiot 143 was selected,the existing order for 40 Amiot 140s being converted to 143s.

The Amiot 143 had the same high-wing and fixed undercarriage as the Amiot 140, with the wing thick enough to allow crew access to the engines by a tunnel between the wing spars. The pilot sat in an enclosed cockpit, level with the leading edge of the wing and the navigator-bombardier, who was also provided with flying controls,sat in the glazed gondola beneath the pilot. After 40 aircraft had been completed, the design was further revised, with the aircraft being fitted with a longer nose and changes to the defensive gun placements.

At the outbreak of the Second World War, Amiot 143s equipped 5 metropolitan groupes together with a single African based groupe.Following the start of the Battle of France, the Amiot 143M was mainly used in night attacks against German airfields and lines of communications, with losses relatively low.Some planes of II/38 served as transports for the French in Syria. This groupe later went over to the Allies after their landings in Africa.The last Amiot 143M was retired from service in February 1944.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on June 17, 2019, 08:51:36 PM
Amiot 354

The Amiot 350 series originated in the same 1934 requirement as a rival to the Lioré et Olivier LeO 451.

The Amiot 340 prototype was involved in a propaganda misinformation flight to Berlin in August 1938 to convince the Germans that the French employed modern bombers.Over 120 were ordered by the French government that year,but production delays and order modifications ensured that September 1939 saw no delivered aircraft.The order of this very modern aircraft reached 830,though ultimately only 80 machines were received by the Air Ministry.The main variant was the twin-tailed 351; however, due to various delays, the single-tailed 354 was accepted into service as an interim type.

The Amiot 351 was planned to mount one 7.5 mm MAC 1934 machine gun in nose and ventral positions and one 20 mm Hispano-Suiza HS.404 cannon in the dorsal position. However technical problems with the armament installation,meant many aircraft went to operational units with only a light machine gun in the dorsal position.

In May 1940, the Amiot 351/354 was in the process of equipping just two bomber groupes based at Avignon.Though 200 were in the final stages of construction, only 35 were ready for flight.Powerplant was a pair of Gnome-Rhône 14N-48 14-cylinder two-row air-cooled radial piston engines of 1,061 hp each.By June, the Amiot 351/354 was also delivered for GB I/34 and GB II/34, neither flying them in combat.At that time, all Amiot 351/354s were based on the northern front.Three had been lost in combat, ten in training accidents.All aircraft were ordered to evacuate to Africa on 17 June, 37 surviving the journey.Five Amiot 351/354s continued to be used as mail planes after the Battle of France and four Amiot were commandeered by the Luftwaffe as transports.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on June 18, 2019, 08:06:05 PM
Avions Mauboussin M.120

The Mauboussin M.120 was a trainer and touring aircraft built in France in the 1930s and again in the years following World War II.

The aircraft was based on a 1931 Peyret-Mauboussin collaboration between Louis Peyret and Pierre Mauboussin, the Peyret-Mauboussin PM.XII, and like it, was a low-wing cantilever monoplane of wooden construction.Pilot and instructor sat in tandem, open cockpits.
Mauboussin built a number of prototypes himself, followed by a small series manufactured for him by Breguet in 1934. At one stage Mauboussins were produced by the Société Zodiac.The aircraft first flew in 1932 and was popular in international touring aircraft contests.

In 1936,Fouga, then a builder of railway rolling stock, purchased all rights to the design as part of an effort to enter the aircraft industry, and was able to secure a contract from the Armée de l'Air to supply the type as the M.123.
Powerplant for the M.123 was a Salmson 9Adr,60 hp,enough for a modest top speed of 100mph. Production was restarted by Fouga after the war for the French flying clubs.116 were built in total.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on June 19, 2019, 09:16:54 PM
Avions Max Holste MH.52

The Avions Max Holste MH.52 was a 1940s French-built two-seat touring or training monoplane.
Developed in the mid-1940s,the MH.52 was a low-wing cantilever monoplane with twin fins and rudders and a fixed tricycle landing gear.It had a raised cockpit with side-by-side seating for the pilot and trainee or passenger.The canopy was framed with forward-opening transparent sliding doors.
The prototype first flew on 21 August 1945 and was powered by a variety of inline engines developing between 95 and 150 hp.
The 150 hp version had a top speed of 143 mph and a useful range of 370 miles.

A development of the MH.52 was the sole MH.53 Cadet which had a fixed tailwheel landing gear and a lower powered 135 hp De Havilland Gipsy Major 10 engine.
A total of 13 production aircraft were built by the end of the 1940s.Most were flown by aero clubs and private pilots in France, but three examples were delivered to Egypt.
Two MH.52s survived in the 2000s. No.4 is awaiting restoration to fly at an airfield near Paris. No.11 is privately stored by a group located at an airfield near Bergerac.

It`s design is very similar to the ERCO Ercoupe, and it`s various incarnations.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on June 20, 2019, 07:36:43 PM
Avions Max Holste MH.260 Super Broussard

Built in prototype form as the Avions Max Holste MH.260 Super Broussard, ("Super Bushranger"), was a turboprop-powered, uprated version of the piston-engined Avions Max Holste MH.250 Super Broussard, that was further developed into the Aérospatiale N 262.

It was designed in partnership with Nord Aviation to carry 23 passengers or 3,445 kg (7,595 lb) of cargo on short fields, as a modern equivalent of the DC-3.The MH.260 was a high-wing, twin-engine turboprop aircraft powered by 980 hp Turbomeca Bastan engines.The fuselage was of all -aluminum construction with fabric covered control surfaces.The landing gear retracted into fuselage-mounted fairings.

The design was taken over by Nord and production started to fill a French government order for ten aircraft under the designation Nord 260. No orders were received from outside the government as the nascent Nord 262 offered better performance. Eight Nord 260s were completed and delivered to a few airlines on lease for short periods before final delivery to the French Air Force.

Cruise speed was 235 mph,with a range of 930 miles.Just nine aircraft were completed.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on June 21, 2019, 09:26:06 PM
Blériot XXI

The Blériot XXI was an early French aircraft built by Blériot Aéronautique.
The aircraft was a shoulder-wing monoplane powered by a 70 hp Gnome Gamma 7-cylinder rotary engine driving a two bladed propeller.Pilot and passenger were seated in side-by-side configuration: the control column was centrally mounted and there were two sets of rudder pedals, so that it could be flown from either seat.

It had a rectangular fuselage tapered to a horizontal knife-edge at the tail. Lateral control was effected by wing-warping, the wires leading to a single inverted V-strut cabane above the fuselage and a similar V strut beneath. Petrol was stored in three tanks: a pair of gravity tanks were located under the top decking in front of the cockpit, pressure-fed from a larger tank under the seats.
The undercarriage was a variant of the well-proved pattern used on the Blériot XI, with the wheels mounted on a trailing arm free to slide up and down and sprung by bungee cords.A Type XXI was one of the two Blériot designs entered for the 1912 British Military Aeroplane Competition.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on June 22, 2019, 05:34:43 PM
Blériot 115

The Blériot Bl-115 was a French biplane 4 engine airliner of the 1920s,it was a large aircraft, mounting one pair of engines on the upper wing and one pair on the lower.
It first flew on 9 May 1923, the prototype crashed on 23 June, killing its pilot.

It was powered by 4x 180 hp Hispano-Suiza 8Ac engines,giving it a leisurely top speed of 112mph, cruising speed was around 90 mph.
The third and fourth machines built (Roland Garros and Jean Casale) were used in Colonel de Goÿs' attempts to trial air routes to Africa.
They departed France on 18 January 1925,arriving in Colomb-Béchar, Algeria, on 28 January.The expedition ended in disaster on 7 February in Niamey, Niger when the Jean Casale crashed on take-off, killing its radio operator and seriously injuring its two pilots, including Dagnaux.

Only six aircraft were completed.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on June 23, 2019, 06:56:53 PM
Blériot 127

The Blériot 127 (or Bl-127) was a French bomber aircraft of the 1920s and early 1930s,developed from the Blériot 117.

It was a large monoplane of conventional configuration that featured open gunner's positions in its nose and at the rear of its two underwing engine nacelles.
Powerplant was  2 × Hispano-Suiza 12Hb V-12 water-cooled piston engines of 550 hp each driving 2-bladed fixed pitch wooden propellers. Max Speed was approx 135 Mph,armament consisted of 2 × forward trainable 7.7 mm (0.30 in) Lewis guns in nose and 2 × rearward trainable 7.7 mm (0.30 in) Lewis guns in each of two engine nacelles plus up 1000 kg of bombs.

Forty-two aircraft were operated by the Armée de l'Air from 1929 until 1934, by which time they were thoroughly obsolete.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on June 24, 2019, 07:27:21 PM
Blériot 5190

The Blériot 5190 was a French transatlantic mail plane of the 1930s.It was a large parasol-wing monoplane flying boat with an unusual design, featuring a low-profile hull and a crew compartment housed in the thick pylon that supported the wing.
It was powered by four engines,Hispano-Suiza 12Nbr`s, of650 hp each arranged with three along the leading edge of the wing, and the fourth on the centreline of the trailing edge.

The first flight was on the 3rd Aug 1933, by the end of 1934,the aircraft named Santos-Dumont had completed two proving flights across the South Atlantic.In February 1935 the Santos-Dumont entered service. From then until April, she carried all of France's transatlantic mail at the rate of one crossing per week until rejoined by la Croix du Sud and a new Farman F.220 named Le Centaure.As part of this small fleet, the Santos-Dumont continued in this role until June 1937. Altogether, by that time, she had made 38 crossings of the Atlantic.

The French government had ordered a further three 5190s from Blériot, and the company had borrowed heavily in order to build the aircraft. Without warning, the contract was cancelled without explanation or compensation,forcing the firm into bankruptcy. Louis Blériot died of a heart attack soon afterwards, on 1 August 1936.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on June 25, 2019, 07:45:01 PM
Blériot-SPAD S.33

The Bleriot-SPAD S.33 was a small airliner developed soon after World War I.
It was a conventional configuration biplane but its design owed much to the Blériot company's contemporary fighter`s such as the S.20.Four passengers could be carried in an enclosed cabin within the fuselage, and a fifth in the open cockpit beside the pilot,(the cheap seat!).
It proved to be a great success, the S.33 dominated in it`s class throughout the 1920s,initially on CMA's Paris-London route,and later on continental routes.

It`s powerplant was a Salmson CM.9 9-cylinder air-cooled radial piston engine offering 260 hp, which gave a cruise speed of around 105mph and range of 650 miles.
In total 41 S.33`s were built,an improved version known as the S.46 followed later with a 370 hp Lorraine-Dietrich 12Da engine.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on June 26, 2019, 07:05:12 PM
Blériot-SPAD S.61

The Blériot-SPAD S.61 was a French biplane fighter aircraft developed in 1923.
The prototype S.61 was evaluated by the French Air Force alongside the S.51 as a potential new fighter,but like its stablemate, was rejected.It first flew 6th Nov 1923.
The Polish Air Force (also purchased the S.51) was impressed and ordered 250, plus purchase licences for local production.The Romanian Air Force also ordered 100 aircraft,of which 30 were built in Poland,by the CWL.

The production version for Poland and Romania,was powered by a 450 hp Lorraine-Dietrich 12E W-12 engine with supplementary supercharger. French versions had a similar 430 hp engines and the racers had up to 500hp in different versions.
Despite building them under licence, they had a poor reputation in Poland due to numerous crashes, many attributed to a weak wing mounting,From 1926 to 1931, 26 pilots were killed while flying the S.61.
 
They were used in France for racing and record-setting attempts, for example,on 25 June 1925, Pelletier d'Oisy won the cross-country Coupe Michelin in an S.61,and another of the type won the 1927 competition and was placed second in 1929.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on June 27, 2019, 10:32:46 PM
Blériot-SPAD S.510

Designed in 1930,this open-cockpit biplane first flew in 1933 and entered service in 1936.Performance was similar to the Gloster Gladiator.The S.510's armament consisted of 4 machine guns as either a combination of 2 fuselage-mounted guns, plus 2 in under-wing gondolas or with all 4 in under-wing gondolas.
This gave it a heavy punch attack capability than most earlier biplane fighters,and equalled that of the final biplanes used by the British and Italians, the Gladiator and Fiat CR.42 Falco.

When it was designed many pilots and experts strongly believed that biplanes would prove better fighters than monoplanes because of their tighter turning circles,but some  thought the S.510 was doomed to obsolescence before it even flew.
It was overshadowed by the faster Dewoitine D.510 monoplane, an order of 60 aircraft was placed in August 1935 when French ace pilot Louis Massot demonstrated the S.510 to excellent effect, showing its superior maneuverability and rate of climb.
Powerplant was a Hispano-Suiza 12Xbrs V-12 liquid-cooled piston engine of 692hp, which gave a max speed of around 235mph and a range of 540 miles.

The S.510 entered service in early 1936,they were intended as transition aircraft between the Morane-Saulnier MS-225 and the Morane-Saulnier MS-406.
At the outbreak of WW II, the S.510 served in reserve squadrons only,metropolitan reserves were mobilized into the II/561 based in Havre-Oteville. From January 18, 1940 over a period of weeks, the S.510s were replaced with Bloch MB.151 aircraft, the groupe changing designation to GC III/10. The S.510s returned to their training role. Approximately ten S.510s had been sent to French North Africa where, by the Battle of France, they were mobilized into a fighter group, the GC III/5, but their age allowed them to be used for training flights only.

The Blériot SPAD S.510 was the last French biplane fighter to be produced.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on June 28, 2019, 11:34:27 AM
Bloch MB.131

The Bloch MB.130 and its derivatives were a series of French monoplane reconn-bombers developed during the 1930s.
It was developed in response to the August 1933 French Aviation Ministry request for a reconnaissance and tactical bomber.It was an all-metal, twin-engine, low-wing monoplane with retractable landing gear, and armed with three 7.5mm MAC1934 flexible machine guns, one each in the nose, dorsal turret, and ventral gondola.

It first flew on 29 June 1934, and despite it`s moderate performance, soon entered production, 40 machines being ordered in October 1935. An improved version, the MB.131 was first flown on 16 August 1936, but still needed more work to overcome its deficiencies. The radically revised second prototype which flew on 5 May 1937 eventually formed the basis for series production, with aircraft being manufactured by SNCASO, the nationalised company that had absorbed Bloch and Blériot. Total production (including prototypes) was 143.

Powerplant was a pair of Gnome-Rhône 14N-10/11 14-cylinder air-cooled radial engines,producing 950 hp each.Max speed was a leisurely 217 mph,range was around 800 miles
It entered service in June 1938, the MB.131 went on to equip seven reconnaissance Groupes, six in metropolitan France and one in North Africa. Upon the outbreak of the war, the metropolitan Groupes suffered heavy losses in attempts at daylight reconnaissance of Germany's western borders.
They were subsequently restricted to flying night missions, though they still suffered heavy losses even then.
After the Battle of France, the aircraft left in Vichy possession were relegated to target towing duty. 21 planes were reported captured by the Luftwaffe in inoperable condition, but photographic evidence suggests at least a few flew for the Nazis.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on June 29, 2019, 06:31:25 PM
Bloch MB.170

The Bloch MB.170 and its family of derivatives were French reconnaissance bombers designed and built shortly before World War II.
They were the best aircraft of this type available to the Armée de l'Air at the outbreak of the war, with speed, altitude, and maneuverability that allowed them to evade interception by most German fighters of the time. They were too few in number to make any measurable impact on the Battle of France,but they continued in service with the Vichy forces after the armistice.

The first prototype, the MB 170 AB2-A3 No.01,was equipped as a two-seat attack bomber or a three-seat reconnaissance aircraft, made its maiden flight on 15 February 1938.
It was powered by two 970 hp Gnome-Rhône 14N radial engines and was armed with a 20 mm Hispano-Suiza cannon in the nose, two 7.5 mm MAC 1934 machine guns in the wing, with another machine gun flexibly mounted in the rear cockpit, with a ventral cupola housing either a rearward firing machine gun or a camera.The second prototype, the MB 170 B3 No.2 was a dedicated three seat bomber, with the ventral cupola housing the camera removed, a revised canopy and larger tail fins.

The MB.175 succeeded the MB.174 on the assembly lines in full flow.This version, a dedicated bomber,it had a redesigned bomb bay capable of carrying bombs of 100–200 kg (220-440 lb), where the MB.174 was limited to 50 kg (110 lb) bombs. The MB.175's fuselage was lengthened and widened to accommodate this greater capacity, but only 25 were delivered before France's defeat.

Like the majority of the modern equipment of the Armée de l'Air during the campaign, they arrived too late and in insufficient numbers. At the time of the armistice, most surviving MB.174s and 175s had been evacuated to North Africa. A few were recovered by the Germans and then used for pilot training. During the Vichy government rule on the French empire, MB.174s frequently flew over Gibraltar to monitor the British fleet.
After Operation Torch, as French forces split from Vichy to side with the Allies, remaining examples of the MB.170 line flew their final combat missions during the Battle of Tunisia.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on June 30, 2019, 04:48:08 PM
Bloch MB.220

The Bloch MB.220 was a French twin-engine passenger transport airplane built by Société des Avions Marcel Bloch during the 1930s.It some respects it`s design was similar to the DC-3.
The MB.220 was an all-metal low-wing cantilever monoplane powered by two 915 HP Gnome-Rhône 14N radial engines and had a retractable landing gear.Usualcrew was four, with seating for 16 passengers, with eight seats each side of a central aisle. The prototype first flew in December 1935, and was followed by 16 production aircraft.

By mid 1938, the type was being utilised by Air France on European routes. The first service was between Le Bourget and Croydon was flown on 27 March 1938 with a scheduled time of 1 hour 15 minutes. During World War II, most MB.220s were taken over as military transports, including service with German, Free French and Vichy French air forces. Air France continued to fly the aircraft (as MB.221s) after the war on short-range European routes. It sold four aircraft in 1949 but within a year all had been withdrawn from service.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on July 01, 2019, 06:31:29 PM
Bloch MB.480


The Bloch MB.480 was a French twin-engined torpedo-bomber/reconnaissance floatplane designed just before the start of the Second World War.
In May 1937, the French Air Ministry placed an order with Société des Avions Marcel Bloch for two prototype floatplanes intended to fulfill a French Navy requirement for a twin-engined torpedo-bomber/reconnaissance floatplane.

The Bloch MB.480 was a low-winged monoplane that resembled the earlier Bloch MB.131 reconnaissance/bomber landplane.It was powered by two 1,060 hp Gnome-Rhône 14N radial engines and carried a crew of five. Defensive armament was a 7.5 mm Darne machine gun in the nose and a ventral bath, while a 20 mm cannon was fitted in a powered dorsal mounting. A usful load of bombs, torpedoes or auxiliary fuel tanks could be carried in an internal bomb bay.

The first prototype made its maiden flight in June 1939. The aircraft's twin tail was raised to avoid spray on take-off and landing, and the tail fins were cropped to ensure a good field of fire for the dorsal cannon after the tail assembly had been raised. The second prototype flew in October 1939.
Testing was relatively successful, the French Navy had meanwhile decided that the torpedo-bomber reconnaissance role could be better met by landplanes.On 9th September 1939, Bloch was told to suspend development trials, while on 10th December it was officially announced that no orders would be placed for either the MB.480 or its two competitors, the SNCAC NC-410 and the Loire-Nieuport 10.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on July 02, 2019, 07:33:37 PM
Breguet 19

The Breguet 19 was designed as a successor to a highly successful World War I light bomber, the 14. A new, updated design was flown in March 1922, featuring a conventional layout with a single 450 hp Renault 12Kb inline engine. The aircraft was built in a sesquiplane platform, with lower wings substantially smaller than the upper ones.After trials, the Breguet 19 was ordered by the French Army's Aéronautique Militaire in September 1923.

The first 11 Breguet 19 prototypes were powered by a number of different engines. A "trademark" of Breguet was the wide usage of duralumin as a construction material, instead of steel or wood. At that time, the aircraft was faster than other bombers, and even some fighter aircraft.

The fuselage,was ellipsoid in cross-section, with a frame of duralumin tubing.The front section was covered with duralumin sheets, and the tail and wings were canvas covered. It had a conventional fixed landing gear with rear skid. The crew of two, pilot and observer/bombardier, sat in tandem in open cockpits, with dual controls.
A fixed 7.7 mm (0.303 in) Vickers machine gun with an interrupter gear was operated by the pilot, while the observer had twin 7.7 mm (0.303 in) Lewis Guns.There was also a fourth machine gun, which could be fired by the observer through an opening in the floor.   
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on July 03, 2019, 07:52:45 PM
Breguet 26T

The 26T was an attempt by the Breguet company to find a civil market for their 19 warplane by mating its wings, tail surfaces and undercarriage to an entirely new fuselage design and new engine.A Gnome et Rhône 9Ab (licence-built Bristol Jupiter),of 420 hp,which gave it a max speed of 128mph.
One of the two Breguet-built civil examples,the engine was later changed back to the Lorraine 12Ed inline, as used on the Br.19.
 
It could carry six passengers within an enclosed cabin, while the pilots sat in an open cockpit ahead of the upper wing.CASA purchased a licence to build another two in Sain for the domestic market, and France's Aviation Militaire purchased two more as air ambulances under the designation Bre.26TSbis.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on July 04, 2019, 09:34:01 PM
Breguet 460

The Breguet 460 was a light bomber, initially designed a multifunctional aircraft,by the French aviation authorities.
Based on aspects of the Breguet 413,it was a monoplane fitted with two powerful radial Gnome et Rhône 14Kjrs engines, having a more aerodynamic design, although it kept the tail of the obsolete 413. Production was delayed due to minor design problems,and when the first prototype of the Breguet 460 Vultur flew, it could not achieve the 400 km/h (250 mph) required for a high-speed bomber.The French Air Ministry lost interest in this unit and concentrated on projects by other companies.

The Spanish Civil War provided the French aircraft industry with an opportunity both for getting rid of obsolete aircraft and for testing new developments,thus the Breguet 460 prototypes ended up in the Spanish Republican Air Force. One of the units seen in a picture of the Spanish conflict has an improved, more modern tail of the same type that would be used later for the Breguet 470 Fulgur airliner.
Details of Spanish units operating them are sketchy at best,it is known that one of these aircraft was based at the Celrà airfield towards the end of the conflict and that it belonged to the Night Flight Group no. 11, which comprised the Vultur and two Bloch MB.210.

The Breguet Br 462 was a modernized version of the 460, although still similar,it made its first test flight towards the end of 1936. The forward fuselage was redesigned to look more aerodynamic and the aircraft was fitted with two Gnome Rhone 14NO engines that allowed it to reach a speed of 402 km/h (250 mph).It has been described as similar to the Breguet 461 that was supplied to Japan in 1935.
Plans were made forinstallation of 1,350 hp engines, expected to give it a speed of around 300 mph.Defensive armament was a forward-firing 20 mm cannon and two rear-firing machine guns.

Only three Breguet 462s were built. Two of them served in the Vichy French Air Force where they did not see much action and were scrapped in 1942.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on July 05, 2019, 07:03:31 PM
Breguet G.11E

The Breguet G.11E was a French passenger coaxial rotors helicopter flown soon after World War II. Only one was built, development ceased when funding ran out.
Breguet developed his wartime studies of a project named the G.34 into the two-passenger Breguet G.11E, otherwise known as the Société Francaises du Gyroplane G.11E.

It was a much larger aircraft, the G.11E used the same coaxial, three blade twin rotor layout as on the Gyroplane Laboratoire.It was initially powered by a fan cooled
240 hp Potez 9E nine cylinder radial engine midmounted under the concentric rotor shafts.The control column alters cyclic pitch via swashplates,and pedals make torque corrections and control yaw by changing the relative collective pitch of the two rotors.A mechanical inertial governor limited rotor acceleration; the pilot could increase the collective pitch over that set by the governor but not below it, emergencies apart.

The first flight was made on 21 May 1949 but tests showed that the G.11E was very underpowered,so the engine was changed to a bigger nine-cylinder radial, a 450 hp Pratt & Whitney Wasp Junior.The name was changed to G.111 and some re-design accompanied the power increase; the rotor diameter was increased by 1.00 m (3 ft 3 in) and the fuselage lengthened to include two more seats so that four passengers could be carried.
The G.111 began flight tests in 1951 but these were not completed as SFG were declared bankrupt the following year.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on July 06, 2019, 11:36:34 PM
Breguet Deux-Ponts

The Breguet 761/763/765 are a family of 1940s and 1950s French double-deck transport aircraft,Deux-Ponts (Double-Decker) was not an official name.
Design work on the Breguet 761 double-deck airliner even before the end of WWII.It was decided that a medium-range airliner with seating for over 100 passengers would be built. The design envisaged using readily available engines with the aim of ease of manufacture and an early first-flight date.

The prototype Br.761, F-WASK, first flew at Villacoublay on 15 February 1949,it was powered by four 1,580 hp SNECMA 14R-24 radial engines.It was followed by three Br.761S pre-production aircraft powered by 2,020 hp Pratt & Whitney R-2800-B31 radial engines.These were fitted with 12 ft 1½in Hamilton Standard propellers.The aircraft successfully completed their trials incident-free.Their first flights were in 1951 and 1952.

The French Government ordered 12 production aircraft, the Breguet 76-3, which was later redesignated Br.763.Six aircraft were to be operated by Air France and the other six by the Ministry of Transport. The 763 had more powerful engines, a larger wingspan, strengthened wings and a three-crew flight deck (earlier aircraft had four crew). The 763 first flew on 20 July 1951 and entered service with Air France during autumn 1952.

Air France aircraft had accommodation for 59 passengers on the top deck, and 48 on the lower deck, although the aircraft was capable of carrying 135 passengers in a high-density layout.During 1964 Air France transferred six Br.763s to the French Air Force. They also acquired the three pre-production Br.761S aircraft and four new Br.765 Sahara freighter aircraft with removable cargo doors.They provided the French Air Force with a valuable transport fleet for moving personnel and materials to the Pacific nuclear testing areas.The Sahara fleet was retired in 1972.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on July 07, 2019, 07:25:43 PM
Breguet 941

The Breguet 941 was a French four-engine turboprop STOL transport aircraft developed by Breguet in the 1960s.
Louis Charles Breguet developed a concept for a Short Take Off and Landing (STOL) aircraft using four free-turbine turboshaft engines to drive a common powershaft, which, in turn drove four oversize propellers, which were evenly spaced along the leading edge of the wing with large, full-span, slotted flaps, with the arrangement known as "l'aile soufflée" or blown wing.

An experimental prototype, powered by four Turbomeca Turmo II engines, the Breguet 940 Integral, first flew on 21 May 1958,and was used to prove the concept, demonstrating excellent short field performance.This led to an order being placed in February 1960 for a prototype of an aircraft employing the same concept,but capable of carrying useful loads.This aircraft,the Breguet 941,first flew on 1 June 1961.

Further testing of this prototype resulted in an order for four improved production aircraft, the Breguet 941S for the French Air Force, first flying on 19 April 1967. These were fitted with more powerful engines and a modified rear cargo door to allow for air-drops.

The 941 prototype was tested extensively by both France, and the USA, where a license agreement had been drafted with McDonnell Aircraft.The prototype, known as the McDonnell 188 in the US, was evaluated by both NASA and the US military, but no orders were placed.
The second Br 941S also carried out a tour of the USA, being evaluated as a STOL passenger airliner for operation from small city airports,again, no orders resulted.The aircraft demonstration activity included flights for Eastern Airlines in the northeast U.S.

The four Breguet 941S aircraft entered service with the French Air Force in 1967,they were retired in 1974.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on July 08, 2019, 07:27:23 PM
Breguet Br 904 Nymphale

The Breguet Br 104 Nymphale (English: Nymph) is a two-seat trainer and competition sailplane, built in France in the 1950s.
The Nymphale is a two-seat development of the double World Gliding Championships (WGC) winning Br 901 Mouette.It is larger all round, with a 2.72 m (8 ft 11 in) increase in span and 1.43 m (4 ft 8 in) longer, but is still built of wood and fabric like the single-seater.

The mid mounted wings,are straight-tapered like those of the 901,but differ in having no sweep on the leading edge so that at mid-chord the wing is forward-swept.
The lengthened cockpit,has the same style of fuselage contour following canopy as the 901 but is divided into front and rear sections,with the rear stretching back over the wing leading edge.

It`s first flight on 26 May 1956,3 prototypes were completed,and fifteen production series 904S Nymphales were built in the late 1950s and widely used by gliding clubs.
The Nymphale also competed: one placed 5th in the two-seater class of the 1956 WGC held at Saint-Yan in France.Six aircraft remain airworthy, all in France.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on July 09, 2019, 06:10:30 PM
Brochet MB.70

The Brochet MB.70 was a light two-seater aircraft developed in France in the early 1950s for recreational flying and amateur construction.
It was a high-wing braced monoplane that seated the pilot and passenger in tandem within a fully enclosed cabin. It was fitted with fixed tailwheel undercarriage layout and was of all-wooden construction.
A requirement from the Service de l'Aviation Légère et Sportive for a new light aircraft for French aeroclubs speeded progress, and a series of development machines were built with a several different engines, eventually leading to the Brochet MB.80.

The MB.72 of which five were built used a Continental A65 horizontally opposed four-cylinder engine 0f 65hp,giving the aircraft a very sedate max speed of 81mph.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on July 10, 2019, 06:17:00 PM
Caudron Type D

The Caudron Type D was a French pre-WW I single seat,twin-boom tractor biplane, a close but slightly smaller relative of the two seat Caudron Type C.
The Type D was a two bay biplane with an inner bay only about half the width of the outer. Both two spar fabric covered wings had rectangular plans apart from angled tips. There was no stagger, so the two sets of parallel interplane struts were parallel and vertical.The upper wing overhang produced by the sesquiplane modification was supported by extra parallel pairs of outward leaning interplane struts,and wire bracing completed the structure.

The Type D first appeared in December 1911 and in total thirteen were built.One was sold in England and three others to China,the Chinese aircraft had the more powerful 45 hp 6-cylinder Anzani radial engine.This engine was again mounted uncowled, showing its characteristic ring exhaust.

Another Type D powered by a larger 6-cylinder Anzani, producing 60 hp, was delivered from Paris on 21 June 1912 by Guillaux to Mr Ramsay in London.
It had a longer nacelle which seated two, had curved, raised decking immediately ahead of the cockpit and was suspended between the innermost interplane struts.
Caudron referred to this version as the Type D2. With tanks for 125 l (27 imp gal; 33 US gal) it had an endurance of around 3 hours.
It is not known how many aircraft were constructed in the UK by Ewen Aviation or its successor, British Caudron.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on July 11, 2019, 07:40:00 PM
Caudron R.11

The Caudron R.11, was a French five-seat twin-engine bomber,reconnaissance and escort biplane developed and produced during the First World War.
It was originally intended to fulfill the French Corps d'Armee reconnaissance category.The R11 was similar to the Caudron R.4, but with a more pointed nose, two bracing bays outboard the engines rather than three, no nose-wheel, and a much bigger tail.

The engines were housed in streamlined nacelles just above the lower wing,they were a pair of Hispano-Suiza 8Bba V-8 water-cooled piston engines,210 hp each.
Max speed was around 120mph and it was armed with five 7.7 mm (0.30 in) Lewis machine guns.
The French army ordered 1000 R.11s,and production began in 1917, with the first aircraft completed late in that year.In February 1918 the first squadron R.26 was equipped. The last squadron to form before the Armistice was R.246, at which point 370 planes had been completed and production ended soon after.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on July 12, 2019, 04:47:49 PM
Caudron C.27

The Caudron C.27 was a French biplane, a two-seat basic trainer which also competed successfully in the 1920s.
It was a two bay biplane,without stagger or significant dihedral.It had rectangular plan wings,each built around two wooden spars and they were fabric covered.These were braced with parallel interplane struts, assisted by piano-wire bracing. There were simple parallel cabane struts between the upper wing centre section and the upper fuselage longerons.Ailerons were fitted only to the upper wing.

The C.27 was powered by a 80 hp Le Rhône 9C nine cylinder air-cooled rotary engine,driving a two blade propeller and with a cowling which surrounded its upper three-quarters.
This give it a max speed of around 80mph,later versions had more powerful engines fitted,up to 130 hp.These were designated C.125`s.

The exact date of the first flight,is not known but the aircraft was flown publicly at Orly at the end of June 1922.Two years later a C.27 won the 1924 Zenith Cup, a trophy based on fuel consumption and load carrying ability.The C.128 was again very similar but powered by a 120 hp Salmson 9AC, a nine-cylinder, air cooled radial engine.
At least twenty-one C.27, C.125, C.127 and C.128 aircraft appeared on the French civil register at one time.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on July 13, 2019, 06:16:04 PM
Caudron C.430 Rafale

The Caudron C.430 Rafale was a fast, two seat French touring monoplane.
It was a two-seat development of the single seat Caudron C.362, the winner of the 1933 Coupe Deutsch de la Meurthe.It was slightly larger and heavier, though with a lower wing loading,the Rafale was a low wing cantilever monoplane, wood framed and covered with a mixture of plywood and fabric.
It`s one piece,single spar wing was strongly straight tapered to elliptical tips and was plywood covered with an outer layer of fabric.There were flaps inboard of the ailerons.
It had an air cooled 150 hp inverted four cylinder 6.3 l (384 cu in) inline Renault 4Pei Bengali engine in the nose,driving a two blade, two position variable pitch propeller.This gave an impressive top speed of 190 mph and a cruise of 160mph.

On 31st March 1934,about a week after its first flight, the C.430 F-AMVB set a new International speed record of 181 mph over 100 km (62 mi) for aircraft with an empty weight less than 560 kg (1,235 lb).
Hélène Boucher, a prominent French pilot in the mid-1930s, died in a landing approach accident in F-AMVB on 30 November 1934.Just two aircraft were completed.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on July 14, 2019, 06:11:42 PM
Caudron C.440 Goéland

The Caudron C.440 Goéland ("seagull") was a six-seat twin-engine utility aircraft developed in France in the mid-1930s.Eighteen subtypes were built over it`s production run.

It`s construction was almost wooden throughout,with wooden skinning except for the forward and upper fuselage sections,which were skinned in metal.It was a conventionally configured low-wing cantilever monoplane with tailwheel undercarriage.The main undercarriage units retracted into the engine nacelles.
Standard configuration was a crew of two,seating for six passengers,with baggage compartments fore and aft, and a toilet to the rear.

Production of the C.440 and its varients continued until the outbreak of WWII, at which time many C.440s were pressed into military service.Following the fall of France, some were operated by the German Luftwaffe and Deutsche Luft Hansa. Another user was the Slovenské vzdušné zbrane - it ordered 12 aircraft as the C.445M in 1942.

Production began again after the war for military and civil use as a transport and as a twin-engined trainer.In the postwar reorganisation of the French aircraft industry, Caudron became part of SNCA du Nord and the aircraft became the Nord Goeland; 325 of these were built.Commercial operators included Air France, SABENA, Aigle Azur and Compagnie Air Transport (CAT).
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on July 15, 2019, 07:59:52 PM
Caudron C.710.

The C.710 were a series of light fighter aircraft developed by Caudron-Renault for the French Air Force just prior to the start of World War II.
The contract that led to the C.710 series was offered in 1936 to quickly raise the number of modern aircraft in French service, by supplying a "light fighter" of wooden construction that could be built rapidly in large numbers without upsetting the production of existing types.The contract resulted in three designs, the Arsenal VG-30, the Bloch MB.700, and the C.710. Prototypes of all three were ordered.

A common feature of the Caudron line was a long nose that set the cockpit far back on the fuselage.The nose housed the 450 hp Renault 12R-01, a supercharged inverted and air-cooled V-12 engine that resulted from putting together two 6Q engines.The landing gear was fixed and spatted, and the vertical stabilizer was a seemingly World War I-era semicircle instead of a more common trapezoidal or triangular design. Armament consisted of a 20 mm Hispano-Suiza HS.9 cannon under each wing in a small pod.

The C.710 prototype first flew on 18 July 1936.[3] Despite its small size, it showed good potential and was able to reach a level speed of 292 mph during flight testing. Further development continued with the C.711 and C.712 with more powerful engines, while the C.713 which flew on 15 December 1937 introduced retractable landing gear and a more conventional triangular vertical stabilizer.
The final evolution of the 710 series was the C.714 Cyclone, a variation on the C.713 which first flew in April 1938 as the C.714.01 prototype. The primary changes were a new wing airfoil profile, a strengthened fuselage, and instead cannons, the fighter had four 7.5 mm MAC 1934 machine guns in the wing gondolas. It was powered by the newer 12R-03 version of the engine, which introduced a new carburettor that could operate in negative g.

The French Air Force ordered 20 C.714s on 5 November 1938, with options for a further 180. Production started at a Renault factory in the Paris suburbs in summer 1939.Deliveries did not start until January 1940. After a series of tests with the first production examples, it became apparent that the design was seriously flawed. Although light and fast, its wooden construction did not permit a more powerful engine to be fitted,with the result that the Caudron was withdrawn from active service in February 1940.
In March, the initial production order was reduced to 90, as the performance was not considered good enough to warrant further production contracts. Eighty were diverted to Finland to fight in the Winter War. These were meant to be flown by French pilots,only six aircraft were delivered, and an additional ten were waiting in the harbour when deliveries were stopped.

On 18 May 1940, 35 Caudrons were delivered to the Polish Warsaw Squadron,I/145, stationed at the Mions airfield. After just 23 sorties, adverse opinion of the fighter was confirmed by frontline pilots who expressed concerns that it was seriously underpowered and was no match for contemporary German fighters.

On 25 May, only a week after it was introduced, French Minister of War Guy La Chambre ordered all C.714s to be withdrawn from active service. However,the French had no other aircraft to offer, the Polish ignored the order and continued to fly the Caudrons. Despite flying a fighter hopelessly outdated compared to the Messerschmitt Bf 109E, the Polish pilots scored 12 confirmed and three unconfirmed victories in three battles between 8 June and 11 June, losing nine in the air and nine more on the ground. Among the aircraft shot down were four Dornier Do 17 bombers, and also three Messerschmitt Bf 109 and five Messerschmitt Bf 110 fighters.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on July 16, 2019, 07:39:08 PM
Caudron Aiglon

The Caudron C.600 Aiglon is a 1930s French two-seat monoplane sport/touring aircraft built by Caudron–Renault.
The Aiglon (en: Eaglet) was designed by Marcel Riffard after he took over the design department when Caudron merged with Renault.It was a two-seat low-wing cantilever monoplane with tandem open cockpits,the first of two prototypes first flew in March 1935 from Issy-les-Moulineaux, France.

In December 1935 a C.610 special long-distance single-seat version with increased fue was flown from Paris to Saigon at an average speed of 80 mph.
Powerplant was usually a Renault 4Pgi Bengali Junior inline piston engine,of 100 hp giving a max speed of around 135mph,other engines were fitted to some versions.
With the outbreak of the Second World War many of the aircraft were requisitioned by the French Government for use as liaison aircraft by the Armée de l'Air. Total production of the Aiglon was 203 aircraft, including 178 of the basic Renault 4Pgi Bengali Junior powered model.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on July 17, 2019, 05:21:47 PM
CAMS 33

The CAMS 33 was a reconnaissance flying boat built in France in the early 1920s.It was designed in response to a French Navy requirement for new flying boats for various roles.
Chantiers Aéro-Maritimes de la Seine (CAMS) submitted prototype aircraft in two categories for the Navy requirement,as both a reconnaissance aircraft and a transport.The design was a conventional biplane flying boat with equal-span unstaggered wings and two engines mounted in a single nacelle in tractor-pusher configuration.
It featured an open cockpit for two pilots, plus open bow and dorsal gun positions on the reconnaissance machine, or an enclosed cabin for seven passengers on the transport version, which was not selected for production.

The armed reconnaissance version was accepted as the 33B.Twelve aircraft were eventually produced for the French Navy,equipping Escadrille 1R1 at Cherbourg.
Yugoslavia purchased another six machines.The 33T prototype flew under civil registration for a few years, but was unable to attract customers.
They were powered by 2 × Hispano-Suiza 8F,of 275 hp each, giving a max speed of around 110mph.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on July 18, 2019, 05:52:11 PM
CAMS 54

The CAMS 54 was a development and more powerful version of the French CAMS 51 civil transport and naval reconnaissance flying boat,designed for transatlantic flights.
It was a single-bay biplane with equal span,rectangular plan wings mounted without stagger.The upper wing was in three parts, a short centre section and two long outer panels; the lower wing had two inner panels, mounted on the upper fuselage and strengthened by short, parallel pairs of struts to mid-fuselage, and two outer panels.
 
It was powered by a pair of engines in push-pull configuration, mounted above the fuselage and just below the upper wing on two inward-leaning pairs of tubular N-struts.Their mounting also supported the wing centre-section with parallel pairs of struts outwards to the spars.Two types of engine could be used, either 500 hp Hispano-Suiza 12Mbr V12 enclosed in a common streamlined cowling, or 480 hp) Gnome-Rhône 9Akx Jupiter nine-cylinder radials, mounted uncowled for cooling, with a circular section cowling between them.

The CAMS 54's first flights were made in late March 1928, powered with the Hispano-Suiza engines.By 12 May 1928 it was making long test flights with the Gnome et Rhône radials.On 22 July the CAMS 54, with the radial engines, named La Frégate and crewed by Paris, second pilot and wireless operator Cadou and flight engineer Marot, flew to Horta, Azores.The first eight hours were uneventful at speeds around 109 mph, but failure of the rear engine then seriously slowed the aircraft and the 1,290 mi;flight lasted about 14 hr 15 min,at an average speed of about 90 mph.

Inspection of the engine after landing showed it could not be repaired and also that the heavy loads sustained by the forward engine operating alone had caused serious wear, ruling out further long flights. The French Marine Ministry therefore decided to bring La Frégate back to the mainland by boat.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on July 19, 2019, 07:32:51 PM
Potez-CAMS 141

The Potez-CAMS 141 was a French long range reconnaissance flying boat of the late 1930s. Intended to equip the French Navy, only a single prototype was completed before the German invasion of France halted production.
The 141 was designed by Chantiers Aéro-Maritimes de la Seine (or CAMS, which since 1933 had been part of Potez) to meet a 1935 French Navy specification for a long range marine reconnaissance flying boat to replace obsolete aircraft.

It was a four engined monoplane, powered by Hispano-Suiza 12Y liquid-cooled V-12 piston engines,of 860 hp each.Max speed was just under 200mph,cruise was around 160mph.
It had a high aspect ratio wing mounted above the fuselage and a twin tail.It was armed with a dorsal turret carrying two 7.5 mm Darne machine guns, with a further two machine guns in lateral barbettes and two in waist positions.

After evaluation, a production order for four aircraft was placed, with a further 15 being ordered before the start of the WWII.The prototype, named Antarès entered service with Escadrille E8 of the French Navy in September 1939, flying its first patrol mission over the Atlantic on 20 September 1939.
No production aircraft had been completed by the time of the Armistice in June 1940, with Antarès being evacuated to Port Lyautey in Morocco.
It was operated by the Vichy French Navy,until the allied invasion of North Africa, when after brief fighting, the French armed forces in North Africa joined with the Free French. Antarès continued in service, carrying out patrols over the Central and South Atlantic.Antarès was retired and scrapped early in 1944.

Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on July 20, 2019, 05:46:37 PM
CFA D.7 Cricri Major

The CFA D.7 Cricri Major was a French-built light civil aircraft of the 1940s.
It was a postwar-built light high-wing monoplane with enclosed two-seat tandem glazed cabin with fixed tail-wheel undercarriage, powered by a 90hp Salmson 5Aq-01 radial engine. Cruise speed was 80mph with a max speed of 93 mph, it had a range of just over 300 miles.

An initial series of ten Cricri (Cricket) Majors was completed and these were bought by aero clubs and private pilots.The design was rather outdated and no further examples were completed.Four D.7s remained in service in 1956 and one example, F-BFNG remained airworthy in 1967. This aircraft has been restored to airworthiness and was operational in 2005.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on July 21, 2019, 05:42:03 PM
CAB Minicab

The CAB GY-20 Minicab is a two-seat light aircraft built in France in the late 1940`s.
Its design was a scaled-down version of Yves Gardan`s designed SIPA S.90. The pilot and passenger sit side by side and access to the cockpit is via a one-piece perspex canopy that hinges forwards. Gardan's intention was to produce a low-cost, easy-to-fly, easy-to-maintain aircraft with the possibility of homebuilding the aircraft.

The prototype Minicab first flew at Pau-Idron on 1 February 1949.CAB manufactured a total of 22 Minicabs.This was followed by a larger number completed by amateur builders in France and other countries.Several Minicabs are currently active in the UK have been rebuilt to the JB.01 standard developed by M. Jean Barritault. Falconar sold plans for a tricycle gear homebuilt model named the Minihawk.

It was powered by a Continental A65 four-cylinder air-cooled horizontally-opposed piston engine,of 65 hp,which gave it a cruising speed of around 100mph or a max of 112 mph.
Type certification was obtained in mid-April 1949.Approx 160 aircraft were completed,over 130 were home builds.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on July 22, 2019, 06:40:07 PM
Couzinet 70

The Couzinet 70 was a 1930s French three-engined commercial monoplane built by Société des Avions René Couzinet founded by René Couzinet.
The Couzinet 70 Arc-en-Ciel III (Rainbow) was developed from the 1920s Couzinet 10 Arc-en-Ciel, which first flew on 7 May 1928, the Couzinet 11 and Couzinet 40.

The larger span Couzinet 70 was developed originally as a mail plane for use of Aéropostale's South Atlantic service.
It was a low-wing monoplane with an usual sweep up to the vertical stabiliser,and featured a fixed undercarriage.
The aircraft was powered by three  Hispano-Suiza 12Nb V-12 liquid-cooled piston engine,of 650 hp each.The wing mounted engines could be accessed in flight through tunnels in the wing.
After route-proving in 1933 the aircraft was modified and re-designated the Couzinet 71 and entered service with Aéropostale in May 1934.

It had a crew of four,cruising speed was around 160 mph with a max speed of 174 mph,range was over 4200 miles.Only three aircraft were completed.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on July 23, 2019, 06:10:12 PM
Dewoitine D.7

The Dewoitine D.7 was a French ultra-light sport plane built in the mid 1920s.

The D.7 was a conventionally laid-out monoplane, with a thick cantilever shoulder wing.Its single seat,open cockpit,provided with a small windscreen,was over the wing.
It had conventional, fixed, tailskid landing gear.
The D.7 could be powered by any small engine; the Salmson AD.3 radial engine, the Clerget 2K flat twin, Vaslin flat-four or Vaslin water-cooled six cylinder inline engines were fitted.

Performance was leisurely to say the least,12hp gave top speed of 55mph.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on July 24, 2019, 06:28:07 PM
Dewoitine D.19

The Dewoitine D.19 was a fighter aircraft built in France in 1925 in response to a French Air Force request.
A development of the D.1, the D.19 shared the D.1's parasol-wing configuration,but featured an all-new wing of increased span,and had double the engine power.

It was rejected by the French Air Force,but a demonstration for the Swiss government in August 1925 led to an order for three aircraft.
One example was sold to Belgium, incorporating changes requested by the Swiss which included a change in the wing (more similar to the D.1), and the replacement of the radiators with a more conventional frontal radiator.

Powerplant was a Hispano-Suiza 12Jb V-12 water-cooled piston engine of 400 hp,which gave it a top speed of around 160mph.It was equipped with a pair fixed,forward-firing 7.7 mm (0.30 in) machine-guns.
The first Swiss D.19 was entirely constructed by Dewoitine in France, the remaining two aircraft were supplied to be assembled by the Swiss factory EKW. The aircraft were used for many years by the Swiss Fliegertruppe as trainers for fighter pilots, remaining in service until 1940. Just five aircraft were completed.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on July 25, 2019, 09:19:14 PM
Dewoitine D.26

The Dewoitine D.26 was a military trainer developed in Switzerland for the Swiss Air Force in parallel with the D.27 fighter.
After the end of WW I, the lack in demand for aircraft forced Dewoitine to close his company and move to Switzerland in 1927.

The D.26 airframe was similar to that of the D.27,differences included the engine cowling was omitted on the D.26;and the radial engine was smaller and produced 340 hp.
it first flew in December 1929,10 examples were built by Dewoitine for assembly by the Swiss factory K+W Thun in Switzerland. These were followed by an order for two more aircraft equipped with a slightly higher-powered version of the Wright 9Q engine that powered the initial batch, and one of the original D.26s was similarly re-engined.

The D.26 enjoyed a long service life, not being withdrawn until 1948. At this time, they were transferred to the Aero-Club der Schweiz where they were used as glider tugs. The last example was not retired from aeroclub use until 1970,it was preserved at the military aviation museum at Dübendorf.
Only 2 planes are still airworthy in original condition, number 286 is based in Grenchen LSZG and number 284 is based in Lausanne LSGL.Both planes touring in airshows as "Patrouille Dewoitine - Swiss Air Force 1931".
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on July 26, 2019, 09:42:19 PM
Dewoitine D.30

The Dewoitine D.30 was a ten-seat cantilever monoplane built in France in 1930.It first appeared in public at the Paris Aero Show in December 1930.It was a single-engine, ten-seat passenger aircraft with a high cantilever wing and rectangular-section fuselage.
It was powered by a 650 hp Hispano-Suiza 12Nbr water cooled, upright V-12 engine.This engine cowling followed the profile of the two cylinder banks, and drove a two-blade propeller;it was cooled with a Lamblin radiator mounted ventrally at its rear.

The D.30 first flew on 21 May 1931.A second prototype followed but was modified into a trimotor aircraft, designated the Dewoitine D.31 and powered by three Hispano-Suiza 9Q nine-cylinder radial engines.The outer engines were each mounted well below the wing via pairs of struts. Apart from the three engines and a consequent increase in weight and slight reduction in length, the D.31 was very similar to the D.30.
It first flew on 12 January 1932, initially powered by the 230 hp 9Qa engine variant,but in 1935 these were replaced by 320 hp 9Qbs.The outer engines remained uncowled but the central one had a long chord cowling.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on July 27, 2019, 03:15:53 PM
Dewoitine D.500 Series

The Dewoitine D.500 was an all-metal, open-cockpit, fixed-undercarriage monoplane fighter aircraft designed and produced in France.
On 18 June 1932, the prototype performed its first flight.During November 1933, an initial quantity of sixty aircraft was ordered on behalf of the French Air Force, for whom the type was to serve as a replacement for the Nieuport 62. On 29 November 1934, the first production D.500 made its first flight.

Aircraft armed with a pair of twin nose-mounted machine guns were designated as D.500 while those fitted with a single 20 mm cannon that fired through the propeller hub received the designation D.501.The most significant derivative of the type was the D.510, the main difference was the use of a more powerful Hispano-Suiza 12Ycrs engine,of 860 hp; minor refinements included a slightly lengthened nose, an increase in fuel capacity and a refined undercarriage arrangement.
A total of 381 D.500s and its derivatives were built by the end of production.The design was further developed into the more capable Dewoitine D.520, which featured an enclosed cockpit and a retractable undercarriage.

During July 1935, the initial models of the aircraft, the D.500 and D.501, were inducted into the Armée de l'Air.During October 1936, the first examples of the more powerful D.510 variant were also delivered.By September 1939,the early D.500/501 models had been relegated to regional defense and training squadrons.
Fourteen D.501s (named D.501L), originally sold to Lithuania, and two D.510s ostensibly intended for the Emirate of Hedjaz, saw service with the Republican forces during the Spanish Civil War, arriving some time during mid-1936. When the French government found out about the delivery of the D.510s, they demanded the return of the 12Y engines.The Russians had already copied it as the Klimov M-100 engine.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on July 28, 2019, 03:53:26 PM
Dewoitine D.770

The Dewoitine D.770 was a prototype French twin-engined attack aircraft of the late 1930s.

In August 1937,the French Air Ministry requested designs for a light attack bomber.SNCAM, the nationalised Dewoitine company, proposed a three-seater twin-engined aircraft to meet this requirement, with two prototypes being ordered,the Dewoitine D.770 to be powered by two Hispano-Suiza 12Y V12 engines,and the Dewoitine D.771 to be powered by two Gnome-Rhône 14N radial engines but otherwise similar to the D.770.

The prototype D.770 was completed at SNCAM's Toulouse factory in the spring of 1939.It was a mid-winged cantilever monoplane of stressed skin all-metal construction, with a monocoque fuselage and a retractable tailwheel undercarriage. A 20-mm cannon and two 7.5 mm machine guns were mounted in the aircraft's nose, and could be moved to an angle of -15 degrees aimed by the pilot. A single machine gun was flexibly mounted in the dorsal position, with two more machine guns in a ventral position, while eight 50 kg (110 lb) bombs could be carried in a bomb-bay.The crew of three were protected by armour plating.

The D.770 made its first flight on 27 June 1939,the aircraft demonstrated good speed,but it suffered from engine cooling problems and poor stability,testing was slow, and was not complete in June 1940 when the French surrender resulting in the test programme being abandoned.The D.771 version was completed in December 1939,but never flew, as the French Air Force favoured other types,and SNCAM were flat out producing the Dewoitine D.520 fighter. Both prototypes were scrapped in 1941.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on July 29, 2019, 07:13:51 PM
Dewoitine HD.730

The Dewoitine HD.730 was a prototype French reconnaissance floatplane of the 1940s.It was a single-engined, low-wing monoplane designed to be catapult-launched from warships of the French Navy.
Two prototypes ordered in 1938,it was a low-wing monoplane of all-metal stressed-skin construction. It was fitted with an inverted gull-wing, which folded immediately outboard of the twin floats to aid storage onboard ship, and it had twin tail fins.The two-man crew or pilot and observer sat in tandem under an enclosed canopy.
The observer could operate a single flexibly mounted machine gun and a fixed machine gun was operated by the pilot.The aircraft was powered by a single 220 hp Renault 6Q inverted six-cylinder air-cooled piston engine driving a two-blade propeller.Cruise speed was a sluggish 140mph and range was around 840 miles.

The first prototype flew in February 1940, with the second following in May.Testing showed that it was underpowered,it was proposed that the planned 40 production aircraft would be use a 350 hp Béarn 6D powerplant. These plans were stopped by the French surrender in June 1940, with the two prototypes being stored.
Despite the Armistice, development continued, with a significantly revised third prototype being built,to avoid Axis controls on the production of military aircraft, it was officially described as a commercial liaison aircraft for use in France's overseas colonies.
It made its maiden flight on 11 March 1941,but testing revealed that its wings were too small and the HD.731 was abandoned.Work on the HD.730 restarted on 21 July 1945. Testing was successful,but the French Navy now had no need for a catapult floatplane, as catapults had been removed from its ships,so the project was abandoned.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on July 30, 2019, 06:04:15 PM
Donnet-Denhaut Flying Boat series

The Donnet-Denhaut flying boat was a maritime patrol and anti-submarine warfare aircraft produced in France during the First World War. Known simply as "Donnet-Denhaut" or "DD" flying boats, the DD-2, DD-8, DD-9, and DD-10 designations were applied to denote the various changes in configuration made during their service life.

The aircraft were developed in response to a French Navy request,they were biplane flying boats of conventional configuration with two-bay unstaggered wings and a rotary engine mounted pusher-fashion on struts.The French Navy ordered some 90 aircraft in this original configuration dubbed DD-2.
In 1917,the aircraft was redsigned to take advantage of the new Hispano-Suiza 8 engine,the Navy ordered another 365 machines. Donnet-Denhaut increased the wingspan by adding a third bay to the wing and a place for a second gunner, bringing the total crew to three.This version (known as the DD-8) became the most produced, with around 500 aircraft built.The DD-8 was also known as the Donnet-Denhaut 300-hp.

Further changes added a second machine gun to each gunner's station (the DD-9) and twin engines mounted in a push-pull configuration (the DD-10). Following the war, a few military surplus DDs were remanufactured as the Donnet HB.3 and operated commercially.
DD flying boats were operated by the US Navy in Europe, flying from Dunkirk to protect convoys from submarines.50 aircraft of this type were purchased.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on July 31, 2019, 06:25:20 PM
Dyn'Aéro CR.100 Series

The Dyn'Aéro CR.100 is a French kit built single engine, two-seater monoplane,primarily for aero club use.
The CR.100 is a conventional single engine, low-wing monoplane, with the large control surface areas and absence of dihedral expected in an aerobatic aircraft. The structure is mostly wood and fabric, though the main wing spar is a plywood and carbon laminate composite and carbon covered ply is an option for the wing surfaces.

Full dual controls,including a pair of left hand throttles,are fitted A sliding bubble canopy covers the cockpit and is faired behind into a rounded fuselage top deck. The wide track main conventional undercarriage has cantilever legs in fairings, with wheels usually in spats.The CR.100T variant offers the alternative of a tricycle undercarriage.

It is powered by a 180 hp Lycoming O-360 flat-4 engine,driving a fixed pitch,two-bladed propeller.Max speed is around 190 mph with a cruise of 160mph.
The CR.110 variant has a Lycoming engine uprated to 200 hp .The CR.120 high agility version is intended to be competitive using the 200hp uprated engine.
It differs from the CR.110 in having almost full span ailerons and a shorter span to increase the roll rate, at the cost of the flaps,structurally it has an entirely carbon fibre airframe.
The CR.120 was also intended for use as a military trainer.The first flight of the CR.100 was on 27 August 1992.The CR.120 flew in September 1996 and the CR.100T in November 2000.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on August 01, 2019, 07:05:17 PM
Dyn'Aéro MCR4S

The Dyn'Aéro MCR4S is a four-seat development of the French two seat, single engine Dyn'Aéro MCR01. It first flew in early 2000 and is sold as a kit for homebuilding in several versions.
The main changes are an increase in fuselage length to accommodate an extra row of seats with generous windows and the replacement of the flaperons seen on the long span variants of the MCR01, which have wings of about the same span as those of the MCR4S, with slotted flaps.
The cabin seats up to four,depending on the variant,in two side-by-side rows.Entry is via the large,forward hinged,two piece canopy.

A variety of Rotax flat four engines may be fitted, driving a two or three blade propeller, which may have fixed or variable pitch.
For example the top spec model uses a Rotax 914 UL flat four piston engine, turbocharged, air and water cooled, driving constant speed propeller,produces 113hp,enough for a max speed of 155mph or a cruise of around 140mph.
The Dyn'Aéro MCR4S flew for the first time on 14 June 2000.as a matter of interest,the MCR4S structure has been used by EADS Defence & Security for its EADS Surveyor 2500 drone.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on August 02, 2019, 05:25:22 PM
Etablissements Borel hydro-monoplane.

The Borel Hydro-monoplane (also called Bo.8) was a French seaplane produced in 1912.

The aircraft, which was developed from the 1911 Morane-Borel monoplane, was a tractor monoplane powered by an 80 hp Gnome Lambda rotary engine.A curved aluminium cowling covered the top of the engine, and the sides of the fuselage were also covered with aluminium as far aft as the rear of the cockpit.Two seats were arranged in tandem, with the pilot sitting in front and dual controls were fitted.The main undercarriage consisted of a pair of flat-bottomed floats.Lateral control was achieved by wing warping.
One example was entered in the 1913 Schneider Trophy competition, but crashed during the elimination trials.Another, flown by George Chemet, was the winner of the 1913 Paris-Deauville race.

Military operators included Italy with the Corpo Aeronautico Militare, the UK RNAS and RFC,and in Brazil with the Brazil Navy and Police.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on August 03, 2019, 07:43:10 PM
Farman MF.11

The Maurice Farman MF.11 Shorthorn is a French aircraft developed before World War I by the Farman Aviation Works.It was used as a reconnaissance and light bomber during the early part of World War I, later being relegated to training duties.
The Maurice Farman Shorthorn was the aircraft in which Biggles, Capt W.E. Johns' fictional character,took to the air in "Biggles Learns To Fly".

The MF.11 differed from the earlier Farman MF.7,in lacking the forward-mounted elevator, the replacement of the biplane horizontal tail with a single surface and a pair of rudders mounted above it,and the mounting of the nacelle containing crew and engine in the gap between the two wings.The aircraft was also fitted with a 0.30 in machine gun for the observer,whose position was changed from the rear to the front in order to give a clear field of fire.The engine was a Renault 8-cylinder air-cooled inline, of 100 hp.

The MF.11 served in both the British and French on the Western Front in the early stages of WWI. As a light bomber it flew the first bombing raid of the war when on 21 December 1914 an MF.11 of the Royal Naval Air Service attacked German artillery positions around Ostend.
It was withdrawn from front-line service on the Western Front in 1915, but continued to be used by the French in Macedonia and the Middle East, while the British also used it in the Dardanelles,and Africa.The Australian Flying Corps (AFC), provided with the MF.11 by the British Indian Army, operated it during the Mesopotamian campaign of 1915–16.
Italy's Società Italiana Aviazione,licence-built a number of MF.11s under the designation SIA 5 from early 1915, fitted with a fixed forward machine gun and a 100 hp Fiat A.10 engine.

There are a few surviors in air museums in Canada, Belgium and Australia.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on August 04, 2019, 07:04:27 PM
Farman HF.30

The Henry Farman HF.30 was a two-seat military biplane designed in France around 1915, which became a principal aircraft of the Imperial Russian Air Service during the First World War.
The HF.30 was not adopted by other Allied air forces, and the manufacturers reused the "Farman F.30" designation for the Farman F.30 in 1917.

The basic airframe of the HF.30 was very similar to the earlier and smaller F.20, a two-bay biplane with a shorter lower wing,a long v-shaped tail framework, and similar control surfaces - ailerons on the outer sections of the upper wings, and a single rudder and a high tailplane at the rear. It differed by reviving the raised fuselage position of the 1913 MF.11, positioning the cockpit and engine between the wings rather than mounting them directly on top of the lower wing, and it was the first Farman to adopt the robust v-strut undercarriage that was becoming standard.
It improved on the underpowered F.20 by utilizing the much more potent 150 hp Salmson 9 radial engine,this gave it a top speed of 85-95mph.

At the start of the First World War the Farman type pusher biplane was widely regarded as the best available design for a combat aircraft. The unobstructed position of the cockpit provided a very wide field of fire for a forward-facing gun, not to mention a good view ahead and to the sides for piloting, aerial reconnaissance and artillery spotting. The greater lift of a biplane design enabled the plane to carry a heavier cargo, such as a payload of bombs under the wings. The relatively simple airframe was also seen as suitable for mass production, especially before synchronization gear became widely available, these criteria were enough to outweigh the superior speed and flight performance offered by monoplane designs with a tractor propeller.

Unusually the HF.30 was used exclusively by the Imperial Russian Air Service, and serial production appears to have taken place principally or entirely in Russia.The HF.30 appears to have been produced principally by the Dux Factory in Moscow, although some level of construction seems to have also taken place at several of the other major Russian aircraft factories.
There are sketchy references to the type's involvement in air combat,but it is not clear how far the HF.30 had been deployed before two consecutive developments in 1916 that curtailed its usefulness.The Air Service began to restrict the air superiority role to new high-performance planes equipped with synchronization gears, like the imported Nieuport 11; then, the HF.30 was definitively outclassed in combat by new opponents, beginning with the Albatros D.I fighter and the Albatros C.V scout. Furthermore, the HF.30's "pusher" engine came to be regarded as a large, exposed target from rearward attacks.

The wide availability of the type also meant that it was acquired by other emerging states of Eastern Europe.In 1919, a captured example became the first plane of the Estonian Air Force.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on August 05, 2019, 10:04:15 PM
Farman F.110

The Farman F.110 was a French two-seat artillery observation biplane designed and built in the 1920`s.

The F.110 was an effort by Farman to produce an artillery observation aircraft normally supplied to the French military by rivals Breguet.Mainly of aluminium alloy construction it was a biplane design with a tailskid landing gear.Powered by a water-cooled 260 hp Salmson 9Z radial piston engine which was caused considerable drag because of the need for a large radiator box under the nose.

Armament was one fixed forward-firing 7.7mm (0.303in) machine-gun and two further machine-guns on flexible mounts in observers cockpit.
The pilot and observer had an open cockpit with glazed panels in the sides and the floor to give the observer a good view.After a first flight in 1921 the Aéronautique Militaire ordered 175 aircraft,however the F.110 suffered structural problems and after some modification only 50 aircraft were delivered and the type was not developed further.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on August 06, 2019, 06:46:52 PM
Farman F.120 Jabiru Series.

The Farman F.120 and its derivatives were a family of multi-engine airliners and bombers of the 1920s built by the Farman Aviation Works.
The Jabiru, which was named after a Latin American stork, was a fixed-undercarriage sesquiplane powered by either two, three or four engines, depending on the variant. It featured an unusually broad chord, low aspect-ratio main wing and a very deep fuselage.The tri-motor variant had the centerline engine mounted high, giving it an unusual appearance.

The F.121 or F.3X was the first version to fly, with four 180 hp Hispano-Suiza 8Ac V8 engines mounted in tandem push-pull pairs mounted on stub wings,however this caused cooling problems for the rear engines.The F.120/F.4X version followed shortly afterwards,powered by three 300 hp Salmson Az.9 radial engines.Later versions included a single F.122, modified from an F.4X,powered by two 400 hp Lorraine 12Db engines.Two military versions were built, the F.123 with two 450 hp Hispano-Suiza 12Hb V12s, or F.124 with two 420 hp Gnome et Rhône 9Ad Jupiter radial`s.

To say it was an ugly aircraft is somewhat of an understatement, however it saw service with several European airlines,it could carry nine passengers and were operated until the late 1920`s.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on August 07, 2019, 05:44:02 PM
Farman F.200 Series

The Farman F.200 was a civil utility aircraft produced in France in the 1930s.
It was derived from the F.190,but featured a revised fuselage that did away with its predecessor's enclosed cabin. Instead, it was a parasol-wing monoplane with open cockpits in tandem for the pilot and one or two passengers. It was intended primarily to be a trainer,but it was also marketed as being suitable as a photographic platform or a cargo/mail plane.

A number of different engines were used ranging from 100hp to 120hp,which gave it a top speed of around 100mph - 110mph depending on the engine type fitted.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on August 08, 2019, 06:42:33 PM
Farman F.300 Series.

The Farman F.300 and F.310 were high-wing strut braced monoplane airliners with fixed tailskid undercarriage.
They had a trimotor layout and the cockpit and an 8 passenger compartment were fully enclosed.Most saw service in Farman's own airline, whose twelve F.300 variants made up half its fleet in 1931.

One variant, the F.302, was specially built as a single-engine machine to make an attempt at a number of world records.On 9 March 1931,Réginensi and Lalouette set new distance and duration records over a closed circuit with a 2,000 kg payload, flying 1,664 miles in 17 hours.Another, the F.304 was built as a special trimotor for Marcel Goulette to make a long-distance flight the same month from Paris to Tananarive and back.

The F.301 had  3 × Salmson 9Ab 9-cylinder air-cooled radial piston engine,of 230 hp each. These allowed a max speed of 143mph with a normal cruise of 120mph.
22 aircraft were completed in 6 different production versions.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on August 09, 2019, 07:32:32 PM
Farman F.430

The Farman F.430 was a 1930s French light transport,two variants with different engines were known as the F.431 and F.432.
The F.430 was a low-wing cantilever monoplane with a tail-wheel landing gear,powered by two wing-mounted de Havilland Gipsy Major piston engines.It had a closed cockpit and the cabin had room for a pilot and five passengers.

The prototype F-ANBY appeared in 1934 and the F.431 variant with 180 hp Renault Bengali-Six inverted piston engines was exhibited at the 1934 Paris Salon de l'Aeronautique.
A further variant with 180 hp Farman radial engines was designated the F.432.
After the company had been nationalised and became part of SNCAC a variant with a retractable landing gear (the Centre 433) was completed, and flown for the first time in December 1938.The F.430 and two F.431s were used by Air Service between Paris and Biarritz. Just seven aircraft were completed in total.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on August 10, 2019, 06:36:14 PM
Farman F.500 Series

The Farman F.500 Monitor was a 1950s Franco-Belgian two-seat training aircraft.

Farman had earlier produced the Stampe SV.4 under licence,and with co-operation of Stampe,they designed a two-seat training monoplane using SV-4 components designated the Farman F.500.The prototype, named the Monitor I, first flew on 11 July 1952,it was a cantilever low-wing monoplane of mixed construction and conventional tail unit.
It was powered by a 140 hp Renault 4Pei engine,and had a fixed tailwheel landing gear and two crew in tandem under a continuous canopy.

In many respects it looked rather similar to the de Havilland Canada DHC-1 Chipmunk.
The production version designated the Monitor II went into production and first flew on 5 August 1955,it had all-metal wings and a more powerful Salmson-Argus 220hp engine.
Production also took place in Belgium with Stampe et Renard under the designation SR.7B Monitor IV.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on August 11, 2019, 06:56:54 PM
Ferber IX

The Antoinette III, which was originally called the Ferber IX, was an early experimental aircraft flown in France in the late 1900`s.
It was based on Ferdinand Ferber's previous design the Ferber VIII, and was quite unlike other Antoinette aircraft.It was renamed when Ferber became a director of the Antoinette company.

It was a two-bay biplane without a fuselage or any other enclosure for the pilot. A single elevator was carried on outriggers ahead of the aircraft, and a fixed fin and horizontal stabiliser behind.The undercarriage was of bicycle configuration and included small outriggers near the wingtips.Power was provided by an Antoinette 8V water cooled V-8 engine driving a tractor propeller.
Between July and September 1908,Ferber made a number of progressively longer flights,the longest recorded being on 15 September when he covered 6 miles in around 10 mins.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on August 12, 2019, 06:29:33 PM
Fouga CM.8 Series

The Fouga CM.8 or Castel-Mauboussin CM.8 was a French sailplane glider of the 1950s.

The CM.8 was a single-seat aircraft of conventional sailplane design and designed for aerobatics.
Two prototypes were built: the CM.8/13, with a 13-metre wingspan and a conventional tail layout, and the CM.8/15 with a 15-metre wingspan and a V-tail.
Tests showed excelent performance of the aircraft and this led to experiments with mounting a small turbojet on the dorsal fuselage, exhausting between the tail fins.
The first of these flew on 14 July 1949, powered by a Turbomeca Piméné. Designated the CM.8R this combined the 13-metre wing of the CM.8/13 with the V-tail of the CM.8/15. Two examples were built, and as experiments progressed in the 1950s, they were fitted with increasingly more powerful engines, and shorter wingspans.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on August 13, 2019, 06:43:55 PM
Fouga CM.10

The Fouga CM.10 was an assault glider designed for the French Army shortly after World War II, capable of carrying 35 troops.

The CM.10 was a high-wing cantilever monoplane of conventional configuration with fixed tricycle undercarriage. Flight tests with the glider prototypes had mixed results with the first prototype crashing on 5 May 1948. A production order for 100 was placed with Fouga, but it was cancelled after only 5 gliders had been completed.

Later Fouga adapted the design as an airliner, adding two 580hp SNECMA 12S piston engines. wo of the production CM.10 gliders were converted to the powered version, CM.100-01, the first prototype (F-WFAV),first flew on 19 January 1949, but no order resulted for this aircraft.
It was later tested with Turbomeca Piméné turbojets mounted on the wingtips as the CM.101R-01.The second aircraft, which was converted as CM.101R-02, (F-WFAV), was first flew on 23 Aug 1951.Only seven aircraft were completed.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on August 14, 2019, 06:22:57 PM
Fouga CM.175 Zéphyr

The Fouga Zéphyr (company designation CM.175) was a 1950s French two-seat carrier-capable jet trainer for the French Navy,developed from the land-based CM.170 Magister.
Originally designated CM-170M Esquif, the prototype first flew on 31 July 1956, and was redesignated as the CM.175 Zéphyr soon after. Carrier trials were conducted from HMS Eagle (R05) and HMS Bulwark (R08) off the French coast.

It differed from the Magister in being equipped with an arrester hook and a modified structure and undercarriage strengthened for naval carrier operations.The Zéphyr also included a nose-mounted light.It did not have ejection seats,so new sliding canopy hoods were fitted which could be locked open during carrier launchings and landings.
One six-round rocket pod could be mounted under each wing for weapons training, and two guns could be fitted in the nose, but these were seldom carried. Thirty-two aircraft were delivered.
The first production aircraft made it`s first flight on 30 May 1959 and entered service in October 1959 with 59S the deck landing school at Hyéres. The squadron used only 14 aircraft at a time with the others being kept in short-term storage and rotated to even out the flying hours. In 1962 the unit formed an aerobatic team using the Zéphyr called the Patrouille de Voltige d'Hyéres.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on August 15, 2019, 06:50:31 PM
FBA Type A,B, and C

The FBA Type A and the similar Type B and C were a family of reconnaissance flying boats produced in France prior to and during World War I.
The Type A had a single-bay wing, while the larger Type B and C had two bay wings which otherwise only differed in the engine installed, with the type B using a 100 hp Gnome Monosoupape and the type C using a 130 hp Clerget 9B.The pilot and observer sat side by side in the open cockpit.

The RNAS contracted for 20 type B's from Norman Thompson, who was responsible for building flying surfaces for hulls provided from France, which differed by having a rectangular all-flying rudder in place of the D shaped rudder used on French examples. The Type A was the only version with a fin attached to the rudder although some aircraft had a field modification with a fin being added between the hull and the tailplane.

The French Aéronautique Maritime, and Italian Navy followed with orders for Type Bs and Cs in 1915. The FBA flying boats were used for naval patrols and frequently encountered their opposing German and Austro-Hungarian Navy counterparts which led to some being converted to single seaters armed with a machine gun. Three Type Bs became the first aircraft operated by the Portuguese Navy.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on August 16, 2019, 06:36:56 PM
FBA 17 Series

The FBA 17 was a training flying boat produced in France in the 1920s.
Similar in layout to the aircraft that FBA had produced during WW I,the Type 17 was a two-bay biplane with unequal-span,unstaggered wings with side-by-side open cockpits.
Apart from service with the French Navy, a small number were sold to the Polish Navy, the Brazilian Air Force, and also civil operators.
Some versions were built as amphibians, and others had fittings to allow them to be catapulted from warships.
The most commonly used engine was the Hispano-Suiza 8A, a water-cooled V8 SOHC aero engine that produced 140hp to 180hp depending on the specific subtype fitted.

The US Coast Guard purchased an example in 1931 for test and evaluation, they were pleased with the design, and arranged for the type to be built under licence by the Viking Flying Boat Company in Connecticut.Six aircraft were eventually produced and served with the Coast Guard under the designation OO until the outbreak of World War II.These were fitted with Wright R-760 engines with a gear-driven supercharger to boost its power output to 225hp.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on August 17, 2019, 09:53:37 PM
FBA 310

The FBA Type 310 was a 1930s French touring flying boat or amphibian built by the Franco-British Aviation Company.

The Type 310 was the last design from FBA, and was their only monoplane flying boat.It was designed to sell into a growing market for touring flying-boats in the 1920s and 1930s, the 310 was a shoulder-wing flying boat with stabilizing floats attached to the struts that braced the wing to the hull. It was powered by a single 120 hp Lorraine 5Pc radial engine driving a pusher propeller. The engine was strut-mounted above the wing, with the cabin accommodating a pilot and two passengers.
An amphibian version was also built as the 310/1, but the added weight of the landing gear meant that only one passenger could be carried.
Design and development ceased in 1931 with the lack of both orders and funds, and the factory closed in 1934 when the company was sold to Société des Avions Bernard.

Six Type 310`s and 3 Type 310/1`s were completed.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on August 18, 2019, 05:28:11 PM
Gourdou-Leseurre GL.2

The Gourdou-Leseurre GL.2 (originally, the Gourdou-Leseurre Type B) was a French fighter aircraft which made its maiden flight in 1918.
The GL.2 was a development of the Gourdou-Leseurre Type A which had shown promising performance in testing,but had been rejected by the Aéronautique Militaire due to concerns about the wing design.
The Type B featured not only a new wing,braced by four struts on either side in place of the two per side on the Type A, but also a revised fin and rudder and strengthened undercarriage.20 examples were delivered in November 1918, designated GL.2C.1 in service, but the end of the war meant a loss of official interest.

Gourdou-Leseurre continued development,and by 1920 had an improved version,designated GL.21 or B2 ready for exhibition at the Paris Salon de l'Aéronautique that year.
Two years later, a further revision appeared as the GL.22 or B3. This featured a redesigned wing of greater span, and modified horizontal stabiliser and landing gear.
It proved to be a moderate success,selling 20 to the Aéronautique Maritime as the GL.22C.1, as well as 18 to Finland, 15 to Czechoslovakia, 15 to Estonia, one to Latvia, and Yugoslavia.
The engine was usually a Hispano-Suiza 8Ab,180 hp which gave decent performance, but other engines were used at times.

Manufacture of the GL.22 resumed in an unarmed version known to the company as the B5 and purchased by both the Aéronautique Militaire and Aéronautique Maritime as the GL.22ET.1 for use as an advanced trainer. One of these aircraft was used for trials aboard the aircraft carrier Béarn.
Well into the 1930s, specialised aerobatic versions were produced as the B6 and B7 for Jérôme Cavalli and Fernand Malinvaud respectively, with a second B7 built for Adrienne Bolland.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on August 19, 2019, 06:29:11 PM
Gourdou-Leseurre GL.30, GL40 and GL50 Series

The Gourdou-Leseurre GL.30 was a racing aircraft built in France in 1920 which formed the basis for a highly successful family of fighter aircraft based on the same design.
Like most of Gordou-Lesserre's earlier aircraft, it was a parasol wing design but its planform was trapezoidal rather than rectangular.It was fitted with a beefy  Gnome et Rhône 9A Jupiter VIII 9-cyliner air-cooled radial piston engine,of 600 hp.

The GL.31, which had a greater span, almost double the wing area, a fixed undercarriage,and a Gnome-Rhône 9A engine.It was armed with four machine guns,two in the forward fuselage and two in the wings. The GL. 31 was not flown until 1926 and then abandoned, overtaken by the GL.32, the company's entry in a 1923 Aéronautique Militaire competition to select a new fighter. It returned to a rectangular plan wing.

Eventually, 475 of this basic version, dubbed LGL.32C.1 in service, would be ordered by the Aéronautique Militaire and 15 more by the Aéronautique Maritime. Romania ordered a further 50 aircraft of the same design as the examples in French service, Turkey ordered 12 (these designated LGL.32-T) and another one may have been purchased by Japan.
The GL.32 was not long-lasting, and attrition took a heavy toll,by 1934, all remaining examples were relegated to training and as instructional airframes; at the start of 1936, only 135 remained of the original 380 purchased. A number of these were sold to the government of the Second Spanish Republic and to the autonomous Basque Government. Another aircraft was supplied to the Basques in 1937, modified as a dive bomber along the lines of the previous French trials.

Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on August 20, 2019, 06:24:31 PM
Gourdou-Leseurre GL-812 HY.

The Gourdou-Leseurre GL-812 HY was a 3-seat reconnaissance floatplane from the early 1930`s.

The prototype,known as the L-2,was built in 1926-27.It has a steel tube fuselage,and rectangular wooden wing,the tail had two fins, one above and one below the fuselage.
The entire plane was fabric covered, except the 380 hp Gnome-Rhône 9A Jupiter engine, which was uncowled. The prototype was flown to Copenhagen,and was demonstrated to representatives of several countries.

Six prototype L-3s were constructed,they featured a larger 420 hp Jupiter,steel spars instead of wood, and stronger struts,which allowed for shipboard catapult launching. After successfully testing the L-3, the French navy ordered 14 production GL-810 HY aircraft.The first production 810 HY flew on 23 September 1930, taking off from the Seine at Les Mureaux.
In 1931, 20 GL-811 HYs were ordered, for operation from the seaplane carrier Commandant Teste and from 1933 to 1934 twenty-nine GL-812 HYs and thirteen GL-813 HYs were ordered.

The aircraft had a crew of three,(pilot, observer and gunner),armament consisted of 1 x fixed forward-firing synchronised 7.7 mm (0.303 in) machine gun and 2 x 7.7 mm (0.303 in) Vickers machine guns on a flexible mount in the rear cockpit, a small bomb load could also be carried.
Most aircraft had been retired by 1939,but that August the remaining aircraft were brought together to re-equip the recently re-activated and mobilized Escadrilles 1S2 and 3S3 to perform coastal anti-submarine patrols.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on August 21, 2019, 05:58:29 PM
Gourdou-Leseurre GL-832 HY

The Gourdou-Leseurre GL-832 HY was a 1930s French light shipboard reconnaissance floatplane.

In 1930 the French Navy issued a requirement for a light coastal patrol seaplane mainly for use in the French colonies.Gourdou-Leseurre built and designed a prototype GL-831 HY which was a modification of the companies earlier GL-830 HY with a smaller Hispano-Suiza radial engine.
It first flew on 23 December 1931 and after testing,in 1933 the French Navy ordered 22 aircraft designated GL-832 HY,this had a less powerful engine (230HP) than the prototype, (250HP)
The two crewed aircraft GL-832 HY was a metal construction low-wing monoplane with fabric covered wings and twin floats.There was two open cockpits in tandem for the crew, each cockpit having a windscreen.The first production aircraft flew on 17 December 1934 and the last on 12 February 1936.

The French Navy used the GL-832 HY on second-line cruisers and on smaller colonial sloops.The smaller sloops did not have a catapult and the aircraft were lowered into the sea using a crane. The aircraft were still operational at the start of the Second World War and were not retired until 1941.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on August 22, 2019, 05:58:38 PM
Hanriot D.I

The Hanriot D.I was a French monoplane racing aircraft,designed in France in flown in early 1912.

René Hanriot had hired Alfred Pagny,from Nieuport as a designer in 1911. Pagny's designs reflected Nieuport practice, particularly with the replacement of Hanriot's graceful boat-like shell fuselages with flat sided, deep chested desgins.His first such monoplane design for Hanriot was the D.I, often known as the Hanriot-Pagny monoplane though since Hanriot sold his aircraft interests to another of his designers,later in 1911 this aircraft is alternatively known as the Ponnier D.I.

The Hanriot D.I was a single seat, Nieuport style mid wing monoplane, with slightly tapered, straight edged wings. Landing wires on each side met over the fuselage at a short pyramidal four strut pylon like that on the Nieuport IV. The single, open cockpit was under the pylon.It was powered either by a 50 hp Gnome rotary engine, partially enclosed in an oil deflecting cowling, open at the bottom or a 6-cylinder Anzani static radial engine of similar power output.
At least one D.I was built early in 1912 in the UK by the recently founded Hanriot (England) Ltd company.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on August 23, 2019, 08:59:28 PM
Hanriot HD.2 Series.

The Hanriot HD.2 was a biplane floatplane fighter aircraft produced in France during the First World War.
The design was based on that of the HD.1, but was a purpose-built floatplane,rather than just a modified type.It had larger tail surfaces and a shorter wingspan with greater area.Like its predecessor, though, it was a conventional single-bay biplane with staggered wings of unequal span.

The HD.2 was developed specifically as an interceptor to defend flying boat bases, but soon was used as an escort fighter to protect French reconnaissance flying boats.The US Navy also bought 10 examples with wheeled undercarriages, designated HD.2C.
The French and USN used these aircraft in early experiments in launching fighters from warships. The USN replicated the French trials where a HD.1 had been launched from a platform built on top of one of the turrets of the battleship Paris and built a similar platform on the USS Mississippi to launch a HD.2 from. The French Navy also converted some of their HD.2s to wheeled configuration and used them for trials on the new aircraft carrier Béarn.

A final experiment in launching a HD.2 from a ship was carried out in 1924 with two new-built examples designated H.29.A launching system was developed where the aircraft were equipped with three small pulley-wheels, one on each tip of the upper wing, and one at the tip of the tail fin. These ran along metal rails that had been attached to project horizontally from the mast of the battleship Lorraine. This did not work as planned, succeeding only in dumping the aircraft into the water below.

Only 15 aircraft were completed however they used a range of engines 130 HP, 170 HP and 180 HP.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on August 24, 2019, 06:14:58 PM
Hanriot HD.3 Series

The Hanriot HD.3 C.2 was a two-seat fighter aircraft produced in France during World War I.

Similar in appearance to a scaled-up HD.1, the Hanriot HD.3 was a conventional,single-bay biplane with staggered wings of equal span.The pilot and gunner sat in tandem, open cockpits and the main units of the fixed tailskid undercarriage were linked by a cross-axle.Short struts braced the fuselage sides to the lower wing.
It`s first flight was in June 1917,flight testing revealed excellent performance, and the French government ordered 300 of the type in 1918.When the war ended the contract was cancelled with around 75 aircraft having been delivered to the Aéronautique Militaire and at least 15 to the Aéronautique Maritime.Powerplant was aSalmson 9Za nine-cylinder water-cooled radial engine of 260 hp,which gave a max speed of around 120 mph and a cruise of 105 mph.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on August 25, 2019, 05:39:48 PM
Hanriot HD.15

The Hanriot HD.15 was a French two seat fighter aircraft from the 1920`s fitted with a supercharger for high altitude performance.
It was powered by a Hispano-Suiza 8Fb 8-cylinder upright water-cooled V-8 engine fitted with a Rateau turbo-supercharger intended to maintain sea level powers to altitudes up to 5,000 m.

The fuselage of the HD.15 had tubular cross-section longerons with similar, triangularly arranged, cross bracing.The pilot's open cockpit was just behind the main wing spar, under a deep trailing edge cut-out to improve upwards and forward vision.it had two fixed forward firing 7.7 mm (0.303 in) Darne machine guns.
Behind was the observer's cockpit, fitted with a mounted pair of 7.7 mm (0.303 in) Darne machine guns. The fuselage was fabric covered from the pilot's cockpit aft. The Hispano engine, enclosed under a metal cowling, was cooled with a pair of circular cross-section radiators mounted ventrally between the undercarriage legs.It had a fixed conventional undercarriage,with mainwheels on a single axle mounted on the lower fuselage by two pairs of V-struts.

It first flew in April 1922 and should have been in competition with the Gourdou-Leseurre GL.50, but the two seat reconnaissance fighter programme had been abandoned before this date. The whole high altitude fighter project,was dropped due to the inability of Rateau to deliver reliable superchargers in quantity.
The Japanese Army became interested in supercharger-engined fighters and in 1926 the prototype HD.15 was sold and delivered to them.An order for three more followed, but the ship taking them to Japan was sunk by a tidal wave enroute.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on August 26, 2019, 10:59:00 PM
Hanriot H.35

The Hanriot H.35 was a 1920s French intermediate training monoplane designed and built by Avions Hanriot.
It was developed from the earlier H.34 basic trainer and was a two-seat strut-braced parasol monoplane.The H.35 was powered by a 180 hp Hispano-Suiza 8Ab piston engine. Twelve aircraft were built for use with the Hanriot flying school and also the Societe Francaise d'Aviation at Orly.

A 1925 development of the H.35 was the H.36 which was a twin-float equipped version powered by a 120 hp Salmson 9Ac piston engine.An order for 50 H.36s was placed by Yugoslavia, but only 12 H.35`s were completed.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on August 27, 2019, 05:35:11 PM
Hanriot H.43 Series.

The Hanriot H.43 was a military utility aircraft produced in France in the late 1920s and early 1930s which was primarily used by the Aéronautique Militaire as a trainer.
It was an entirely new design from Hanriot,which had been concentrating on developments of the HD.14 for several years.The H.43 was a conventional single-bay biplane with staggered wings of unequal span and a fuselage of fabric-covered metal tube.The pilot and passenger sat in tandem, open cockpits and the main units of the fixed, tailskid undercarriage were linked by a cross-axle.

Two prototypes appeared in 1927 and were followed by the LH.431 in 1928, a much-modified version that dispensed with the sweepback used on both the upper and lower wings of the H.43.It had a new tail fin and added metal covering to the sides of the fuselage.This was ordered into production by the Aéronautique Militaire, which ordered 50 aircraft.These were slightly different from the LH.431 prototype, having divided main undercarriage units, wings of slightly greater area, and redesigned interplane struts.
The Army acquired nearly 150 examples for a variety of support roles including training, liaison, observation, and as an air ambulance.At the Fall of France in 1940, 75 of these aircraft remained in service.
H.43 variants were also operated by civil flying schools in France, as well as 12 examples purchased for the military of Peru.

Various engines types were fitted in the different sub types, some 7 or 9 cylinder anything from 200hp up to almost 300hp.Around 160 aircraft were completed.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on August 28, 2019, 05:35:08 PM
Lorraine-Hanriot LH.70

The Lorraine-Hanriot LH.70 or S.A.B. LH.70 was a French trimotor designed to a 1930 government programme for a colonial policing aircraft.
The aircraft programme was led by the Direction Générale Technique and one of its requirements was for all metal construction to withstand the hot and humid climates of French African colonies.Another was to provide a large and flexible load carrying space, so it could be used for variety of tasks.
It had a high wing,built in three parts: a short central section which joined the fuselage and two outer panels occupying the majority of the span.The wings were constructed around four spars and, like the rest of the aircraft were duralumin skinned.There were high aspect ratio ailerons over more than half the span.

The LH.70 was powered by three 300 hp Lorraine 9Na Algol nine cylinder radial engines with narrow chord ring cowlings.Two were mounted on the undersides of the wings with full-chord nacelles and the third engine was on the nose of the fuselage.The fully enclosed cabin was just ahead of the wing, seating the pilots side-by-side with dual controls. Behind that was the main load carrying space, up to 2.0 m (6 ft 7 in) high, accessed via a port side,door just aft of the wing trailing edge and lit by a strip of small rectangular windows under the wing.
To cope with rough colonial landing fields the LH.70 needed a robust undercarriage.Its 5.7 m (18 ft 8 in) track determined by the separation of the outer engines.

The exact date of the LH.70's first flight is unknown but it thought to be late 1932,two examples were reported as under construction at Bordeaux-Merignac and in January 1933,one LH.70 was at Villacoublay where Descamps demonstrated it to S.T.I.Aé officials. At the same time the other LH.70 was at Bordeaux undergoing modifications.At Villacoublay modifications to the LH.70 required a redetermination of the centre of gravity.It was back in Bordeaux early in 1934,but returned,after three months, Deschamps once again demonstrated the aircraft.It did not succeed in the competition for a production contract, which was won by the Bloch MB.120.Their history after this is unknown,just two examples were completed. 
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on August 29, 2019, 06:24:44 PM
Hanriot H.110 / H.115

The Hanriot H.110 was an unusual pusher configuration,twin boom,single seat fighter aircraft built in France in the early 1930s.
The all-metal H.110 had an open cockpit and engine in a short central nacelle.It was powered by a 650 hp Hispano-Suiza 12Xbrs supercharged upright water-cooled V-12 engine behind the pilot, driving a three-blade pusher propeller.The pilot's headrest was smoothly faired into the engine cowling. Max speed was 220mph with a cruise of 185mph.

It began flight testing in April 1933.Against its smaller and lighter competitors,it proved slower and less manoeuvrable and was returned to Hanriot for modification.
It flew in April 1934 as the H.115, with its engine uprated to 691 hp, a new four-blade propeller with variable-pitch and a revised nacelle, shortened forward of the cockpit by 360 mm.A 33 mm APX cannon was now housed in a fairing below the nacelle as an alternative to the earlier pair of Chatellerault 7.5 mm machine guns. With its new engine and propeller the H.115 was slightly quicker than the earlier version,with a top speed of 242 mph.After more modifications and tweeks over the winter of 1934-5 it returned to Villacoublay in June 1935 and was officially flight tested until mid August, but failed to attract a contract.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on August 30, 2019, 03:33:33 PM
Hanriot H.230 Series

Hanriot H.230 was a French twin-engined advanced trainer.The aircraft was produced by the nationalized factory SNCAC.

The prototype H.230.01, made its first flight in June 1937.The aircraft resembled its predecessor,the H.220 fighter-bomber, but had a lightened and simplified structure.
It was powered by two 172 hp Salmson 6Af engines and its configuration included a short crew canopy faired into the upper decking of the rear fuselage and a conventional strut-braced tail unit, and the fixed main landing gear units incorporated spatted wheel fairings. During further tests it was decided to modify the wingtips to improve stability. Later twin fins and rudders were introduced and the power was increased with new 230 hp Salmson 6Af-02 engines.

The Hanriot H.232.01 had a single fin and rudder and was equipped with twin 220 hp Renault 6Q-02/03 engines plus retractable landing gear.The H.232.02, which made its maiden flight in August 1938,introduced a redesigned cockpit and this aircraft was tested between October 1938 and May 1939.
The type was then given a twin fin and rudder tail assembly and was flown in this new configuration in December 1939, then redesignated H.232/2.01.

The French Air Ministry made an initial order of 40 H.232.2's,but this was soon extended to 57.The French Air Force started to receive their H-232.2's in February, 1940, and received a total of 35 before the defeat against the Germans in June 1940.
The Germans captured 22 aircraft of this type, and since they did not have any use of them, Finland placed an order for three aircraft from the Germans.One was destroyed in an accident during the ferry flight to Finland, the other two saw service as advanced trainers in the Finnish Air Force and were written off on January 2, 1950. During the Winter War the French had planned to send 25 aircraft of this type to Finland. The German aircraft were scrapped in 1942.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on August 31, 2019, 04:29:38 PM
Kellner-Béchereau EC.4

The Kellner-Béchereau EC.4 and Kellner-Béchereau ED.5 were a pair of French training aircraft with side-by-side seating and a novel "double wing" patented by their designer, Louis Béchereau. The principal difference was that the EC.4 had an all-wood structure whereas the ED.5 was all-metal.Both were single-engine, mid-wing cantilever monoplanes.

In the 1930s,aircraft designer Louis Béchereau set up Avions Kellner-Béchereau, a collaboration with the well-known automobile coach builders Kellner. In 1936–37 the company built a series of small monoplanes exploiting one of Béchereau's patents.A full span lateral division of the wing into two sections forming a "double wing", a little like that used by Junkers but with a more equal division of area.
The wing was first tested on the single-seat Kellner-Béchereau E.1 on 1936, which was followed by two larger and more powerful two-seaters, the EC.4 and ED.5.
Both of these were designed to meet the French Air Ministry's requirement for a pre-military trainer aircraft to be used by the clubs set up in the "Aviation Populaire" programme.

The dimensions of the EC.4 and ED.5 were the same,as were seating,engine and undercarriage.The loaded weight of the metal aircraft was 25 kg less.
Performance was similar, with identical maximum speeds; the lighter ED.5 had a 3 mph lower stalling speed but a 35 mi shorter range.
The Kellner-Béchereau designs were not ordered,the Air Ministry preferring the Caudron C.270 and the Salmson Cri-Cri which were both bought in large numbers.Instead, Kellner-Béchereau, along with other manufacturers, built the Cri-Cri under licence.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on September 01, 2019, 06:19:06 PM
Lebaudy Patrie

The Lebaudy Patrie was a semi-rigid airship (196ft long),built for the French army in Moisson, France, by sugar producers Lebaudy Frères.It was designed by Henri Julliot, Lebaudy's chief engineer, the Patrie was completed in November 1906 and handed over to the military the following month.The Patrie was the first airship ordered for military service by the French Army.

Following the successful completion of test operations,in both tethered and untethered flight in November 1907 the Patrie was transferred under her own power to her operational base at Verdun, near the German border. Due to a mechanical fault, the Patrie became stranded away from her base on 29 November 1907 in Souhesmes and during a storm on 30 November she was torn loose from her temporary moorings and, despite the efforts of some 200 soldiers who tried to restrain her, she was carried away by the high winds.
After crossing the English Channel and passing unseen through English airspace during the night, the Patrie was sighted over Wales and Ireland on 1 December.
She made a brief landfall near Belfast, before rising again to be blown out over the Atlantic Ocean.Following a sighting from a steamship off the Hebrides, she was never seen again.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on September 02, 2019, 06:09:16 PM
Levasseur PL.2

The Levasseur PL.2 was a French biplane torpedo bomber designed by Pierre Levasseur for the French Navy.
This was the second design of Pierre Levasseur and was a single-seat unequal-span biplane inspired by designs from Blackburn Aircraft.It had a fixed tailskid landing gear and was powered by a nose-mounted Renault engine of 580HP.
The first prototype flew in November 1922,a second prototype had a four-bladed propeller and other powerplant improvements.Nine production aircraft were built in 1923, these were fitted with ballonets and jettisonable landing gear for operations at sea.It had one 7.7mm machine gun and could carry a bomb/torpedo load of 450KG.
The aircraft entered service in 1926 aboard the French aircraft carrier Béarn and continued in use until they were scrapped in 1932.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on September 03, 2019, 06:25:57 PM
Levasseur PL.4

The Levasseur PL.4,was a carrier-based reconnaissance aircraft produced in France in the mid 1920s.
It was a single-bay biplane that carried three crew in tandem, open cockpits. They were purchased by the Aéronavale to operate from the aircraft carrier Béarn, it incorporated several safety features,from small floats attached directly to the undersides of the lower wing, the main units of the fixed, tailskid undercarriage could be jettisoned in flight, and the underside of the fuselage was given a boatshape and made watertight.

Power was from a Lorraine-Dietrich 12Eb W-12 water-cooled piston engine, of 450 hp which gave a max speed of around 110mph.It was armed with a 7.7mm machine gun mounted to a Scarff Ring in the centre cockpit,40 aircraft were built for the Aéronautique Navale.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on September 04, 2019, 06:56:34 PM
Levasseur PL.8

The Levasseur PL.8 was a single engine,two-seat long-distance record-breaking biplane aircraft modified from an existing Levasseur PL.4 carrier-based reconnaissance aircraft produced in France in the 1920s.

The aircraft were built in 1927, specifically for pilots Charles Nungesser and François Coli for a transatlantic flight attempt to win the Orteig Prize.Just two examples of the type were built, with the first PL.8-01 named L'Oiseau Blanc (The White Bird), that gained fame as Nungesser and Coli's aircraft.

It was based on the PL.4 for the Aéronavale,the PL.8 was a conventional single-bay wood and fabric-covered biplane that carried a crew of two in a side-by-side open cockpit.
Modifications included the reinforcement of the fuselage,the main cockpit widened to allow Nungesser and Coli to sit side-by-side,and the wingspan was increased to approximately 15 m (49 ft).Additional fuel tanks were also added.Their plan was to make a water landing in New York in front of the Statue of Liberty so the features of the PL4 being able to land in water were retained.
A single W-12ED Lorraine-Dietrich 460 hp engine was used with the cylinders set in three banks spaced 60° apart from one another, similar to the arrangement used in Napier engines.The engine was tested to ensure it would last the entire flight and was run for over 40 hours while still in the Parisian factory.

The aircraft was painted white and had the French tricolor markings, with Nungesser's WW I flying ace logo: a skull and crossbones, candles and a coffin, on a black heart.The biplane carried no radio and relied only on celestial navigation, a specialty of Coli from his previous flights around the Mediterranean.
In 1928, a second PL.8 was built,with a Hispano-Suiza 12M 500 hp engine.The PL.8-02 was intended as a long-range record breaker but modified as an air mail carrier. On 20 December 1929, the second PL.8-02, registered F-AJKP based at Dakar while flown by pilot Henry Delaunay, was badly damaged when it hit a pothole on landing at Istres and not repaired.

L'Oiseau Blanc took off at 5:17 a.m. 8 May 1927 from Le Bourget Field in Paris, heading for New York.The biplane weighed 5,000 kg (11,000 lb) on takeoff, extremely heavy for a single-engined aircraft.The intended flight path was a great circle route, which would have taken them across the English Channel, over southwestern England and Ireland, across the Atlantic to Newfoundland, then south over Nova Scotia, to Boston, and finally to a water landing in New York.

Tens of thousands of people crowding Battery Park in Manhattan to have a good view of the Statue of Liberty, where the aircraft was scheduled to touch down,but after their estimated time of arrival had passed, with no word as to the aircraft's fate, it was realized that the aircraft had been lost.
Rumors circulated that L'Oiseau Blanc had been sighted along its route, in Newfoundland, or over Long Island, and despite the launch of an international search, after two weeks, further search efforts were abandoned.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on September 05, 2019, 05:35:46 PM
Levasseur PL.15

The Levasseur PL.15 was a three crew torpedo bomber seaplane developed in France in the early 1930s.

It was a development from Levasseur's PL.14 that had, in turn, been developed from the carrier-based PL.7.The PL.14 retained the PL.7's boat-like fuselage,the PL.15 was a purpose-built seaplane with an all-new,slender designed fuselage.It had a rearward-firing machine gun,and could carry bombs or torpedos.
Powerplant was a Hispano-Suiza 12Nb, of 650 hp,which gave the aircraft a top speed of around 130mph and a cruise speed of 115mph.
The Aéronavale ordered 16 PL.15s,and purchased and deployed the prototype as well.These were in service from 1933 to 1938, when they were put into storage.The PL.15s were recommissioned with the outbreak of war in September 1939, and were used for anti-submarine patrol along France's Atlantic coast.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on September 06, 2019, 06:03:40 PM
Lioré et Olivier LeO 7

Lioré-et-Olivier was a French manufacturer of aircraft of the 20th century,founded in 1912 by Fernand Lioré and Henri Olivier.The company was nationalized in 1936,and later merged with several other aero manufactures to form the Société Nationale des Constructions Aéronautiques du Sud-Est (SNCASE) on 1 February 1937.

The Lioré et Olivier LéO 7 was a French bomber escort biplane designed and built for the French Air Force.It was a three-crew bomber escort biplane developed from the LéO 5 ground-attack biplane.In 1922 the production version began to energe (the LéO 7/2) had a wide-track landing gear and gunner's cockpits in the snub nose and amidships.The pilot was located in a cockpit just behind the wing trailing edge.

It was powered by a pair of Hispano-Suiza 8Fb V-8 engines of 300 hp each, which gave a max speed of 118mph.
Twenty LéO 7/2s were built followed by 18 LéO 7/3s which were a navalised version with increased wingspan.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on September 07, 2019, 06:33:22 PM
Lioré et Olivier LeO 12

The Lioré et Olivier LeO 12 was a night bomber which first flew in June 1924.
It was a large biplane of conventional design, with three-bay equal-span wings and twin engines mounted in nacelles on struts.The main undercarriage units were faired in long spats.Construction throughout was mainly duralumin,then skinned in fabric.The pilot's cockpit was open, and there was a second cockpit further back for a gunner.

The two engines were Lorraine-Dietrich 12Db, producing 400 hp each, which gave a max speed of just over 125mph.
The French Air Force was not interested in the type,so three of the four examples built were modified for other roles.One became a 12-seat passenger transport that Lioré et Olivier operated on an airline subsidiary, another had its cockpit and gunner's hatch enclosed and was used by the French air ministry as an experimental testbed.
The third received new engines and better defensive armament and was again demonstrated to the army.The reception to this type,the LeO 122,was a little more enthusiastic,so Lioré et Olivier used it as the basis for further development work that would result in the successful LeO 20.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on September 08, 2019, 06:38:32 PM
Lioré et Olivier LeO H-190 Series

The Lioré et Olivier H-190 was a flying boat airliner produced in the late 1920s.

It was a single-bay biplane with un-staggered wings,it had a single Gnome et Rhône 9Ad Jupiter 9-cylinder air-cooled radial piston engine of 420 hp mounted underneath the upper wing and supported on struts in the interplane gap. The first flight was in early 1926 and proved reasonably successful.
Early examples had the pilot's open cockpit located behind the wing,but this was later relocated further forward.Military versions had 4x 7.7 mm (0.30 in) Lewis machine-guns on twin flexible mounts in front and rear gunner's compartments.
Although it was developed as a passenger transport,versions of the H-190 were also built as catapult-ready mail planes to be launched from transatlantic liners,and used for  coastal patrol.

A sole LeO H-194 was flown by Marc Bernard together with a CAMS 37 flown by René Guilbaud in a long-distance expeditionary flight across Africa in late 1926.They covered 17,000 miles in three months,visiting various French African colonies.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on September 09, 2019, 06:39:37 PM
Lioré et Olivier LeO H-240 Series

The Lioré et Olivier LeO H.242 was a French-manufactured flying boat that was used for European passenger air services in the 1930s.Several were operated by Air France.
The first flight was 1929,but they did not enter service until 1933 as the H-242.
They were powered by four Gnome-Rhône 7Kd Titan Major 350hp radial engines,using a push-pill configuration.Two were built for Air France and delivered in December 1933 and February 1934,they could carry ten passengers.
Then came the H242/1 a revised production version, with a modified engine installation.Twelve were built for Air France and delivered between March 1935 and May 1937, carrying twelve passengers. Most H.242/1s were fitted with wide chord NACA cowlings over the front engines only.

In total 15 aircraft were completed,Air France retired them in 1942.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on September 10, 2019, 05:39:53 PM
Sud-est LeO H-246

The LeO H-246 was a large four-engined flying boat from the late 1930s.

It was designed to meet a 1935 requirement for a commercial flying boat for use on Mediterranean routes of Air France.It was a four-engined parasol monoplane of mixed construction and powered by four 720 hp Hispano-Suiza 12Xir liquid cooled V12 engines.The four engines were mounted in streamlined nacelles ahead of the leading edge of the wing.It had a duralumin hull of similar layout to that the H-47 which accommodated seats for 26 passengers and a crew of four.

The aircraft was built by Sud-Est and made its maiden flight from the Étang de Berre on 30 September 1937.Air France ordered six H-246.1 aircraft in January 1938, plus the prototype also after a refit to production standard for commercial service.
The refurbished prototype and the first production aircraft were being readied for commercial service when the World War II broke out in September 1939.The French Navy planned to requisition the H-246s as maritime patrol aircraft, but Air France still needed them,so the Navy agreed to take over only four of the aircraft.This allowed Air France to commence operations with the prototype on the Marseille–Algiers route on 14 October 1939.

The third production aircraft was completed for the Navy in June 1940, with a glazed position in the nose for a bombardier/navigator, bomb racks below the wings and four 7.5 mm Darne machine guns as defensive armament.It entered service on 25 August 1940, the only aircraft of the type actually to be operated by the French Navy, with the remaining aircraft going to Air France.
In November 1942, the Allies landed in French North Africa and, in response,German forces occupied Vichy France.They seized the single French Navy H-246,along with three Air France aircraft.The Luftwaffe took over the three seized aircraft,fitting them with five MG 15 machine guns as defensive armament and carrying up to 21 soldiers or 14 stretchers.They were used for various tasks,including transport in Finland.
The ex-French Navy H-246 was destroyed at Lyon by Allied attacks in the spring of 1944.After the war, the two surviving H-246s were used by Air France to restart the Marseille–Algiers service, continuing in use until September 1946.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on September 11, 2019, 04:43:52 PM
Lioré et Olivier LeO H-43

The Lioré et Olivier LeO H-43 was a reconnaissance seaplane produced in the 1930s.
It was a strut-braced, mid-wing monoplane of largely conventional design, provided with an observation balcony underneath the fuselage.It was designed to be launched by catapult from warships and, after a first flight in Dec 1934,trials continued.

Disagreements and redesigns meant the prototype underwent much modification before an order for 20 machines was placed by the Aéronavale. Even after this, a major redesign to the forward fuselage was specified as part of the production order.This meant that the first test flight of the production version did not take place until 13 July 1939, by which time the H-43 was already obsolete.

The aircraft had a crew of three,and was powered by a Hispano-Suiza 9Vb,of 650 hp,which gave performance of max speed of just under 140mph with a cruise of 117mph.It was fitted with two fixed forward firing machine guns.The 20 examples purchased briefly equipped two squadrons from February 1940, but all were withdrawn with the Fall of France.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on September 12, 2019, 07:01:45 PM
Lioré et Olivier LeO 45

The Lioré-et-Olivier LeO 45 was a four crew French medium bomber that was used during and after WWII.

The LeO 45 was a low-wing monoplane,all-metal in construction,and equipped with a retractable undercarriage and powered by two 1,060 hp Gnome-Rhône 14N engines.
The prototype,made its first flight on 15 January 1937,was fitted with two 1,100 hp Hispano-Suiza engines.The LeO 45 had been developed as a modern and advanced bomber for the new Armée de l'air, which had gained its independence on 1 April 1933.It was introduced to operational service in 1938, it was a very effective and capable bomber.
It was too late to provide any useful contribution during the Battle of France in the face of an invasion by Nazi Germany.As a result of the Armistice of 22 June 1940, the type continued to be manufactured and operated by occupied Vichy France as Free France forces operated the aircraft.

On 29 November 1937, an order for 20 production machines was received, the first of which being specified for delivery in May 1938.On 26 March 1938, a further 20 LeO 450 was ordered in line with the French Air Ministry's new plan of reequipping of 22 bomber units.
In October 1938, it was specified that all production LeO 45 aircraft were to be equipped with Gnome-Rhône engines in place of the Hispano-Suiza powerplants.However,this caused considerable delays in the delivery of the first production aircraft.The first LeO 45 performed its maiden flight on 24 March 1939.Further production issues were encountered as a result of supply problems with Gnome-Rhone engines and associated propellers.

By September 1939, the eve of the outbreak of the Second World War, there were a total of 749 LeO 45 aircraft on order; this included several different variants of the type,including aircraft outfitted with American-built Wright GR-2600-A5B engines, and 12 aircraft which had been ordered for the Greek Air Force.At the same point, there were only 10 LeO 451 bombers in French Air Force service, while another 22 were in the process of being delivered. It was at this point that a flurry of additional wartime production orders were issued, calling for hundreds more aircraft to be manufactured, amounting to around 1,549 LeO 45 aircraft of various models.

Following the war, the 67 surviving aircraft were mostly used as trainers and transports.The LeO 451 was withdrawn in September 1957, making it the last pre-war French design to retire from active duty.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on September 13, 2019, 05:50:10 PM
Loire Aviation / Loire 11

Loire Aviation was a French aircraft manufacturer in the inter-war period, specializing in seaplanes, and based in Saint-Nazaire, France.
Loire was founded in 1925 as a division of Ateliers et Chantiers de la Loire, a shipbuilding company based at St Nazaire.ACL were interested in diversifying into the new area of naval aviation, combining its knowledge of metal work and naval construction to produce seaplanes for the French mail service.

The Loire 11 was a French three-seat general-purpose monoplane,and the first original design by the company and was to meet a requirement for a general-purpose transport for operation in the French colonies.
It was a strut-braced high-wing monoplane with three-seats and was powered by a 300 hp Lorraine Algol radial engine.This gave a max speed of 125mph and a cruise of 110mph.
Only two prototypes were produced in 1930 and the project was abandoned in 1931 despite encouraging results from trails as it failed to interest the French government.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on September 14, 2019, 08:58:17 PM
Loire 46

The Loire 46 was a French single-seater fighter aircraft of the mid-1930s.

The Loire 46 was a development of the Loire 43 and 45.It retained their gull mono-wing configuration, open cockpit, and fixed landing gear.The first of five prototype Loire 46s flew in September 1934.It had excellent handling characteristics and 60 production aircraft were ordered by the Armée de l'Air.
They were powered by a Gnome-Rhône 14Kfs 14-cylinder, air-cooled radial piston engine of 930 hp.Armament was four fixed 7.5 mm (0.295 inch) MAC 1934 machine guns mounted in the wings.

The first production aircraft arrived at fighter Escadrilles in August 1936.A little later In September 1936, the five prototype Loire 46s were sent to the Republican forces during the Spanish Civil War.
By the beginning of World War II, the Loire 46 was obsolete and most of these fighters had been relegated to Armée de l'Air training schools,where they were used as advanced trainers. However, one fighter Escadrille was still equipped with the Loire 46 during the early weeks of the war.They were outclassed against modern German fighters
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on September 15, 2019, 06:22:59 PM
Loire 70

The Loire 70 was a 1930s French long-range maritime reconnaissance flying boat.

It was designed to meet a 1932 French Navy requirement,the prototype first flew on 28 December 1933.It was an all-metal monoplane,with a braced high wing, and three radial engines mounted above the wing,two as tractors and one as a pusher.Armament was six 7.5mm (0.295 in) Darne machine guns and four 150kg bombs could be carried.
The original engines, three 500 hp Gnome et Rhône 9Kbr radials,were not powerful enough and were replaced with 740 hp Gnome-Rhône 9Kfr radials.These gave the aircraft a cruising speed of 105mph and a max of 145mph.

The seven production aircraft and prototype were delivered to the French Navy, serving with Escadrille E7 in Tunisia.In the early days of World War II, the aircraft carried out patrols in the Mediterranean area. An Italian raid on their base on 12 June 1940,destroyed 3 of the 4 surviving aircraft the fate of the last aircraft is unknown.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on September 16, 2019, 05:05:02 PM
Loire 210

The Loire 210 was a French single-seat catapult-launched fighter seaplane designed for the French Navy.The prototype first flew at Saint Nazaire on 21 March 1935.
The fuselage came from the earlier Loire 46 fitted with a new low-wing which was foldable for shipboard stowage.It had a large central float and two underwing auxiliary floats and was powered by a single nose-mounted Hispano-Suiza 9Vbs radial engine of 720hp.Cruising speed was 125mph, with a max speed of 185mph,it had a range of around 460 miles.

The prototype was fitted with two wing mounted machine guns, and was evaluated by the French Navy against a number of other types,with the 210 achieving a production order for 20 aircraft in March 1937.Production aircraft were fitted with four wing-mounted Darne machine guns.
The aircraft entered service in August 1939,but within three months five aircraft had been lost due to structural failure of the wing,so the remaining aircraft were grounded and withdrawn from use.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on September 22, 2019, 06:24:41 PM
Loire-Nieuport 161

The Loire-Nieuport 161 was a single seat,single engine,all metal,low wing monoplane fighter built in France in the mid 1930`s. Loire and Nieuport had merged in 1934,but retained separate offices.
Later in 1936 further mergers happened when they were nationalised and became part of  SNCAO.

The 161 was Loire-Nieuport`s first products and was in response to a requirement for a new advanced monoplane fighter.It was powered by an upright V-12 Supercharged Hispano-Suiza 12Ycrs of 860hp giving a top speed of just under 300mph.It had a cantilever wing and a wide track retractable undercarriage,it first flew in early October 1935,although it did not have it`s intended engine as they were not ready. Instead it flew with a 600hp Hispano-Suiza engine driving a two bladed prop.

In 1936 it flew with the improved engine and featured a 3 blade variable pitch prop.It featured a 200mm cannon that fired through the spinner and was mounted between the engine cylinder banks, it also had two machine guns of 7.5mm calibre mounted in the wings.
Three prototypes were built, the first was lost in a crash in Sept 1936, which had a significant delay on the test programme. The second prototype was lost in April 1938,by which time development was halted, as the contract had been awarded to another type, the Morane Saulnier MS405. The fourth LN161 was left uncompleted.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on September 23, 2019, 09:50:34 PM
Loire-Nieuport LN-40 Series

The Loire-Nieuport LN-40 was a series of French Naval dive-bombers produced in the late 1930`s.
In mid 1937 an order was placed for a prototype,followed up by orders for seven production aircraft for the carrier Bearn, and a further three for evaluation by the Air Force.The land version would be named LN-41 plans were to order over 180 aircraft for several squadrons.
The prototype made it`s first flight on the 6th July 1938,with another in Jan 1939 and a third later in May 1939.Flight tests found the dive brakes were almost useless, they were removed and the extended landing gear doors could be used as airbrakes.

The aircraft was much too slow for the air forces requirements, they requested a faster version which would become the LN.42 which had a more powerful 860hp against 690hp engine.

In July 1939 an order was placed for 36 LN401`s for the Navy and 36 de-navalised LN411`s for the Army. Deliveries began in September 1939.The aircraft were completely outclassed by German aircraft during The Battle Of France, and losses were heavy.In total some 68 aircraft were completed.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on October 01, 2019, 05:47:39 PM
Morane-Borel monoplane

The Morane-Borel monoplane (sometimes referred to as Morane-Saulnier Type A was an early French single-engine, single-seat aircraft.
The Monoplane was a mid-wing tractor configuration monoplane powered by a 50 hp Gnome Omega seven-cylinder rotary engine driving a two-bladed propeller. Lateral control was effected by wing warping and the empennage consisted of a fixed horizontal stabiliser with tip-mounted full-chord elevators at either end and an aerodynamically balanced rudder, with no fixed vertical surface. In later examples the horizontal surfaces were modified.

The Monoplane achieved fame when Jules Védrines flew one to victory in the 1911 Paris-to-Madrid air race, the only competitor to finish the four-day course. Later in the year he came second in the Circuit of Britain, flying an aircraft powered by a 70 hp Gnome.
As of 2007, a single example remains extant, undergoing conservation work at the Canada Aviation Museum
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on October 02, 2019, 09:19:09 PM
Morane-Saulnier N

The Morane-Saulnier N, also known as the Morane-Saulnier Type N, was a French monoplane fighter aircraft of the First World War.
The Type N was a streamlined aircraft, but it was not easy to fly due to a combination of stiff lateral control caused by using wing warping instead of ailerons, sensitive pitch and yaw controls caused by using an all flying tail, and very high landing speed for the period. The Type N mounted a single unsynchronized forward-firing 7.9 mm Hotchkiss machine gun which used the deflector wedges first used on the Morane-Saulnier Type L, in order to fire through the propeller arc. The later I and V types used a .303-in Vickers machine gun.

It entered service in April 1915 with the Aéronautique Militaire designated as the MoS-5 C1. It also equipped four squadrons of the Royal Flying Corps, in which it was nicknamed the Bullet.
In total 49 aircraft were built but it was quickly rendered obsolete.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on October 03, 2019, 09:35:09 PM
Morane-Saulnier T

The Morane-Saulnier T (or Morane-Saulnier MoS.25 A.3) was a French biplane reconnaissance aircraft.

It was a large, five-bay biplane of conventional configuration, with unstaggered wings of equal span. The tapered rear fuselage and large triangular vertical stabilizer were reminiscent of those used on Morane-Saulnier's smaller designs.The engines were mounted in streamlined nacelles supported by struts suspended between the wings and the propellers on the Type T were sometimes fitted with large spinners.The landing gear consisted of two main units, each of which had two wheels joined by a long axle, plus a tailskid and a nosewheel.Three open cockpits in tandem were provided, with one gunner in the nose, and another behind the wing, while the pilot was under the top wing.

The aircraft were introduced into service in August 1917,ninety aircraft were built,but almost all were retired by early 1918.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on October 05, 2019, 07:38:48 PM
Morane-Saulnier AI

The Morane-Saulnier AI (also known as the Type AI) was a French parasol-wing fighter aircraft produced during World War I.
The AI was development of the Morane-Saulnier Type N concept, and was intended to replace the Nieuport 17 and SPAD VII in French service, in competition with the SPAD XIII.
Its Gnome Monosoupape 9N 160 CV rotary engine was mounted in a circular open-front cowling. The strut braced parasol wing was slightly swept back. The spars and ribs of the circular section fuselage were wood, wire-braced and covered in fabric.Production aircraft were given service designations based on whether they had 1 gun (designated MoS 27) or 2 guns (designated MoS 29).

By mid-May 1918, most of the aircraft were replaced by the SPAD XIII.After structural problems had been resolved, the aircraft were then relegated to use as advanced trainers, with new purpose built examples being designated MoS 30.Many were used post-war after having been surplussed off, as aerobatic aircraft,Fifty-one MoS 30s were purchased by the American Expeditionary Force as pursuit trainers.

Three surviving AIs are flown from La Ferté-Alais.The Fantasy of Flight collection in Florida has an AI that was sold to the United States Army Air Service in 1918 for testing at McCook Field in Ohio until being sold off for private use. It later joined the Tallmantz Collection which was then acquired by Fantasy of Flight in 1985 and restored in the late 1980s.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on October 06, 2019, 10:03:46 PM
Morane-Saulnier BB

The Morane-Saulnier BB was a military observation aircraft produced in France during World War I for use by Britain's Royal Flying Corps.
It was a conventional single-bay biplane design with pilot and observer in tandem, open cockpits. The original order called for 150 aircraft powered by 110-hp Le Rhône 9J rotary engines, but shortages meant that most of the 94 aircraft eventually built were delivered with 80 hp Le Rhône 9C rotaries.A production licence was sold to the Spanish company (CECA), which built twelve fitted with Hispano-Suiza engines in 1916.

It equipped a number of RFC and RNAS squadrons both in its original observation role and, equipped with a forward-firing Lewis gun mounted on the top wing, as a fighter.
In total 107 aircraft were built.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on October 07, 2019, 07:32:23 PM
Morane-Saulnier MS.130 Series

The Morane-Saulnier MS.129 and its derivatives in the MS.130 series were a family of military trainer aircraft produced in France in the 1920s.
They were conventional, parasol-wing monoplanes with open cockpits in tandem and fixed tailskid undercarriage. The initial version, the MS.129, was produced in small numbers for the Romanian Air Force and civil users, but the major production version was the MS.130, which equipped the French Navy and a number of foreign air arms,including China,Brazil,Belgium and Portugal and others.

The second MS.130 prototype won the 1929 Coupe Michelin, flown by Michel Detroyat with an average speed of 120 mph.
The MS.130 was further developed as the MS.230, and at least two MS.130s were later rebuilt to this new standard.Around 150 were built.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on October 08, 2019, 08:32:16 PM
Morane-Saulnier M.S.225

The Morane-Saulnier M.S.225 was a fighter aircraft of the 1930s.It was produced in limited quantities to be used as a transitional aircraft between the last of the biplanes and the first monoplane fighters.
It was a parasol monoplane, with a wide fixed landing gear, and powered by a 500hp Gnome-Rhône 9Krsd radial engine. Having a circular fuselage the M.S.225 was much more robust than its immediate predecessor, the M.S.224.

The Morane-Saulnier M.S.225 was first shown in the form of a model at the Paris Air Show of 1932. After successful flight tests of the prototype, series production started at immediately.
Classified in the category C.1 (single-seat fighter), 75 aircraft were produced. A total of 53 aircraft were delivered to the Air Force in November 1933.The Aéronavale received the first of the 16 aircraft it had ordered in February 1934. Three were also sold to China.At the outbreak of World War II, only 20 M.S.225s were still in flying condition, the majority of them being scrapped in mid-1939.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on October 09, 2019, 08:20:42 PM
Morane-Saulnier MS.350

The Morane-Saulnier MS.350 was a French aerobatic trainer first flown in Feb 1936.Just a single example was built.

It was a two bay biplane with equal span wings. In plan these were straight tapered, with sweep only on the leading edge, and with elliptical tips. The trainer was powered by a neatly cowled, 240 hp Renault 6Pei 6-cylinder inverted air-cooled inline engine,driving a two bladed propThis gave it a max speed of 158 mph,with a cruise of around 140mph.
It`s outstanding aerobatic displays across pre-war Europe made the MS.350 well known. It survived the war and was registered as F-BDYL in 1954 in the name of Jean Cliquet, Morane-Saulnier's chief test pilot, and based at Ossun. From 1956 it was owned by Morane-Saulnier and flew from their base at Villacoubly until it was wrecked in Italy on 8 December 1964.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on October 10, 2019, 08:20:41 PM
Morane-Saulnier Vanneau

The Morane-Saulnier Vanneau (en: plover) is a two-seat basic trainer from the 1940`s.
It was designed in Vichy France as the MS.470 prototype,and first flew on 22 December 1944, successful testing lead to an order from the French Air Force of a revised version the MS.472. The Vanneau was a low-wing monoplane with a pilot and student in tandem under a long glazed canopy. It had a retractable tailwheel landing gear and the prototype was powered by a 690 hp Hispano-Suiza 12X inline engine.

The production version MS.472 was powered by a 570 hp Gnome-Rhône 14M-05 14-cylinder radial engine and first flew on 12 December 1945.Deliveries to the French Air Force starting in December 1946. From December 1947 the French Navy received 70 of the MS.474 variant modified for carrier operations.
Just over 500 aircraft were completed by the time production ended and the Vanneau remained in service with the French Air Force and Navy into the late 1960s.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on October 11, 2019, 08:54:25 PM
Morane-Saulnier MS.570 Series

The Morane-Saulnier MS.570 was a civil utility aircraft produced in small numbers in France in the mid 1940s. It was a development of the MS.560 aerobatic aircraft with a redesigned fuselage that added a second seat,side-by-side with the pilot's and a more powerful Renault 4Pei engine of 140 hp.

It`s first flight was 19th December 1945 and the aircraft had good response,it`s engine was powerful enough to near 160mph.
Like its predecessor, the MS.570 was a low-wing cantilever monoplane with retractable tricycle undercarriage. It was an all metal aircraft,the fuselage having a semi-monocoque structure.
The cockpit was enclosed by an expansive bubble canopy that slid rearwards to provide access,and another feature was the wings could be folded for storage.Only 10 aircraft were completed.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on October 12, 2019, 10:24:33 PM
Morane-Saulnier MS.603

The Morane-Saulnier MS.603 was a French-built two-seat light aircraft of the late 1940s.
It was one of three aircraft constructed in the MS.600 series to compete in an officially-sponsored 1947 contest for a light two-seat side-by-side club aircraft to be powered by a 75 hp engine.
The first MS.600, powered by a 75 hp Mathis G-4F piston engine, was a fixed gear, low-winged monoplane of mixed construction, with a single fin and the tailplane set just above the fuselage with a perspex canopy over a side-by-side cockpit for two people. All three aircraft, MS.600, MS.602 and MS.603, were ready for flight in 1947 with the MS.600 flying on 4 June 1947.

Another development, the MS.602, powered by a 75 hp Minie 4DA piston engine, was similar in most respects to the MS.600 and flew on 24 June 1947.
A more powerful derivative emerged as the MS.603, powered by a 100 hp Hirth HM 504A-2 engine and fitted with a fixed tricycle undercarriage.
The tailplane was also changed to a higher set position on the fin which was supported by struts.

Registered as F-WCZU in the experimental series, and re-registered F-PHQY in the amateur-operated series, the MS.602 was owned by Messieurs Gambi and Chanson and based at Saint-Cyr-l'École airfield, west of Paris.By 1983, the aircraft had been withdrawn from service and later scrapped.

The sole MS.603, construction No. 1, was initially registered F-WCZT and later re-registered F-PHJC. It was flown for many years by the Aero Club de Courbevoie. By 1963 it was operated by M. Jean Forster, based at Guyancourt airfield,but was withdrawn from use by 2006 when it was stored at the Musee de l'Aviation du Mas Palegry - near Perpignan.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on October 14, 2019, 06:30:10 PM
Morane-Saulnier MS-700 Pétrel

The Morane-Saulnier MS-700 Pétrel (English: Petrel) was a French four-seat cabin-monoplane from the late 1940`s.

It was a twin-engine, low-wing, cabin-monoplane with a retractable tricycle landing gear and powered by two 160 hp Potez 4D-33 four-cylinder, inverted inline piston engines.
The prototype, with French test registration F-WFDC, first flew on 8th January 1949.The aircraft was intended as a light liaison aircraft and the second prototype made a demonstration tour of Africa at the end of 1950.In 1952 the second prototype was re-engined with Mathis G8-20 engines and re-designated MS-701.

On 3rd January 1951 a third prototype first flew, it was a MS-703 with a longer fuselage for six-seats and two 240 hp Salmson engines. It was used by the company for a number of years and the first prototype was due to be modified in the late 1950s to the same standards as the MS-703 but with 220 hp  Potez engines.
It was not converted and instead was withdrawn from use.Only the three prototypes were built and the type did not enter production.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on October 15, 2019, 08:19:14 PM
Morane-Saulnier MS.755 Fleuret

The MS.755 Fleuret was a prototype French two-seat jet trainer from the early 1950`s. It was a side-by-side low mid-wing monoplane with a T-tail and powered by two 800 lbf  Turbomeca Marboré II turbojets.The prototype with French test registration F-ZWRS first flew on 29 January 1953.
The aircraft was not ordered,the Air Force decided on the Fouga CM.170 Magister instead and only one Fleuret was built.In March 1954, the sole prototype MS.755 was disassembled, crated and shipped to Begumpet Air Force Station, India, for tropical weather and trainer-suitability trials with the Indian Air Force.

Morane-Saulnier's Chief Test Pilot, Monsieur Jean Cliquet, and a team of 4 or 5 technicians accompanied the aircraft.The assigned IAF senior pilots were impressed with the MS.755 as a trainer, and ran a series of flight instruction tests where low time students with only 10 hours total flying experience transitioned to the jet and soloed with no problems.
The IAF tests of the MS.755 ended in June 1954 and the aircraft was then crated and shipped back to France,again without any orders for the aircraft.

The Fleuret II which was an enlarged four-seat development, was designed and produced as the MS.760 Paris,which did go into production,with over 210 being built.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on October 16, 2019, 06:52:58 PM
Morane-Saulnier Epervier

The MS.1500 Epervier (Sparrowhawk) was a 1950s French two-seat ground attack and reconnaissance aircraft.

It was designed to meet a requirement for a counter-insurgency aircraft for use by the French Air Force in Algeria.The Epervier was a tandem two-seat low-wing cantilever monoplane.
The prototype first flew on the 12 May 1958 powered by a 400 hp Turbomeca Marcadau turboprop.A second prototype was fitted with a 700 hp Turbomeca Bastan turboprop engine, which gave a max speed of just under 200mph.
Just the two prototypes were completed,the aircraft failed to attract any orders and it did not go into production.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on October 17, 2019, 10:56:24 PM
Nieuport VI

The Nieuport VI was a sport monoplane produced in France in the 1910s.
Like its predecessors, the Nieuport VI was a wire-braced, mid-wing monoplane of conventional design, powered by a single engine in the nose driving a tractor propeller. It differed, however, in being a three-seater rather than a single seater and it used steel for part of its internal structure where earlier designs had used only timber.

It was produced initially as a seaplane and designated VI.G, with twin pontoons as undercarriage, and a teardrop-shaped float under the tail. The pontoons were fitted with small planes at either side of their nose ends to protect the propeller, and reduce the tendency for the nose ends of the floats to submerge while taxiing.A crank was provided inside the cockpit that wound a spring that could be used to turn the engine over.The Type VI also featured a joystick for lateral control in place of the Blériot-style "cloche" controls used on earlier Nieuport designs.
A landplane version for military use was designated the Nieuport VI.M. Military Type VIs were built under licence in Italy by Nieuport-Macchi in Italy, and in Russia.

It`s first flight was August 1912,the aircraft was used in several air races,sporting events and various record attempts.
At the outbreak of World War I, a number of Type VI.M landplanes remained in French, Italian, and Russian service,as did six Type VI.G seaplanes with the French Navy.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on October 18, 2019, 10:01:21 PM
Nieuport 11

The Nieuport 11 (or Nieuport XI C.1 ), nicknamed the Bébé, was a French World War I single seat sesquiplane fighter aircraft, designed by Gustave Delage.
The Nieuport 11 was a smaller, simplified version of the Nieuport 10, designed specifically as a single-seat fighter. Like the "10" the "11" was a sesquiplane, a biplane with a full-sized top wing with two spars, and a lower wing of much narrower chord and a single spar.The sesquiplane layout reduced drag and improved the rate of climb, as well as offering a better view from the cockpit  while being substantially stronger than contemporary monoplanes.A drawback was, the narrow lower wing was sometimes subject to aeroelastic flutter at high air speeds, a problem that affected the later "vee-strut" Nieuport fighters.

The Nieuport 11 reached the French front in January 1916, and 90 were in service within the month.It outclassed the Fokker Eindecker in every respect, including speed, climb rate and manoeuvrability. It featured ailerons for lateral control rather than the Fokker's wing warping, giving lighter, quicker roll response, and its elevator was attached to a conventional tail plane which provided better pitch control as opposed to the all-moving, balanced "Morane type" elevators of the Fokker.
During the course of the Battle of Verdun in February 1916, the combination of the Nieuport 11s technical advantages and its concentration in dedicated fighter units allowed the French to establish air superiority, forcing radical changes in German tactics.

Some Nieuport 11s and 16s were fitted to fire Le Prieur rockets from the struts for attacks on observation balloons and airships.
By March 1916 the Bébé was being replaced by both the Nieuport 16 and the much improved Nieuport 17, although Italian-built examples remained in first line service longer, as did Russian examples.
Thereafter the Nieuport 11s continued to be used as trainers.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on October 19, 2019, 05:11:57 PM
Nieuport 14

The Nieuport 14 (or Nieuport XIV A.2) was a military reconnaissance sesquiplane produced in France during the First World War.
It was to have been a two-seat reconnaissance machine capable of making a flight of 110 miles and back while carrying a useful bomb load. Nieuport's design started with the Nieuport 12 reconnaissance aircraft, but had its fuselage stretched to balance out the single nose mounted Hispano-Suiza V-8 engine and its wingspan increased by the addition of an additional bay.Protracted development saw some refinement in the engine installation and the wing area increased from 28 m2 (300 sq ft) square meters to 30 m2 (320 sq ft) resulted in it entering service mid 1916.

Its failure as a combat aircraft meant a dedicated trainer variant was developed, the Nieuport 14 École with dual controls, nosewheels to guard against nose-over accidents, and an 80 hp Le Rhone 9C rotary engine in the place of the original V-8.When further refined, the trainer version was redesignated the Nieuport 82 E.2 and would be nicknamed Grosse Julie.

Deliveries to reconnaissance squadrons commenced in late 1916, replacing obsolete Voisin III and V types. However, changing priorities resulted in production being curtailed as the Hispano-Suiza engines were desperately needed for SPAD VII fighters, and several units that had planned on operating the Nieuport 14 became fighter units,operating the Nieuport 17.

With production halted remaining machines were relegated to training duties and as unit hacks.While the Nieuport 14 only saw service in France, the Nieuport 82 served more widely.
Aside from flight schools in France, Brazil operated 9 Nieuport 82s from 1919 to 1924, and Japan operated a small number, with at least one acquiring the civil registration J-TOXC.
The first Native American and African-American female aviator Bessie Coleman did some of her training in a Nieuport 82 in France.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on October 20, 2019, 06:23:36 PM
Nieuport 15

The Nieuport 15 (or Nieuport XV) was a French World War I bomber aircraft.

It was a development and scaled up Nieuport 14, the new bomber was built in the summer of 1916 and the first prototype was ready for testing in November of that year.
The Nieuport 15 was a two-bay sesquiplane with V-struts and a newly designed tailplane including a heart shaped elevators.It was powered by a 220 hp Renault 12F V-12 engine,with Hazet radiators mounted on each side of the fuselage.

During limited flight testing the controls and landing gear were found to be unsatisfactory and the French quickly abandoned the bomber.In December 1916 it was declared obsolete but the British showed some interest and had ordered 70 aircraft but after the tests proved disappointing, all orders were eventually cancelled with just four aircraft completed.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on October 20, 2019, 06:39:31 PM
Nieuport Madon

In October 1917 Nieuport began construction of a prototype monoplane fighter known as the Nieuport Madon, a strut braced monoplane.

The shoulder mounted wing was supported by sizeable lift struts attached to the landing gear, which featured an additional lifting area between the wheels. A section of wing root was cut away to improve downward visibility.The fuselage and wing were fabric covered.It was armed with two synchronized 7.7 mm (0.303 in) Vickers machine guns.
The first prototype made its first flight in early January 1918,powered by a 150 hp Gnome Monosoupape 9N rotary engine,which gave a max speed of around 140mph,and good general performance.

The second prototype first flew in late January 1918 with the slightly more powerful 180 hp Le Rhône 9R.This had a revised wing whose inboard trailing edges were cut away to an elongated fin. On 1 May 1918 the second prototype was rejected in favour of the Monosoupape powered model.The Madon did not enter service and just the two were built
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on October 21, 2019, 07:47:36 PM
Nieuport-Delage NiD 580

The Nieuport-Delage NiD 580 R.2 was a contender for a French government contract for a long range, two seat reconnaissance aircraft, issued in 1928.
The specification called for an all-metal aircraft, fast and with a good climb rate and long range capability.It led to prototypes from eight manufacturers,one of the terms of the specification required the manufacturers to use a Hispano-Suiza 12Nb water-cooled V-12 engine of 650Hp.

The NiD 580 was a monoplane with a two-part parasol wing,it was supported on each side by a pair of parallel, duralumin struts from the lower fuselage to the wing spars and attached centrally, low over the fuselage.The engine was mounted in the nose, enclosed in a close fitting cowling which followed the profiles of the two cylinder banks.
The pilot's cockpit was near the trailing edge gave a forward view under the wing. The observer/gunner had a separate cockpit close behind the pilot with a rounded wing cut-out improved the upward field of view from both. Both cockpits had unusual, multiframed windscreens and the observer's at least could be folded.This position was also fitted with a flexible machine gun mounting.

The French government purchased two NiD 580s, as they did with the other prototypes.The date of it`s first flight is not known but both flew during the trials which lasted about a year. The winner was the ANF Les Mureaux 111,so the Nieuport-Delage did not go into production.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on October 23, 2019, 11:04:20 PM
Nieuport-Delage NiD 640

The Nieuport-Delage NiD 640 was a French four-passenger transport monoplane.

It was an all-wood high-wing cantilever monoplane powered by a nose-mounted radial engine,with an enclosed cockpit for two-crew forward of the wing and a cabin for four passengers further back.
It`s first flight was 1927,but it did not enter service until 1930.The aircraft was powered by 220 hp Wright J-5C radial engine and was followed by 12 production aircraft designated NiD 641 powered by a 240 hp Lorraine 7M Mizar radial.

The NiD 640 was converted to an ambulance aircraft and later had a Mizar engine fitted to bring it to 641 standard.One aircraft was powered by a 235 hp Armstrong Siddeley Lynx Major engine and designated the NiD 642 but it did not find a buyer and was later scrapped.
Seven NiD 641 aircraft were flown by Société des Transports Aériens Rapides (STAR), a subsidiary of Nieport-Delage, on cargo and passenger services from Paris.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on October 23, 2019, 11:31:39 PM
Nieuport-Delage NiD-120 Series

The Nieuport-Delage NiD 120 series was a series of French single-seat parasol monoplane fighter aircraft of the 1930s.

In 1930, the Armée de l'Air issued a specification for a single-seat fighter to be powered by a 650 hp engine and required to reach a speed of around 217 mph and a height of 29,500 ft.
A staggering 27 designs were offered by French manufacturers, of which one was selected for development to prototype status.Nieuport's design was a parasol monoplane with the wing mounted just above the fuselage on short struts. An aperture was cut out of the wing immediately above the pilot's cockpit, allowing the pilot to raise his seat so that his head was just above the wing for a better upwards view.
The engine was cooled using a radiator built into the wing, where air was sucked in through slots in the leading edge of the wing and expelled through the trailing edge.
A fixed tailwheel undercarriage was fitted.
Two versions were proposed,the Nieuport-Delage NiD 121, powered by a Lorraine-Dietrich 12H water-cooled V12 engine and the other, the NiD 122, powered by a Hispano-Suiza 12X engine of similar layout.

First to fly on 23 July 1932 was the Hispano-powered NiD 122,and the NiD 121 following on 25 November 1932.The NiD 121 was tested by representatives of the Peru Air Force in September 1933, and an order was made for six aircraft that could be fitted with either wheeled or floatplane undercarriages. A prototype of the Peruvian fighter flying on 18 July 1934.

A final version, the NiD 125, was built for evaluation by the Armée de l'Air, featuring a more powerful Hispano-Suiza 12Y engine with a 20 mm cannon firing through the propeller hub, and with the wing mounted radiators replaced by more conventional types,mounted on the sides of the fuselage.The single prototype flew in June 1934, but despite good performance, a similarly powered and armed version of the Dewoitine D500, the D.510 was chosen for production.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on October 24, 2019, 08:25:49 PM
Nord Noralpha Series

The Nord 1100 Noralpha was a French-built and re-engined Messerschmitt Bf 108 produced by Nord Aviation.
The Noralpha was a low-wing cantilever monoplane with a braced horizontal tail surface and single rudder. It had a retractable tricycle landing gear. The engine was nose-mounted and it had an enclosed cabin with side-by-side seating for two and room behind for a further two passengers.

Construction of the Messerschmitt Bf 108 was transferred to the Société Nationale de Constructions Aéronautiques du Nord (usually known as Nord) at Les Mureaux,in occupied France in 1942.
The company built two prototypes of the Messerschmitt Me 208 during 1943/44. One survived the liberation and was redesignated as the Nord 1100.

The company then produced a re-engined version of the Nord Pingouin with a Renault 6Q-10 engine as the Nord 1101.It was designated the Ramier by the French military.
One Nord 1104 Noralpha was fitted with a 240 hp Potez 6D-0 for testing,and two earlier 1101 Noralphas were converted with Turbomeca Astazou II turboshaft engines as the S.F.E.R.M.A.-Nord 1100 Noralpha in 1959.
Nord built 200 production examples of the Noralpha and these served as communications aircraft with the French Air Force and French Navy.The final Air Force Noralphas were replaced during 1974-75, whilst a few naval examples continued for a brief period.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on October 25, 2019, 06:17:40 PM
Nord Norélan

The Nord 1221 Norélan was a 1940s three-seat training monoplane.
It was first flown on 30 June 1948,the Norélan was a single-engined low-wing cantilever monoplane with a distinctive large dihedral angle to the wings, and an odd bubble type canopy.
The aircraft was to have a retractable tricycle landing gear the design was changed to a fixed tailwheel landing gear.A number of variants with different engines were produced but no production orders were received.

The first prototype had a 180hp Mathis 8G-20 inverted Vee engine,later changed a 180hp Régnier 4L-02 inline engine which gave a max speed of around 150mph.
Just three aircraft were completed before the project was wound up.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on October 25, 2019, 06:32:13 PM
Nord Noroit

The Nord 1400 Noroit was a French reconnaissance and air-sea rescue flying boat designed and built by Nord Aviation for the French Navy.

The Noroit was an amphibian flying boat, a cantilever gullwing monoplane with a two-step hull. It had a cantilever horizontal tail surface with three vertical surfaces.
The enclosed cabin for the seven crew with a large cabin in the rear for use in rescue operations. The aircraft had two engines located one on each wing leading edge.
The prototype as a flying boat first flew on 6 January 1949 powered by two 1,600 hp Gnome-Rhône 14R radial engines.

The second aircraft was fitted with a retractable tailwheel landing gear for amphibious operation which was later retrofitted to the prototype.
The next two aircraft first flew in 1949, were designated the Nord 1401 Noroit and were fitted with two 1,800 hp Junkers Jumo 213 engines and both were tested with two Bristol Hercules radial engines.
These two aircraft were modified to production standard as the Nord 1402 Noroit and were followed by 21 production aircraft.The last aircraft was delivered to the French Navy in 1956.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on October 26, 2019, 04:53:00 PM
Nord 1500 Griffon

The Nord 1500 Griffon was an experimental ramjet-powered fighter aircraft designed and built in the mid-1950s by French state-owned aircraft manufacturer Nord Aviation.

It was part of a series of competing programs to fill a French Air Force specification for a Mach 2 fighter.Design of the Griffon originated in a late 1940s requirement for a high speed interceptor.
Flight tests favoured a delta configuration, which was incorporated into design studies using a variety of powerplants. Powered by a large ramjet with turbojet sustainer, the Griffon was renamed from the SFECMAS 1500 Guépard (Cheetah) after SFECMAS was merged with SNCAN to form Nord Aviation.

Two prototypes were ordered initially 24 August 1953, with the final contract, (No. 2003/55) in 1955. Although intended to fulfil a requirement for a light interceptor capable of operation from 1,000m grass runways, the two prototypes were ordered without military equipment for research purposes.
It was constructed mainly of light alloys, the Griffon comprised a large tubular fuselage which supported the middle set delta wings, fin with rudder and the forward fuselage, which extended forwards over the turbo-ramjet air intake. The forward fuselage housed the single-seat cockpit and carried small delta canards on either side of the cockpit. The tricycle undercarriage retracted into the wings and the underside of the air intake.

After proving the aerodynamic aspects and systems of the Griffon, the 1500-01 was retired in April 1957. Flying continued with the Griffon II after its first flight on 23 January 1957. With Major André Turcat at the controls, the Griffon II reached a top speed of Mach 2.19 (2,330 km/h or 1,450 mph) in 1958, proving the soundness of the basic design. However, the aircraft met several technical difficulties, such as kinetic heating, due to the lack of temperature-resistant materials, such as titanium, in the parts of the airframe experiencing the high temperatures.The ramjet was found to work well at high speed, but was unstable at medium speeds.

A preserved Nord 1500-02 Griffon II aircraft is on display in the French Air and Space Museum, at Le Bourget, near Paris.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on October 27, 2019, 04:58:19 PM
Nord 2100 Norazur

The Nord 2100 Norazur was a 1940s French civil transport monoplane.

The Norazur was a high-wing cantilever monoplane with a retractable tricycle landing gear.It was powered by two wing-mounted 420Hp Potez piston engines in pusher configuration.
It had an enclosed cabin for ten passengers or freight and was operated by a crew of two.

It was designed to meet a post-war requirement for a light transport and training aircraft it first flew Norazur at Les Mureaux on 30 April 1947.An additional prototype with 390 hp Béarn 6D-07 engines is believed to have been built.With other similar designs available the type did not enter production.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on October 27, 2019, 05:15:17 PM
Nord 3202 Series

The Nord Aviation 3202 was a 1950s French military trainer aircraft designed and built by Nord Aviation to meet a French Army requirement for a two-seat basic trainer.
The 3202 was a cantilever low-wing monoplane with a fixed tailwheel landing gear and a nose-mounted inline piston engine. It had an enclosed tandem cockpit for pupil (front) and instructor (rear).
Powerplant was a Potez 4D 32 four-cylinder air-cooled inline engine,240 hp,but other similar 260 hp engines were also used.Max Speed was around 160mph with a cruise of 130mph.
100 aircraft were built,plus two prototypes,post retirement from military use, many examples were sold to the civilian market.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on October 28, 2019, 10:39:45 PM
Nord 3400

The Nord 3400 Norbarbe was a French two-seat observation and casualty-evacuation aircraft for the French Army Light Aviation.
The 3400 was a braced high-wing monoplane with a fixed tailwheel landing gear and an enclosed cabin with tandem seating for a pilot and observer.

The prototype F-MBTD first flew on 20 January 1958, powered by a 240 hp Potez 4D-30 engine.A second prototype with an increased wing area followed,which was powered by a 260 hp Potez 4D-34 engine,which led to a production batch of 150 ordered by the French Army in the same configuration as the second prototype.

Max peed was 146 mph with a cruise of 118 mph and a range of around 620 miles.it was produced between 1959 and 1961 with 152 examples being completed.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on October 31, 2019, 05:39:28 PM
Nord 260

The Nord 260, built in prototype form as the Max Holste MH.260 Super Broussard, ("Super Bushranger"), was a turboprop-powered, uprated version of the piston-engined Max Holste MH.250 Super Broussard.
The MH.260 was designed in partnership with Nord Aviation to carry 23 passengers or 3,445 kg of cargo on short/rough airstrips.It was a high-wing, twin-engine turboprop aircraft powered by 980 hp Turbomeca Bastan engines.These allowed a cruise speed of around 235mph.
The fuselage was of all -aluminum construction with fabric covered control surfaces and the landing gear retracted into fuselage-mounted fairings.It`s first flight was late July 1960.

The design was taken over by Nord and production was commenced to fill a French government order for ten aircraft under the designation Nord 260. No orders were received from outside the government as the nascent Nord 262 offered better performance. Eight Nord 260s were completed and delivered to a few airlines on lease for short periods before final delivery to the French Air Force.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on October 31, 2019, 05:58:02 PM
Nord NC.850 Series

The Nord NC.850 (originally the Aérocentre NC.840) was a light aircraft developed in France in the late 1940s for use by French aeroclubs, it also saw military use for airborne observation.
The NC.850 series was developed from the Aérocentre NC.840 in response to a competition sponsored by the French government to find a domestically-produced machine for club use.
Aérocentre's entry was an ungainly high-wing, strut-braced monoplane with a fully enclosed cabin and fixed, tailwheel undercarriage. The fuselage construction was tubular, and the wings had a metal structure, the entire aircraft being skinned in fabric.

The competition was won by the SIPA S.90, but the government ordered 100 examples of this,runner-up design.These production examples, designated NC.853,differed from the prototypes in having twin tails, the fins mounted on the ends of the horizontal stabiliser.
Only 27 of the order had been completed, however, when Aérocentre was liquidated and its assets bought by Nord.The new owners continued production, with their machines identified with designation NC.853S.

In March 1951,Nord flew a heavily modified version of the design for use as an observation aircraft by the French Army.Known as the NC.856 Norvigie, this featured a more powerful engine and a lengthened and more extensively glazed cockpit.
The army ordered 112 examples which were mostly flown in the artillery spotting role,and a civil version was also offered, orders were not forthcoming and just two were built.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on November 01, 2019, 11:35:44 PM
Nord Aviation N 500 Cadet

The Nord Aviation N 500 Cadet was a single-seat VTOL research aircraft built by Nord Aviation in 1967.
It was to evaluate principles of the Tilt Duct propulsion concept for VTOL aircraft. The enclosed cabin contained an ejection seat.Two turboshaft engines were located side by side in the rear part of the fuselage.
They drove two 1.5m diameter props through interconnected shafts. The ducts could be turned to the horizontal position for vertical lift during takeoff and landing, and then rotated to the vertical position for forward flight. Directional control of the Nord 500 during vertical flight was done by small winglets attached to the bottom of each duct. During forward flight the aircraft was controlled using a conventional rudder/elevator tail setup.

The first Nord 500 was finished in the beginning of 1967, it was used for a variety of mechanical and ground tests. In July of 1968 a second prototype made its first tethered flight,there were never any free flights made, so the target of a 220 mph top speed were never tested.

Later Nord merged with the Aerospatiale Corporation and it was renamed the Aerospatiale N 500. A more powerful and advanced version of the aircraft was planned,but by 1971 the project was canceled.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on November 02, 2019, 02:04:36 PM
Peyret-Mauboussin PM XI

The Peyret-Mauboussin PM XI was a French high-wing touring aircraft of the early 1930s.

The PM XI was designed by Peyret-Mauboussin as a Salmson-engined two-seat touring and sporting aircraft of wooden construction.It was an enlarged and more powerful development of the single-seat Peyret-Mauboussin PM X.JustTwo examples were built.

Airframe c/n 02 was finished first and first flew on 9 July 1930. It was registered as F-AJUL. c/n 01 F-AKFD was ordered by the French Service Technique.
In July F-AJUL took part in the Challenge International de Tourisme 1930 touring aircraft contest,but damaged a landing gear in a compulsory landing.In November one was flying at their Orly base and the other was under test for its CoA at Vélizy – Villacoublay Air Base.
F-AJUL was later flown by Rene Lefevre from Paris to Tananarive, Madagascar, between 1 and 14 December 1931. The total distance flown was 11,000 km at an average speed of 120 km/hour. He also flew it, after fitting additional fuel tanks from Paris to Saigon in 10 days during December 1932, a distance of 6,500 miles The return trip in February 1933 took 8 days.

This aircraft is stored without wings at the Musee Castel-Mauboussin at Cuers-Pierrefeu airfield near Toulon in southern France, and can be viewed by request.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on November 03, 2019, 06:29:28 PM
Potez SEA VII

The Potez SEA VII, otherwise known simply as the Potez VII, was an early airliner developed in France shortly after the First World War.
It was a civil version of the SEA IV military aircraft that Henry Potez had developed with the Société d'Etudes Aéronautiques.At the wars end, the French military cancelled its orders for the SEA IV and the company dissolved.

Potez believed that the design had potential in peacetime and founded Aéroplanes Henry Potez in 1919 to refurbish war-surplus machines for civil use.
This led to a revision of the design as the SEA VII, it differed from its predecessor in having an enclosed cabin for two passengers occupying the rear fuselage.
The wings were also enlarged to reduce their loading,to allow for slower, gentler landings.The aircraft were powered by a single Lorraine-Dietrich 12Da of 370 hp giving a cruising speed of 110 mph.

Cie Franco-Roumaine purchased twenty-five examples to use on services to Eastern European destinations during the 1920s.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on November 04, 2019, 10:51:08 PM
Potez X

The Potez X was a French 1920s general-purpose colonial transport aircraft.

It was was a three-engined biplane with a fixed nosewheel landing gear and a tailskid. The first version was the Potez X A which was powered by three 140 hp Hispano-Suiza 8Aa piston engines, two were strut-mounted between the upper and lower wings and one in the nose.
It had an enclosed cabin for 10 passengers with the pilot in an open cockpit behind the cabin.Later the engines were changed to more powerful 180hp Hispano-Suiza 8Ab versions.These gave a max speed just over 100mph and a leisurely cruise speed of around 82mph.
Two other variants were built with 280 hp Hispano-Suiza 8Bec engines, the X B was a military version,and the X C a commercial type.

The Potez X formed the basis of two similar airliners in the Potez XVIII and Potez XXII.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on November 06, 2019, 09:36:50 PM
Potez 29

The Potez 29 was a 1920s French passenger biplane designed and built by Avions Henry Potez.

The Potez 29 was a biplane powered by a nose-mounted 450 hp Lorraine 12Eb broad-arrow piston engine.Max speed was 135mph with a cruise speed of 115mph.
It had fixed landing gear with a tail skid and was based on the earlier Potez 25, with the same wings and engine, the Potez 29 had a new fuselage with an enclosed cockpit for two crew.
There was a cabin for five passengers.The 29 proved to be a success; it entered service with civilian airlines, and 120 were delivered to the French Air Force, mainly as an air ambulance and light transport. A small number were operated by the Royal Air Force. 146 aircraft in total were completed and the first flight was in 1927.
Civilian versions had a slightly more powerful 480 hp Gnome-Rhône 9Ady Jupiter radial engine,just 15 of these were built.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on November 07, 2019, 06:18:09 PM
Potez 36

The Potez 36 was a French two-seat touring or sport monoplane,which made it`s first flight in 1929.

It was a high-wing braced monoplane with a conventional fixed landing gear; it featured an enclosed cabin with side-by-side seating for a pilot and a passenger.
The 36 had some unusual features including rearward folding wings to make it easier to store or to tow behind a vehicle. Some of the aircraft had Potez-designed leading-edge slats.

It proved to be popular with both French private owners and flying clubs with a small number being used by the French Air Force during the 1930s as liaison aircraft.
The 60 hp Salmson 5Ac radial engine was enough for a max speed of around 95mph, but a cruise of 80pmh would be more common.Later versions had engines of up to 100hp.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on November 08, 2019, 06:40:31 PM
Potez 50

The Potez 50 or Potez 50 A2 was a French two seat military multi-rôle aircraft, first flown in 1931.
It did not go into service but despite this seven variants using five different engines were produced,one setting several speed with load records and another,the Potez 506,setting three altitude records.

The Potez 50 and its variants were powered by five different nose mounted engines, two inlines and three radials.The first of these was a 600 hp Lorraine 12Fd Courlis water-cooled W-12 engine, enclosed by a close fitting metal cowling which followed the contours of its three-cylinder banks.
There was a large, rectangular, honeycomb radiator on the fuselage underside at the rear of the engine, equipped with a shutter.
The central part of the fuselage around the cockpits was ply skinned,with fabric further back.The pilot's open cockpit was under a cut-out in the upper trailing edge which widened his field of view; he controlled a fixed, forward firing machine gun and the gunner/observer's position close behind had a pair of machine guns on a flexible mount as well as radio and photographic equipment.

The date of the first flight of the Potez 50 is not known but it had already been tested by the end of June 1931 as it was selected,along with three other prototypes,to make a publicity tour of eastern Europe which began on 5 July.Two Potez 50s were flying by the summer of 1932, one with an Hispano engine and the other with another radial, a supercharged, fourteen cylinder,700 hp Gnome-Rhône Mistral Major.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on November 09, 2019, 06:22:15 PM
Potez 540

The Potez 540 was a French multi-role aircraft of the 1930s.

It was twin-engine aircraft to fulfill a 1932 specification for a new reconnaissance bomber. Built as a private venture, the aircraft was designated the Potez 54,it flew for the first time on 14 November 1933. It was intended as a four-seat aircraft capable of performing duties such as bomber, transport and long-range reconnaissance.
The Potez 54 was a high-wing monoplane, of mixed wood and metal covering over a steel tube frame.

The prototype had twin fins and rudders, and was powered by two 690 hp Hispano-Suiza 12Xbrs V-12 engines in streamlined nacelles, which were connected to the fuselage by stub wings.
The main landing gear units retracted into the nacelles,and auxiliary bomb racks were mounted beneath the stub wings.It featured manually operated turrets at the nose and dorsal positions, as well as a semi-retractable bin-style ventral turret. During development, the original tailplane was replaced by a single fin and rudder, and in this form, the type was re-designated the Potez 540 and delivered to the Armee de I'Air on 25 November 1934.A total of 192 Potez 540s were built.

The aircraft`s first combat was in the Spanish Civil War, where they were operated by the Spanish loyalist side.The aircraft was a poor design and was already obsolete just two years after its introduction, when confronted by the higher performance German and Italian planes of the same period, the Potez 540 proved itself a failure in Spanish skies during the Civil War and was labelled as 'Flying Coffin' by Spanish Republican pilots.
In the late 1930s, the aircraft were truly obsolete so they were relegated to French transport units.They were also used as paratrooper training and by September 1939 and the beginning of World War II, they had been largely transferred to the French colonies in North Africa, where they continued to function in transport and paratrooper service. Their role in even these secondary assignments was problematic given their poor defensive armament and vulnerability to modern enemy fighters. Following the French surrender to Germany in June 1940, Potez 540s still flying served the Vichy French Air Force mainly in the French overseas colonies. Most of these machines were retired or destroyed by late 1943.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on November 10, 2019, 03:47:37 PM
Potez 650

The Potez 650 was a French-built military transport aircraft that saw service in World War II, it was based on the Potez 62 airliner.

The Potez 62 was a high-wing twin-engine monoplane,construction used wood for the fuselage and a fabric-covered metal structure for the wings.Passengers for the first time in France enjoyed noise reduction and heating of the cabin. It was, by all accounts, considered trouble-free, safe and comfortable. The type however did not have a very long career, as it was quickly made obsolete by more modern and much faster airliners types.

The Potez 650 received relatively minor modifications: Hispano-Suiza 12X liquid-cooled inline engines instead of the Gnome-Rhône 14K radials, a less sophisticated cabin with accommodation for 14 paratroopers and their equipment (one squad) or 10 wounded (for the medevac role), and a larger door system for bulky loading.The first paradrop from a Potez 650 occurred on May 1937.
The French military did not have plans for paratroopers, which did not fit well with its defensive doctrine of the pre-World War II era.Only two paratrooper companies were formed, and never reached full strength, and just 15 Potez 650s were manufactured. They were not sufficient in numbers even for such a small number of men, so the big Farman 224 airliner which had just been refused by Air France was pressed into military service.

After the armistice, paratrooper units were officially disbanded, although training jumps were performed in North Africa. The Potez 650s were transferred to a military transport unit. When Free French and British forces attacked the French protectorates of Syria and Lebanon in mid-1941, the Vichy government established an airbridge to resupply its troops in the Middle East. Potez 650s took a significant share of the work.

In late 1936, the Romanian Air Force expressed interest in acquiring foreign military aircraft. The Potez 650 was selected, but Romania required Gnome-Rhône 14K engines to be fitted like originally on the Potez 62, since a license to manufacture these engines had already been acquired by Industria Aeronautică Română. Six examples of this new variant, designated Potez 651 were ordered in 1937, although it seems only four were operationally used.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on November 12, 2019, 07:32:36 PM
Potez 662

In 1936 the Potez company became part of the Société Nationale de Constructions Aéronautique du Nord (S.N.C.A.N.), under the Law for the Nationalisation of Military Industries.
They followed up their first four engined aircraft, the 661 of 1937 with the Type 662, which was almost identical aside from having much more powerful engines In place of the 220 hp Renault 6-Q inverted inline engines off the 661, the 662 had 680 hp Gnome-Rhône 14M Mars radials, providing much improved performance.

The 662 was a commercial aircraft with seating for up to twelve passengers. It was a low wing cantilever, almost all-metal monoplane. The wing tapered with an almost straight trailing edge that carried outboard balanced ailerons and split trailing edge flaps over the whole of the centre section.
The four Mars small diameter 14-cylinder radials were conventionally mounted of the front wing spar,enclosed with wide cowlings and large spinners,driving three bladed variable propellers.
Internally the wing was strengthened and the fuel tank capacity was increased by 37% to provide for the higher consumption.

The standard seat arrangement was for twelve,but two seats could be removed to allow the installation of chaises-longues for longer flights.The pilots' cabin was enclosed, with side by side dual control seating. The tail unit carried twin vertical endplate fins, slightly oval on a tailplane that had strong dihedral. The balanced rudders and elevators were metal structures with the only fabric covering used on the aircraft. The elevators carried trim tabs,and there was a small tailwheel, with the main undercarriage retracting into the inner engine nacelles.

The Potez 662 made its first flight on 26 July 1938 at Meaulte. It made an impression at the 1938 Paris Aero Show, not least because it was the only completed new commercial aircraft present.

Though just one 662 was built before the war,it was originally intended for Air France,with the expectation of orders to follow, but it was taken over by the French Air Ministry for its own use.No more were built,despite suggestions that it might be produced in occupied France for German use.

The single example built crashed Nov 12th 1941 near Valleraugue Gard with the loss of all 7 on board.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on November 14, 2019, 12:07:32 AM
Potez 840

The Potez 840 was an all-metal cantilever-wing monoplane with a retractable tricycle landing gear. It had a crew of three and a cabin for 18 passengers.
It was powered by four 440 shp Turbomeca Astazou II turboprop engines.The prototype first flew on 29 April 1961; a second aircraft flew in June 1962 and had more powerful 600 shp Turbomeca Astazou XII.

The second prototype carried out a sales tour of North America and it was planned to build a batch of 25 aircraft for Chicago-based Turbo Flight Inc. but only two more prototype aircraft were built.
The next two aircraft were designated the Potez 841 and were powered by 550 shp Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-6 turboprop engines.Another two modified Astazou-powered aircraft were produced, one in 1965 and one in 1967. A total of eight aircraft were completed,and it was the last aircraft to bear the Potez name.

There were plans to build Potez 840s in a factory in Baldonnel in the ROI, with financial aid from the Irish government,but the factory was closed in 1968 without completing any aircraft.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on November 14, 2019, 05:19:46 PM
Potez-CAMS 141  Just when you thought I was done with Potez, I found a few more of note.

The Potez-CAMS 141 was a French long range reconnaissance flying boat of the late 1930s.It was intended to equip the French Navy,but only a single prototype was completed before the German invasion of France stopped production.
It was designed to meet a 1935 French Navy specification for a long range marine reconnaissance flying boat to replace obsolete aircraft such as the Breguet Bizerte,the prototype first flew on 21 January 1938, starting trials in August 1938.

It was a four engined monoplane, powered by 860hp Hispano-Suiza 12Y engines, with a braced,wing mounted above the fuselage and a twin tail.It was armed with a dorsal turret carrying two 7.5 mm Darne machine guns, with a further two machine guns in lateral "cheek" barbettes and two in waist positions. A production order for four aircraft was placed, with a further 15 being ordered before the start of WW2.

The prototype, named "Antarès" entered service with the French Navy in September 1939.Additional orders for Potez-CAMS 141s were placed shortly after the start of the war, with delivery expected from June 1940, but these orders were cut back owing to changing priorities and the realisation that the loss rate of long range flying boats was very low.

No production aircraft had been completed by the time of the Armistice in June 1940, with Antarès being evacuated to Morocco. It was operated by the Vichy French Navy, continuing in service until the Allied Invasion of North Africa,when the French armed forces in North Africa joined with the Free French. Antarès continued in service, carrying out patrols over the Central and South Atlantic.Antarès was retired and scrapped early in 1944.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on November 15, 2019, 07:18:05 PM
Potez-CAMS 161

The Potez-CAMS 161 was one of three French large, six-engined flying boats intended as airliners on the North Atlantic route.In the summer of 1938, the 161's aerodynamics had been investigated and refined with the Potez-CAMS 160, a 5/13 scale flight model. An exact date for the first flight is not known, however a report in Flight gives it as within few weeks before 7 December 1939, with "further flying tests" in the first half of 1942.

The 161 was powered by six 664 kW Hispano-Suiza 12Ydrs liquid cooled V-12 engines driving three blade propellers.These were cooled via both wing surface and frontal radiators, the latter retracted after take-off.Its two step hull was flat sided forward of the wing but more rounded to the rear. Ten square windows on each side lit the passenger cabin, where twenty were provided with seating and sleeping compartments and flown and looked after by a crew of six.

It had been painted in Air France Atlantique trim and at some point it received a French civil registration. It seems to have been destroyed by enemy fire toward the end of World War II, but there is disagreement on exactly when and where,some claim the Baltic, others to Lake Constance.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on November 16, 2019, 04:20:02 PM
Reims-Cessna F406 Caravan II

Reims Aviation Industries was a French aircraft manufacturer located in the city of Reims, most recently producing the F406 Caravan II. Reims Aviation was a wholly owned subsidiary of GECI Aviation.

In 1960 a cooperative agreement was signed with Cessna to produce light aircraft for the European market.It was officially born as Reims Aviation in 1962, mainly producing the FR172 Reims Rocket, a more powerful version of the Cessna 172. In 1989 Reims Aviation bought back all the shares held by Cessna and became a private French aircraft manufacturer.
Production of the single-engined airplanes was halted, and only the F406 remained in production.

The company entered receivership on 10 September 2013. On 25 March 2014, the Commercial Court of Reims approved the transfer of the Company's aircraft maintenance, cabin management, integration and installation systems assets to ASI Innovation, and the transfer of its F406 assets to Continental Motors, Inc. With the disposition of the company's assets, its parent company, GECI Aviation, was also liquidated on 17 April 2014.Continental has indicated that it plans to continue production of the F406 in Mobile, Alabama.

The Reims-Cessna F406 Caravan II is a turboprop twin engine utility aircraft manufactured and designed by Reims Aviation in cooperation with Cessna.
It is a twin turboprop,fourteen-seat low-wing monoplane of conventional aluminium and steel construction.The aircraft first flew on 22 September 1983,and was produced by Reims Aviation until the company's 2013 folded.

The F406 is aimed at passenger and small cargo transport, and civilian and military surveillance. For extra cargo capacity a cargo pod can be fitted to the belly of the aircraft. The Surmar is a new maritime surveillance version of the aircraft with extra equipment such as a 360 degree radar.
Though the F406 is more expensive to operate than single-engine aircraft of the same passenger capacity such as the Cessna 208 Caravan, having two engines means it complies with European regulations regarding commercial operations, which only allow multi-engine aircraft for commercial instrument flight.
The Type Certificate transferred only had approval to produce spare parts and not the whole aircraft.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on November 17, 2019, 06:12:23 PM
Romano R.5

The Romano R.5 was a French reconnaissance flying boat built in 1932.

In 1929 the French Air Ministry drew up a programme of military aircraft specifications to meet France's needs over the next few years. One part called for a reconnaissance and observation seaplane and the R.5 was Romano's response; funding had not been secured so just one was built.The Romano R.5 first flew in September 1932.

The Romano R.5 was an all-metal flying boat.It featured a parasol wing built in three parts; its centre section mounted a 650 hp Hispano-Suiza 12Nbr water-cooled V-12 engine in tractor configuration on its leading edge and was braced over the fuselage by parallel pairs of struts from its outer ends to the mid-fuselage.Structurally it was a mixture of steel and duralumin, with dural skinning, the wing was built around two spars; in the centre section these were elaborated into a girder.

The R.5 had a pair of Dornier-style sponsons, mounted on the lower sides of the fuselage instead of wing mounted floats.There were plans to use these to contain retractable wheels to turn the R.5 into an amphibian.
In the nose section was a position for mooring,navigation equipment and a machine gun mounting. The pilots' cabin was ahead of the propeller disc, fully enclosed and with side-by-side seats and dual controls. Behind the wing there were positions for a navigator who also operated the bomb release controls and for a radio and camera operator. Behind them was a dorsal gunner's position, midway between the trailing edge and the tail. The fuselage became slender to the rear, where the tall fin carried a deep, rounded unbalanced rudder. The R.5's tapered tailplane was raised out of the spray track.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on November 18, 2019, 05:13:30 PM
Romano R.16

The Romano R.16 was a three engine, high wing monoplane designed for policing and other rôles in France's African colonies.
In 1930 the Direection Générale Technique issued a requirement for an aircraft to operate in the French Colonies. It was to have three Lorraine 9N Algol engines and an all-metal structure, capable of reconnaissance, observation, policing and bombing as well as medical evacuations or general transport.The Romano R.16 was one of nine prototypes built for this programme.

The R.16 was powered by three 300 hp Lorraine 9N Algol nine cylinder radials enclosed by long chord cowlings. One was in the nose of the fuselage and the other were mounted under the wing centre section from the forward wing struts, aided by bracing struts rising inwards to the wing root and short vertical struts to the forward spar. Long nacelles behind the outer engines tapered to the rear wing strut.
The pilots' cabin was below and just ahead of the wing leading edge, fitted with side-by-side seating and dual controls. Behind there was a generous cabin, accessed via a large port side door. Aft of the cabin, just behind the trailing edge was a dorsal gunner's position.Each tailplane was braced on the vertex of a V-strut from the lower fuselage and the tail surfaces were steel tube structures with fabric covering.

The R.16 flew for the first time in February 1933.By May the initial tests were complete.It then went to Villacoublay for official tests, which were completed by early September.

The Colonial trimotor contract was awarded to the Bloch MB.120, so no more R.16s were built. The sole example appeared in the prototypes section of the French civil aircraft register as F-AKGE, with the type name Romano 160[6] and was used by the Commander of the 5th Aerial Region of French North Africa as his personal transport. A photograph taken at Cannes in 1937 shows that by then it had been adapted to carry passengers, the cabin now lit by long, continuous windows on each side. It also had a revised vertical tail with an unbalanced rudder.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on November 19, 2019, 10:23:41 PM
Romano R.82

The Romano R-82 was a two-seat intermediate and aerobatic biplane trainer from the mid 1930`s.

The prototype Romano R-80.01 was a private venture design by Chantiers aéronavals Étienne Romano for a two-seat aerobatic biplane to use as a demonstrator.
It was tested in 1935 with a 179 kW 240 hp Lorraine 7Me radial engine,but later fitted with a 280 hp Salmson 9Aba radial and re-designated the R-80.2.Two more prototypes were built which were sold on to private owners.
Romano became part of the nationalised SNCASE in 1937 and the French Air Force ordered the R-82 into production with 147 aircraft being delivered. The French Navy also ordered 30 R-82s and all Air Force and Navy aircraft had been delivered by May 1940.

In 1938 two aircraft were ferried to Spain and used by the Spanish Republican government against the Nationalists.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on November 20, 2019, 07:50:47 PM
Romano R.90 Series

The Romano R.90 was a prototype single-seat French floatplane fighter of the 1930s. Just one R.90 was built, but the type formed the basis of the Romano R.83 and Romano R.92 fighters.
The R.90 was a biplane of mixed construction, with a welded steel-tube fuselage and wooden, single-bay wings.The upper wings were gulled into the top of the fuselage to give a better view for the pilot.Two floats were fitted.with an armament of four 7.5mm machine guns, two in the lower wing and two in the floats.

It made its maiden flight in August 1935, powered by a 720 hp Hispano-Suiza 9Vbrs radial engine.It reached a speed of 219 mph.In October that year it was re-engined with a 680 hp Hispano-Suiza 14Hbrs radial in a NACA cowling, increasing the speed and the floats were modified.It was re-engined again as the R.92 in October 1937 with a 900 hp Hispano-Suiza 12Ycrs-1 V12 engine.A 20mm cannon firing through the propeller boss was added but despite reaching 248 mph,faster than any of the other competitors,the R.90 was not ordered into production.

The aircraft attracted the Spanish Republican Air Force, which placed an order for 24 of a landplane derivative, the Romano R.83. This differed in having a conventional fixed tailwheel undercarriage, a non-gulled upper wing and was to be powered by a 450 hp Pratt & Whitney Wasp Junior engine. These aircraft were to be assembled in secret by the Belgium company LACEBA. Flight testing in Belgium was carried out with a 280 hp  Salmson 9ABa engine, to give the impression that the aircraft was a trainer,the more powerful engines to be fitted when the aircraft was delivered to Spain.

The first six R.83s were delivered to Barcelona between April and July 1938. The six R.83s were re-engined with the intended Wasp-Junior engines and were used as advanced trainers.
The remaining 18 R.83s had not been completed by the time the Spanish Civil War ended in April 1939.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on November 21, 2019, 07:29:42 PM
Romano R.110

The Romano R.110 was a twin-engine 3-seat fighter aircraft, from the late 1930s.

In late October 1934, the French Air Ministry released a specification for a twin-engine multi-seat fighter aircraft, which would be required to fulfil several roles.
A three seat version (C3 under the French designation scheme) would be used to command formations of smaller single-engine fighters, while two seat versions would be used to daylight bomber escort and attack (C2) or as night-fighters (CN2). Bids were received from a number of aircraft designers, including Breguet,Hanriot,Potez and Romano.

The Romano design, the R.110, was a low-winged monoplane with a retractable tailwheel undercarriage. It was of mixed wood and metal construction, and was powered by two 450 hp Renault 12R-2 air-cooled V-12 engines. It carried the specified armament of two fixed 20 mm cannon and a single flexibly mounted 7.5 mm machine gun.
Construction of the prototype was very slow and the aircraft did not fly until 30 March 1938. By this time, the Potez 630 had already been chosen to meet the requirement and was about to enter production, so development of the R.110 was discontinued with just one aircraft completed.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on November 22, 2019, 07:43:19 PM
Salmson-Moineau S.M.1

The Salmson-Moineau S.M.1 A3, (later Salmson Sal. 1 A3), was a French armed three-seat biplane long range reconnaissance aircraft of the First World War.

The S.M.1 A3 was developed from 1915 to meet a French military requirement, which called for a three-seat long range reconnaissance aircraft with strong defensive armament. The S.M.1 was unconventional, powered by a single 240hp Salmson 9A liquid-cooled radial,mounted in the fuselage powering two airscrews mounted between the wings with a system of gears and drive shafts.
The unusual layout was chosen by Moineau to minimise drag. The twin airscrew layout allowed a wide field of fire for the two gunner-observers, one seated in the nose and one behind the pilot.
Both gunners operated ring-mounted flexible 37 mm APX cannon.The airframe was fairly conventional,the box fuselage was mounted on a system of struts between the wings.
The undercarriage included a nose wheel, intended solely to prevent the aircraft nosing over, and a tail skid.

The aircraft was flight tested in early 1916 and was sufficiently successful to receive an order for 100 aircraft although the performance was inferior to similar types.
In service the S.M.1 was not successful. The nose-wheel undercarriage proved fragile,and would collapse if misused.The complex transmission system was difficult to service in the field and the performance of the aircraft was generally poor.
Records show that around 155 S.M.1s were built in total.The type was largely withdrawn from service in 1917 after a short service life.A small number of aircraft remained in use until late 1918. Some S.M.1s were supplied to the Imperial Russian Air Service, but they were no better liked in Russia.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on November 22, 2019, 07:52:06 PM
Salmson Phrygane

The Salmson Phrygane ("Caddisfly") was a French light aircraft of the 1930s.

The Phrygane was a conventional, high-wing strut-braced monoplane with fixed tailwheel undercarriage and a fully enclosed cabin for the pilot and either two or four passengers, depending on the version. Salmson sold about 25 examples before the outbreak of World War II.
The Phrygane was flown by private pilot owners and by aero clubs. Several aircraft survived the war and the few postwar examples were built by CFA. A D-211 was still in service at Lille Lesquin airfield in 1965.

The main production version was D-2 Phrygane –with 135hp Salmson 9Nc engine (23 built), which gave a max speed of 122mph and a cruis of around 100mph.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on November 23, 2019, 03:26:22 PM
Salmson D6 Cricri

The Salmson D6 Cricri ("Cricket") was a French light aircraft of the 1930s.

It was a conventional, parasol-wing monoplane with fixed tailskid undercarriage and seating in tandem open cockpits for the pilot and passenger.
Originally intended for recreational flying, the type achieved its greatest success when it was selected by the French government to equip the Aviation Populaire,resulting in sales of over 320 machines.It was also used as a trainer and patrol aircraft in the French Air Force.

Following the war, CFA attempted to revive the design as the CFA D7 Cricri Major. This differed from its predecessor mainly in having a more powerful engine and an enclosed cabin.
Eventually, only ten examples were built.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on November 24, 2019, 04:12:36 PM
Scintex Rubis

The Scintex ML 250 Rubis was a French civil utility aircraft of the 1960s.

Scintex Aviation had manufactured the two-seat Emeraude from the late 1950s. In 1960 the firm designed the ML 145 four-seat low-wing cabin monoplane, powered by a 145 h.p. Continental O-300-B engine, the single example of which first flew on 25 May 1961.
It was quickly developed into the ML 250 with a larger five-seat cabin and fitted with a 250 hp Lycoming O-540 engine.This first flew on 3 June 1962.The aircraft was of an all-wood construction, having a semi-monocoque plywood-covered fuselage and cantilever tapered low wing. The tail fin was swept and the aircraft, unusually, was fitted with a fully retractable tailwheel undercarriage.
Performance was good with a max speed of 196mph and a normal eco-cruise of 170mph,max range was just under 850nmi.

Eight production examples of the ML 250 Rubis were completed by Scintex during 1964-1965.It suffered from competition from contemporary all-metal aircraft types such as the Piper Comanche.
The Rubis has remained in service with French private pilots and four were still airworthy in 2005.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on November 25, 2019, 10:30:35 PM
SECAN Courlis

The SECAN SUC-10 Courlis (Curlew) was a French touring monoplane designed and built by Société d'Etudes et de Construction Aéronavales (SECAN).
It was a four seater all-metal high-wing monoplane,fixed tricycle undercarriage,and twin booms supporting a tail unit. It`s engine was a 190 hp  Mathis G8R piston type,mounted in the rear fuselage using a pusher configuration.

The prototype, registered F-WBBF, first flew on 9 May 1946.Production was started and a total of 144 aircraft were completed with a number being exported to South America.
Major problems with the engine ( power loss and overheating) resulted in the withdrawal of the engine's type certificate and some airframes were never fitted with an engine and scrapped.
The company did test fit the aircraft with a 220 hp Mathis engine but production was ended.Most had been withdrawn from service by the late 1950`s.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on November 26, 2019, 09:18:37 PM
SNCAC NC.211 Cormoran

The SNCAC NC.211 Cormoran was a large four-engined military transport aircraft for passengers and freight.

In 1945, the French military wanted to create paratrooper regiments,but they realised they did not have any suitable aircraft for the role.The Chief of Staff, ordered the Direction Technique Industrielle to evaluate interest for a new transport aircraft project. SNCAC and Breguet Aviation answered the request and the SNCAC NC.210 was selected in December 1945 when a contract for 105 aircraft was awarded.It`s design was thought to be rather ugly and bulky looking,but it met most of the requirements, at least on paper.

The NC.211 originated as the NC.210 powered by four 2,200 hp Gnome-Rhône 18R 18-cylinder radial engines.A change of engine type to the 1,600 hp Gnome-Rhône 14R the designation changed to NC.211. Intended to provide the French Air Force, ( Armée de l'Air (ALA), with strategic transport and paratrooping capability the Cormoran was a large four-engined aircraft with a double-deck fuselage, high-set wing and tricycle undercarriage.
The Cormoran had a conventional tail unit with tailplane attached to the extreme rear of the fuselage and fin.The cockpit was situated forward of the wing leading edge above the forward fuselage which also had large clamshell doors to the 150 m3 (5,297 cu ft) lower deck cargo compartment. Passengers, paratroops and stretchers were to have been carried in both the lower cabin and upper cabin, which was on the same level as the cockpit aft of the wing. The retractable twin-wheeled undercarriage legs retracted into the rear of the inboard engine nacelles and the underside of the forward fuselage.

After the fuselage of the first prototype was displayed at the 1946 Salon dÁeronautique in Paris on November 15, 1946 the first flight was delayed due to hydraulic problems in the landing gear.
The first prototype Nc.211-01 was ready to fly in July 1948 making its only flight on 20 July 1948 at Toussous. During the flight a mis-match between the flight control surfaces caused the crash of the aircraft and the loss of all five on board.

Flight testing of the first production aircraft, from 9 April 1949, quickly revealed disappointing performance, leading to loss of confidence in the aircraft's ability to fulfil the required specifications, and perhaps even the safety of the design, resulting in cuts to the contract to just ten production airframes. Flying with this aircraft ceased on 7 July 1949 with approximately 30 hours total flying time, after which the aircraft was used to house radio transmitters on the airfield at Villacoublay until it was scrapped circa 1972/3.
All remaining aircraft and components were scrapped at Bourges or at Billancourt airfield, just two were complete and nine partially constructed.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on November 27, 2019, 04:27:21 PM
SNCAC NC.510

The SNCAC NC.510 was a twin-engine French reconnaissance, army co-operation and advanced training aircraft, built in the late 1930s.

The fuselage consisted of two sections,the forward part, including the enclosed cockpit where the pilot was seated forward of the wing leading edge and an observer, provided with dual controls, behind him, was spruce framed and plywood covered. The observer could also access a long, largely transparent, ventral observation structure. The rear fuselage section was also spruce-framed but internally wire-braced and fabric-covered. A rear-facing glazed enclosure over the wing trailing edge held the rear gunner/radio operator.
Legs and wheels were enclosed in fairings, and there was a sprung tail skid. The aircraft carried three machine guns, one fixed in the nose and one moveable in each of the rear dorsal and the ventral positions.Flares and phosphorus bombs plus a mixture of handheld and remotely operated cameras for reconnaissance were carried in racking.

The NC.510 first flew on 20 June 1938,powered by a pair of 770 hp Gnome-Rhône 9Kfr 9-cylinder air-cooled radials driving two-blade, wooden, fixed-pitch propellers.
However in December that year it was on display at the Paris Aero Salon with 14-cylinder 680 hp Gnome-Rhône 14M double-row radial engines and three-blade propellers.Although these had a smaller displacement than the earlier 9Ks and a lower power output, they were more compact, reducing the engine frontal area by 47%.The cleaned-up version first flew with its new engines on 14 January 1939 and was designated the NC.510M.
A final version, the NC.530, was further aerodynamically cleaned up,mainly by the removal of the ventral gondola. It first flew on 28 June 1939. Two were completed but no production order was forthcoming.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on November 28, 2019, 06:22:54 PM
SNCAC NC-600

The SNCAC NC-600 was a prototype French twin-engined long-range fighter aircraft, developed by SNCAC from the earlier Hanriot H.220 fighter.

The design was now intended to meet a 1936 specification for a long-range fighter. The H.220-2 was exhibited at the 1939 Brussels Air Show to represent the NC-600, but the real NC-600 was a further redesigned aircraft, with new wings and revised tail surfaces, and was now being offered as a two-seat aircraft as previously the requirement was for a 3 person crew.
The proposed armament was also revised, with two additional fixed forward firing machine guns and the two rear-firing guns replaced by a single flexibly mounted cannon.
Powerplant was a pair of Gnome-Rhône 14M0/01 14-cylinder, two-row radial engines, producing 710 hp each,enough for a max speed close to 340mph.

The NC-600 prototype flew on 15 May 1940,again other types were preferred, with orders being placed for 40 Potez 671s and at least 300 SE.100s. Work on the six-aircraft evaluation batch was stopped by the German occupation of SNCAC's Bourges factory with just two aircraft completed.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on November 28, 2019, 06:40:16 PM
SNCAC Nord NC.850

The Nord NC.850 was a light aircraft developed in France in the late 1940s for use by French aeroclubs, but which also saw military use.

Production examples, designated NC.853, differed from the prototypes in having twin tails, the fins mounted on the ends of the horizontal stabiliser.[2] Only 27 of the order had been completed, however, when Aérocentre was liquidated and its assets bought by Nord.The new owners continued production, with their machines identified with designation NC.853S.

In March 1951,a heavily modified version of the design for use as an observation aircraft by the French Army.Known as the NC.856 Norvigie, this featured a more powerful engine and a lengthened and more extensively glazed cockpit.The army ordered 112 examples which were mostly flown in the artillery spotting role,and while a civil version was also offered, no orders came in and only two were built.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on November 30, 2019, 07:11:30 PM
SNCAC NC.1070

The SNCAC NC.1070 was a piston engined attack and torpedo bomber designed and built in France after World War II. The 2nd prototype, the NC1071, was the first French multi-jet turbine powered aircraft.

The NC.1070 was a contemporary of the Nord 1500 Noréclair and was intended to take a similar rôle. It was a twin engine aircraft of unconventional layout with twin booms, twin fins and a double horizontal tail. The central fuselage was short compared with the wing span, and extended beyond the tail.
It was powered by a pair of SNECMA 14R fourteen-cylinder, two-row, air-cooled radial engines mounted ahead of the wing.There were three crew,a bomb aimer/observer housed in a partially glazed nose, the pilot in a conventional cockpit which merged into a raised rear fuselage and, in the extreme tail just beyond the fins, a rear gunner in a turret.
The aircraft was first flown on 23 May 1947.Tests continued into 1948 but,it was seriously damaged in a belly landing on 9 March 1948 and did not fly again.Instead,SNCAC concentrated on the jet powered second prototype,the NC.1071.

This was powered by a pair of 5,000 lbf Rolls-Royce Nenes, mounted in booms like the piston engines of the NC.1070, though rather further forward, positioned below the wing and with their tailpipes emerging from the previously pointed boom ends.
Because of the lowered booms/tailpipes the lower, fixed horizontal tail was removed.The rear gun position was replaced by a partially glazed observer's position and the bottom of the rudder was clipped to avoid the jet exhaust. Apart from these engine induced changes the NC.1071 was aerodynamically very similar to the NC.1070, with the same dimensions.Its maximum speed was increased by nearly 40% at altitude and it had a greater ceiling, 43,000 ft but its range, much reduced, to around 600 miles.

The NC.1071 made its first flight on 12 October 1948. It suffered damage to its undercarriage on 27 April 1949, flew again in 1950 and was modified after significant structural distortion was discovered in flight.Though both an all weather fighter variant (NC.1072) and an attack bomber (NC.1073) were considered, they were not built and development was abandoned at the end of NC.1071's flight tests.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on November 30, 2019, 07:26:44 PM
SNCAC NC 1080

The SNCAC NC.1080 was a prototype single-seat carrier-based fighter aircraft first flown on 29 July 1949.

It was designed as a single-seat, carrier-borne fighter for the French Navy, the NC.1080 competed for this role against the Arsenal VG 90 and Nord 2200.
The NC.1080 was fitted with a Rolls-Royce Nene turbojet, and was designed to be capable of carrying three 30mm cannon.It was a low-wing monoplane of all-metal construction.On 29 July 1949, the aircraft had its first test flight, during which problems were noted regarding two control surfaces: the spoilers and tailplane.

SNCAC was dissolved that same year, further testing of the prototype was carried out by the French military at Brétigny and Villaroche air bases,but during a test flight on 10 April 1950, the plane crashed for unknown reasons and was damaged beyond repair.
Consequently, further development of the design was immediately halted and later the Aéronavale adopted the de Havilland Sea Venom in 1952.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on December 01, 2019, 05:11:35 PM
SNCAC NC.2001 Abeille

The SNCAC NC.2001 Abeille (Bee) was a single engine, twin intermeshing rotor helicopter designed and built in France in the late 1940s.

The design of the Abeille was directed by René Dorand at the helicopter division of SNCAC.An intermeshing rotor layout was chosen instead of a tail rotor design. Its twin, two blade rotors were driven by shafts which leaned out of the fuselage side-by-side.The rotor blades, which began some way from the hub, were heavily tapered,pitch and roll were adjusted from the control column by altering cyclic pitch via a pair of swashplates,and yaw by changing the relative collective pitch of the two rotors with the pedals.
Forward tilt of the rotor shafts was automatically linked to forward speed, and a single lever controlled both the collective pitch and the throttle through an electrical link.
The Abeille was powered by a 575 hp Renault 12S, an inverted, liquid-cooled V-12 engine.

The aircraft had a pod and boom, all-metal fuselage. The nose was fully glazed with two side by side crew seats ahead of a cabin with a bench seat for three passengers,with the engine and gearboxes mounted behind them.On the second machine the tailplane was lowered to the top of the fuselage and had a pair of fins,each roughly elliptical and mounted from its top.The Abeille's fixed main landing gear had two wheels on a single axle positioned a little behind the rotor shafts and mounted on broad, single struts to the mid-upper fuselage, together with a smaller nose wheel.

Three examples of the Abeille were built. The first was destroyed by a fire before it had flown. The second made its first flight on 28 June 1949, piloted by Claude Dellys. SNCAC was closed in that month, its assets distributed between three remaining state owned firms and as a result the Abeille programme was abandoned; the second machine did not fly again and the third never flew.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on December 02, 2019, 09:25:13 PM
SNCAO CAO.600

The SNCAO CAO.600 was a French prototype twin-engined torpedo-bomber of the Second World War.

In 1937 the French Air Ministry launched a specification to replace the Aéronavale's torpedo-bombers and reconnaissance aircraft, both obsolete biplanes, aboard the French Navy's two planned new aircraft carriers.The requirement demanded that the new aircraft, which was to act as a torpedo-bomber, level bomber and recon aircraft, had to have a maximum speed of over 186 mph, with an endurance of 3.5 hours as a torpedo-bomber and 6 hours on recon missions. Unusually for a carrier-based aircraft, the specification demanded that the new aircraft be twin-engined, carrying a crew of two as a torpedo bomber and three as a bomber or recon aircraft.

Two prototypes were ordered with the (SNCAO) on 15 June 1939, with a similar order for two of the competing designs.The SNCAO CAO.600 was an all-metal monoplane with an inverted gull wing and a retractable tailwheel undercarriage. The pilot and bombardier/navigator sat in separate cockpits with individual stepped windscreens, with the navigator in the extreme nose and the pilot above the leading edge of the wing. The radio-operator/gunner sat further back,with his cockpit behind the wing. It was powered by two Gnome-Rhône 14M radial engines, which gave it a max speed of 235mph and a cruise of 185mph.

The first prototype first flew on 21 March 1940, from Villacoublay to Istres on 31 March. It had completed 35 flying hours by 25 June when the test programme was stopped by the French surrender to Germany. The second prototype, which had folding wings required for carrier operations, was abandoned incomplete, while the first prototype was dismantled and stored until it was finally scrapped following the German occupation of Southern France in November 1942.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on December 03, 2019, 09:46:31 PM
SNCASE SE.161 Languedoc

The SNCASE SE.161 Languedoc was a French four-engined airliner produced by SNCASE (Sud-Est).

Air Afrique needed a new airliner for its African services so Marcel Bloch proposed a development of his Bloch MB.160 aircraft, the Bloch MB.161, which after World War II became the SNCASE SE.161 Languedoc. Design work on the new aircraft began in 1937.The prototype, first flew on 15 December 1939 powered by four Gnome-Rhône 14N radial engines of 1,020HP each.The aircraft underwent a slow development programme with test flying was not completed until January 1942.The French Vichy government placed an order for twenty in December 1941,but none were built.
The programme was finally abandoned following Allied bombing of the factory at Saint-Martin-du-Touch, Haute-Garonne in 1944.

Following the liberation of France the government led by De Gaulle authorised production to be resumed with the first series production aircraft, designated the SE.161 and registered F-BATA, first flying either on 25 August 1945 or 17 September 1945.An initial batch of 40 production examples was completed for Air France between October 1945 and April 1948.

The Languedoc was an all-metal four-engined low wing cantilever monoplane airliner with a twin fins and rudders. It had a crew of five (pilot, co-pilot/navigator, radio operator, flight engineer and steward) Standard cabin accommodation was for 33 passengers seated in eleven rows of three, two on the starboard side and one to port. An alternative first class arrangement was for 24 seats. A 44-seat higher density version was introduced by Air France in 1951.
A total of 100 aircraft were built for Air France, the French Air Force and French Navy.The only export customer for new production aircraft was the Polish airline LOT which bought five with some being refitted with Pratt & Whitney R-1830 Twin Wasp radial engines.

The SE.161 was named the Languedoc before it entered service with Air France on the Paris to Algiers route from 28 May 1946.By October they were withdrawn from service with a number of faults, including landing gear problems, poor view from the cockpit when landing in bad weather and a lack of de-icing equipment and cabin heating.
The Gnome Rhône engines also had a very short time between overhauls, but was considered by many as unable to operate in winter conditions and unsafe to fly.
They re-entered service in 1947, re-engined with the reliable American-built Pratt & Whitney R-1830 engines, with de-icing equipment, medium-range cockpit radios, and limited cabin heating, the designation changing to SE.161.P7. These essential enhancements partially reassured commercial airline customers. The Languedoc was soon a familiar type on Air France's increasing European network and continued until summer 1952,when they were steadily replaced by the popular Douglas DC-4.

The largest military operator was the French Navy, which operated 25 different Languedoc aircraft over the years. The first aircraft were delivered in 1949 and used as long-range transports between Paris, Marseille and Lyon, and North Africa; later aircraft would be used as flying classrooms for non-pilot aircrew training. The flying classrooms were modified with both a nose radar set and a ventral "dustbin" radar. The aircraft was withdrawn from Naval service in 1959.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on December 04, 2019, 07:14:22 PM
SNCASE SE.200

The Sud-Est SE.200 Amphitrite was a flying boat airliner built in France in the late 1930s.

It was a large, six-engine design with a high-set monoplane wing, and twin tails. The aircraft was developed in response to a French air ministry specification of 1936 for a transatlantic airliner for Air France with a 3700 mile range.Designs were submitted by several companies, and all had approval for construction of at least one prototype.

Four SE.200s were under construction at the outbreak of the World War II, and work on them continued after the fall of France, along with a fifth machine now started. The first aircraft, christened Rochambeau flew on 11 December 1942.Following testing, it was seized by the German occupation and taken to the Bodensee, where it was destroyed in an air-raid by RAF Mosquitos on 17 April 1944. A USAAF raid on Marignane on 16 September destroyed the second SE.200 and badly damaged the others.

Enough work on the third SE.200 had been carried out to make salvage worthwhile after the war. This aircraft eventually flew on 2 April 1946 but was damaged in a hard landing in October 1949 and was not repaired.Plans existed to also complete the fourth aircraft, but it came to nothing, and it and the fifth machine were scrapped. The remains of the first SE.200 were raised by Dornier in 1966.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on December 05, 2019, 09:09:29 PM
SNCASE Armagnac

The SNCASE S.E.2010 Armagnac was a large French airliner of the late 1940s built by SNCASE (Sud-Est).

The aircraft was designed originally around a requirement for an 87-passenger, long range airliner issued in 1942, the S.E. 2000 was to have been powered by four 2,100 hp Gnome-Rhône 18R engines. At an early stage, the S.E. 2000 was abandoned in favour of a larger, more capable version, the S.E. 2010 Armagnac. The Armagnac was a cantilever mid-wing monoplane with retractable tricycle landing gear designed for transatlantic service. A number of versions were planned from a 60-passenger "sleeping berth" version to 84-passenger, 108-passenger and 160-passenger versions.

The first prototype which flew on 2 April 1949 but it was lost on 30 January 1950 while still undergoing testing.The first production series aircraft F-BAVD flew on 30 December 1950.
Although the S.E.2010 was powered by Pratt & Whitney R-4360-B13 Wasp Major engines, a concern that the final design was underpowered led to a redesign.The final (15th) production aircraft was intended to be re-engined with 5,400 hp Allison T40 turboprops, but production was curtailed at eight aircraft and the more advanced version was never built.
One Armagnac, S.O. 2060, ended its days as an engine test-bed, alternately fitted with turbojet engines fitted in a nacelle below the fuselage.

At the time, the Armagnac was one of the largest civil aircraft ever built with a wingspan of almost 50 meters and weight over 77 tonnes. The large pressurized cabin was intended for a three tier sleeping compartment configuration which ultimately was not fitted to any of the S.E.2010 versions.Initial production of 15 aircraft was planned for delivery to launch customer Air France.
However after evaluation of the prototype, the airline declined delivery in 1952, citing inadequate performance. Despite being designed for transatlantic service, the aircraft's range of 5,000 km, was inadequate for the 6,500 km required to operate such a service. Additionally, the aircraft was too large to be operated profitably for shorter range routes.

Most Armagnacs were broken up in 1955, although two were used to transport the French contingent to the 1956 Olympic Games held in Melbourne, Australia. The visiting aircraft were ferried to Mangalore Airport.F-BAVI, one of the Melbourne caravan was the last SNCASE Armagnac survivor, and was scrapped in 1975 at Bordeaux/Merignac after having lain derelict for many years.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on December 06, 2019, 04:33:42 PM
SNCASE SE-2300

The Sud-Est SE-2300 or S.N.C.A.S.E. SE-2300 was a two/three seat low wing, single engine touring aircraft, built just after WWII.

It first flew on 26 October 1945.It was a conventionally laid out, all metal, two seat, single engine cantilever monoplane, with tapered low wings.The wings had a centre section integral with the fuselage and two outer panels, all covered with electrically welded skin.
The fuselage of the SE-2300 was constructed from four pre-formed panels welded together. A 140 hp Renault Bengali 4 four cylinder, inverted, air-cooled inline engine,with a two blade propeller.
The over-wing cabin seated two side-by-side with dual controls,and behind these seats was space for a third (optional in the SE-2300 and standard in the SE-2310 variant) and baggage.

There were access doors and rear view transparencies on both sides. At the rear, the tailplane was mounted at mid-fuselage and the fin and deep rudder were straight tapered.
The first and only SE-2300 had a fixed conventional undercarriage with pneumatic springing, faired main legs and wheels and a swivelling tailwheel. The two SE-2310s had tricycle undercarriages, first unfaired,but the second with faired legs and spats.
With a four-seat version, the SE-2311 under development but unbuilt, the three seat SE-3010 was entered into a 1946 French Transport Ministry contest for a four-seat tourist aircraft in February 1946. It was unsuccessful, the award going to the Nord 1200 Norécrin and development of the SE-2300 series was abandoned. The last example remained in use until at least 1956 as a company transport.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on December 07, 2019, 04:18:52 PM
SNCASE SE-3000

The SNCASE SE-3000 was a development of the Focke-Achgelis Fa 223 Drache (Dragon) was a helicopter built in Germany during World War II.
A single 1,010 hp Bramo 323 radial engine powered two three-bladed rotors mounted on twin booms on either side of the cylindrical fuselage.Although the Fa 223 is noted for being the first helicopter to attain production status, production of the helicopter was hampered by Allied bombing of the factory, and only 20 were built.

SNCASE`s version was designed for basic transport purposes, and had accommodation for four passengers.It was powered by a 720 hp Bramo "Fafnir" engine,but only three were built, the first flown on 23 October 1948.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on December 07, 2019, 04:37:38 PM
SNCASE Baroudeur

The SNCASE S.E.5000 Baroudeur was a French single-engined lightweight fighter designed by SNCASE (Sud-Est) for the NATO NBMR-1 "Light Weight Strike Fighter" competition.

The Baroudeur was a lightweight fighter, designed to operate from grass airfields, designed in the early stages of the Cold War. The idea behind the unusual design was to operate tactical jet interceptors from unprepared sites in case the air force bases were destroyed. It used a wheeled trolley that could be used for take off from grass, and three retractable skids (the third at the tail for landing) for take off from snow- or ice-covered surfaces.
The three-wheeled trolley had provision to use rockets if needed to assist. Apart from the landing gear the aircraft was a shoulder-wing monoplane with a swept wing and tail surfaces,powered by a SNECMA Atar 101C turbojet .

The first of two prototypes flew on the 1 August 1953. Three pre-production aircraft designated the S.E.5003 were also built with Atar 101D turbojet engines but the type was not ordered into production.
The five prototype and preproduction aircraft were disposed of as gunnery targets at Cazaux airforce base.A non-profit concern organisation (Ailes Anciennes Le Bourget, with ties to Le Bourget Air Museum) managed to scavenge most of the remains of three or four wrecks to create one SE 5003 in display condition.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on December 08, 2019, 04:38:34 PM
SNCASE Aquilon

SNCASE (Sud-Est) licence-built 121 Sea Venom FAW.20 as the Aquilon for the French Navy.The Sea Venom was the navalised version of the Venom NF.2 two-seat night fighter.

Aquilon 20   – 4 examples assembled from the parts provided by de Havilland plus - 25 locally built.
Aquilon 201 – Single prototype built in France.
Aquilon 202 – Two-seat version with ejector seats, an American AN/APQ-65 radar and air-conditioning - 50 built.
Aquilon 203 – Single-seat version with an American AN/APQ-94 radar and equipped with racks for air-to-air missiles. Prototype converted from Aquilon 202 plus - 40 built.
Aquilon 204 – Two-seat training version without guns. - 6 Converted from Aquilon 20.

The Aquilon saw service with the French Navy until being withdrawn from service in 1965. Aquilon 203 No.53 is currently preserved at Rochefort-en-Terre, France.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on December 08, 2019, 04:58:46 PM
SNCASO Sud-Ouest Bretagne

The Sud-Ouest S.O.30 Bretagne was a 1940s French airliner.
The Bretagne was designed by a group of designers and engineers based at Cannes from May 1941 following the invasion of France.The design was for a medium capacity civil transport, a twin-engined mid-wing all-metal monoplane. The prototype ( S.O.30N ) first flew on 26 February 1945.

The initial production version was designated the S.O.30P Bretagne with two versions with different engines.
The S.O.30P-1 was fitted with Pratt & Whitney R-2800-B43 engines,producing 2000hp each, and the S.O.30P-2 used Pratt & Whitney R-2800-CA13 engines of 2,434 hp each.

The aircraft operated with a crew of five and could carry between 30 and 43 passengers. A cargo version ( S.O.30C ) with a revised interior and uprated stronger floor, and large cargo door. The aircraft was operated as an airliner, but mainly by the French Airforce and Navy as a multi-role medium transport.
Some aircraft were fitted with two underwing Turbomeca Palas turbojet engines for auxiliary power. Other aircraft were used for engine-trials fitted with the SNECMA Atar 101 and licence-built Rolls-Royce Nene turbojets.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on December 09, 2019, 09:25:29 PM
SNCASO SO.80 Biarritz

The Sud-Ouest Corse was a French mail and passenger transport aircraft, built by SNCASO.

The Corse began as the S.O.90 Cassiopée, a nine-passenger aircraft. The S.O.93 Corse and S.O.94 Corse II prototypes were developed as the S.O.95 Corse III. The aircraft was a cantilever mid-wing monoplane, powered by two 580 hp Renault 12S engines,and it was equipped with a retractable conventional landing gear. One prototype was built which first flew 17th July 1947.
There was seating up to 13 passengers, and the seats could be quickly removed in order to carry more cargo.
Intended to serve Air France, it failed their aircraft requirements. 60 aircraft were built for Aeronavale, and a small number for other overseas airlines.
45 Corse III`s were built for the military,these served with both the French Air Force, and the French Navy.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on December 10, 2019, 05:32:06 PM
SNCASO Sud-Ouest Djinn

The Sud-Ouest S.O.1221 Djinn is a French two-seat light helicopter.It was the first indigenous French helicopter, as well as being one of the first practical European helicopters to be produced.
The Djinn was also the first rotorcraft to harness tip-jet propulsion to enter production.

The Djinn was developed to function as a practical implementation of the earlier experimental Sud-Ouest Ariel rotorcraft. The rotors were driven by compressed-air jets at the end of each blade, which had the benefit of eliminating the need for an anti-torque tail rotor. On 2 January 1953, the proof-of-concept S.O.1220 performed its first flight; it was followed by the first of the S.O.1221 Djinn prototypes on 16 December 1953. During the flight test program, one of the prototypes was recorded as having achieved a world altitude record of (15,712 ft).

The French Army encouraged the construction of a pre-production batch of 22 helicopters, which were used for evaluation purposes. The first of these flew on 23 September 1954.
Three of the pre-production helicopters were acquired by the United States Army, designating it as the YHO-1, for the purpose of participating in their own series of trials.According to some sources the US Army at first held little interest in the type, but had found the YHO-1 to be an excellent weapons platform, yet they had been compelled to abandon interest by political opposition to the purchase of a non-American aircraft.

The French Army ordered a total of 100 helicopters and it was operated in variety of mission roles, such as liaison, observation, training purposes; when flown with a single pilot, it could be outfitted with two external litters for the casualty evacuation mission. In addition to the French military, a further ten countries placed orders, including a batch of six for the the German Army.
Production of the Djinn came to an end during the mid-1960s, by which point a total of 178 Djinns had been produced; it had been replaced by the more conventional, Aérospatiale Alouette II.
Some Djinns had been sold onto civil operators; it was often equipped for agricultural purposes, being fitted with chemical tanks and spray bars.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on December 11, 2019, 06:53:06 PM
SNCASO Sud Aviation Vautour

The Sud-Ouest Aviation (SNCASO) S.O. 4050 Vautour II (Vulture) was a French jet-powered bomber, interceptor, and attack aircraft from the late 1950`s.

In June 1951, the French Armée de l'Air issued a detailed requirement for a jet-powered aircraft capable of functioning in several roles, including as a bomber, a low-level attack aircraft, or an all-weather interceptor.In response to this French aircraft manufacturer SNCASO decided to adapt its existing S.O. 4000 design so that it could perform the desired missions roles.
An initial order for three prototypes was placed, and on 16 October 1952, the first prototype of the revised design, which had been designated as the S.O. 4050, conducted its first flight.

A follow-on order for six pre-production aircraft was soon received; one of which was powered by a pair of Armstrong Siddeley Sapphire engines and another had Rolls-Royce Avon engines.
The remainder were powered by the French Atar as would production aircraft, having proven to be established and,capable of sufficient power for the Vautour to take off while carrying a full payload.

Subsequently given the name Vautour II, the aircraft was manufactured in three variants.During 1958, the aircraft entered service with the AdA; the Vautour would remain in use by the AdA for several decades. While the final French aircraft being retired from frontline service during 1979, a number were retained and soldiered on in various secondary duties into the early 1980s.

The Vautour was capable of being equipped with various armaments. In Israeli service, it was typically armed with a pair of 30 mm cannons, and up to four removable underwing rocket pods, with 19 air-to-ground rockets each; up to 3,000lb of bombs or alternatively a maximum of 232 68 mm rockets could be accommodated internally in the bomb bay. 4,000lb of bombs could also be mounted externally.The Vautour IIB bomber could be used to carry and deploy nuclear weapons in addition to its conventional arsenal. The internal bomb bay of a single aircraft could contain either one AN-11 or one AN-22 nuclear bomb; however, in AdA service, the primary carrier of nuclear weapons would quickly be transitioned to the newer and more capable Dassault Mirage IV, which supplemented and eventually replace the Vautour IIB bomber.

No Vautour IIAs would enter AdA service and around 30 were believed to be constructed, 18 of which being sold to Israel at a relatively low price. In place of the IIA, the Vautour IIB was ordered instead, which could perform level bombing runs across all altitudes, as well as the low altitude toss bombing attack profile.To address a deficiency of the Vautour emphasis was placed upon the introduction and perfection of aerial refueling techniques in the AdA. This led to the adoption of a 'buddy pack' to enable pairs of Vautours to refuel one another in mid-air, allowing for the range factor to be addressed.

In Israeli service, the Vautour had an active combat career. As early as 1959, the type was being used against Egyptian targets; the Vautour would also participate in a series of actions throughout major conflicts between Israel and its neighbours, including the Six-Day War and the War of Attrition. Israeli Vautours were normally used to conduct bombing and strafing runs, along with several air-to-air engagements.Overall, a total of 15 Vautours were recorded as having been lost in combat. Remaining examples were retired during 1971 in favor of the Douglas A-4 Skyhawk; the last aircraft retired from operational service during March 1972, their final role being decoy aircraft flown in the vicinity of the Sinai. The Israelis were pleased with the Vautour's range and versatility, and it was well regarded in Israeli service.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on December 12, 2019, 05:22:14 PM
SNCASO.Sud-Ouest Triton

The Sud-Ouest SO.6000 Triton was an early experimental French jet aircraft.
It has the distinction of being the first indigenously-designed jet-powered aircraft to be flown by the nation, having been designed and manufactured during the 1940s by the French aircraft construction consortium SNCASO.

Amongst the first new aviation projects to be launched in post-war France was the SO.6000.The aircraft is based upon a clandestine effort conducted during the German occupation of France,and shortly after the end of the conflict, the new French government issued a requirement, calling for a total of five prototype aircraft to be constructed for testing.The development of home designed jet aircraft was seen as of national importance to the government,intended to symbolise the speedy recovery of France's industrial and military strength.

The SO.6000 was a compact and unarmed two-seater, having a deep-set fuselage with a mid-mounted straight wing.The spacious fuselage provided sufficient space for multiple engine models to be fitted. The availability of such a powerplant to install upon the aircraft was no straightforward issue. At one stage, it had been planned for the type to receive a French-designed Rateau-Anxionnaz GTS-65 turbojet engine.However, as a result of the delays in development, it was decided to instead adopt the German-designed Junkers Jumo 004-B2 engine for use upon the first prototype.

On 11 November 1946, the first prototype performed its first flight,the timing of the flight was deliberate,the French government were keen to demonstrate that they possessed technological parity with Germany, Great Britain, and the United States.However the Junkers engine was only capable of producing up to 1,980 lb of thrust and was quite underpowered for the SO.6000, being barely capable of achieving sustained flight and therefore lacked practicality. Further prototypes did not use the Junkers engine.

The second prototype was used for static testing only, while the three other aircraft were powered by a license-built model of the British Rolls-Royce Nene turbojet engine, the last of these performing its first flight in November 1950.None of the aircraft would be powered by the intended GTS-65 engine, the development of which would eventually be terminated.
When flown with the Nene engine, the SO.6000 was capable of achieving up to 593 mph, but was also plagued by vibration and stability issues at high speed.

Further development of the SO.6000 was ultimately abandoned during the early 1950s without any direct follow-on; the SO.6000 was never use in any operational circumstance. The type had been rendered obsolete by the rapid pace of advancements, both in terms of jet propulsion and aerospace capabilities generally, with numerous jet-powered designs being produced around this time.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on December 12, 2019, 05:53:48 PM
SAB AB-20

The SAB AB-20 was a large four engine twin boom French bomber built in the early 1930s.

It was a development of the three-engine Dyle et Bacalan DB-70 airliner. The change of manufacturer's was the result of the financial failure of Dyle et Bacalan in 1929, followed by its immediate reappearance as SAB, who took over DB-70 development.

The aircraft was built around a thick, wide chord airfoil centre section which provided generous internal space for passengers. The engines were mounted on this structure as were twin fuselages to carry the tail. The outer wings were of normal thickness and chord, and the cockpit and undercarriage were also attached to the centre section. The generous intra-wing volume equally offered crew, fuel and bomb-room for military purposes. Initially the AB-20 was intended to have three engines like its predecessor, but during the design phase there was a military request for a bombardier's position and a gunner's cockpit in the nose, which required the removal of the centre engine and its replacement by two extra wing-mounted engines.

The new central crew pod was flat-sided and tapered forwards to a complicated cylindrical nose, formed by a simple lower part with an overhanging, windowed cabin for the navigator/bombardier and an open gunner's cockpit, fitted with a machine gun ring, directly above. The nose also carried a long, cone probe with fine extensions, possibly pressure sensors. Further rearward there was an enclosed pilot's cabin. A second gunner was stationed, on top of the centre section and a third fired from a ventral turret.

By early 1934 a much developed version, the AB-21 had appeared. It had the new V-12 Lorraine Petrel water-cooled engines and a tapered, filleted cantilever wing without the struts used on the AB-20 and DB-70. The undercarriage had also been fitted with streamlined legs and wheels in long cowlings. The nose was further complicated, retaining the upper, open gunner's position but now with double underhanging windowed positions.

Trials of an airborne sideways-firing 75 mm gun were carried out with the AB-20 prototype modified as the AB-22. Firing trials were halted after damage was caused to the lower wing skin by blast from the gun muzzle. Just two of these distinctive aircraft were built as no orders were placed.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on December 13, 2019, 08:13:48 PM
SAB DB-80

The SAB DB-80 and SAB DB-81 were single engine, all-metal French light transports aimed at the air mail market,from the 1930`s.

The DB-80 was a single engine, high wing aircraft giving easy access by two port-side doors to a cabin with two passenger seats and to a separate mail compartment behind them. The pilot sat ahead of the passengers under the wing leading edge. Two differently engined versions were built: the DB-80 had a 100 hp Hispano-Suiza 6P six cylinder, upright water-cooled inline and the DB-81 a 120 hp  Lorraine 5Pc five cylinder radial engine.

In late March 1930 the DB-80's test flights were on hold, waiting for good weather,over a month later tests were underway but the first flight did not take place until 27 June 1930.
The Lorraine powered DB-81 flew in August,after which testing of the pair continued successfully though interrupted by SAB test pilot Charles Deschamps' absence at Villacoublay for official trials of the DB-20.In October the DB-80 was re-engined with a Lorraine and renamed DB-81.

There is no record of any further examples being built nor accurate and reliable performance figures.Just the two aircraft were built.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on December 15, 2019, 04:24:08 PM
Société d'Aviation Letord, Let 1 to Let 7 series.

The company was formed in the early 1910s by the French aviation industrialist Émile-Louis Letord, and it produced a number of twin-engined biplanes for the French military during World War I.

The Let.1 to Let.7, were essentially similar biplanes with, variously unequal span or equal span wings, powered by two tractor engines in nacelles mounted on short struts or directly on the lower wings and had a fixed tailskid undercarriage.
Some aircraft were equipped with a strut-mounted nosewheel to protect the aircraft and its crew from "nosing-over" while landing. The pilot sat in an open cockpit under the upper wing trailing edge, with a gunner in an open position immediately behind, with a third crew-member in an open position in the nose where he could act as gunner, observer, and bomb-aimer.

The Letord reconnaissance bombers saw widespread service from mid 1917, with 121 operational on the Western Front by November 1917. Most were no longer in front-line use by the Armistice in November 1918.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on December 15, 2019, 04:46:49 PM
Société des Avions Bernard. AB 1

Société des Avions Bernard was a French aircraft manufacturer of the early 20th century.

The Adolphe Bernard AB was a family twin-engined French biplane aircraft, built near the end of the First World War. It was the first original design from the Adolphe Bernard factory, which had previously produced SPAD aircraft to government contracts. It was a twin engine biplane bomber, carrying 600 kg  of bombs.
The AB 1 BN2 was a wooden three bay biplane,which used Hispano-Suiza V-8 piston engines, of which type there was a surplus after the Armistice.

The first AB 1 BN2 was built in 1918 and first flew that year. There were plans for a variant using more powerful Hispano-Suiza 8Ba engines, the AB 2, but this was not built. Post war, two civilian variants were started, the post-carrying AB 3 and the passenger only or passenger plus post AB 4. The AB 3, one of which was completed in 1920.The AB 4, which had the same engines as the proposed AB 2, carried a maximum of seven passengers. Its fuselage was on display at the 6th Paris Aero Show in December 1919, but it was not completed.
Ten AB 1s were produced after the Armistice but did not see squadron service.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on December 16, 2019, 10:32:47 PM
SAB Bernard 190

The Bernard 190 or Bernard-Hubert 190 was a French airliner of 1928. It was a high-wing cantilever monoplane of conventional configuration.

It was based on the Bernard 18, and kept the same basic design but featured redesigned tail surfaces, an enlarged cabin, and offered its flight crew a completely enclosed cockpit.
The 190 is best remembered for the exploits of the three 191GRs. The first built was used by Louis Coudouret in an attempt to cross the North Atlantic in August 1928. This was unsuccessful when the aircraft first refused to leave the ground in Paris, and was later turned back by Spanish authorities unwilling to permit the flight. On 7 July 1929, Coudouret crashed the aircraft near Angoulême and was killed.

The second example was used in the first successful French aerial crossing of the North Atlantic. It was painted bright yellow and dubbed "Canary Bird" it departed Old Orchard Beach, Maine on June 13, 1929 and piloted by Jean Assolant, René Lefèvre and Armand Lotti.
It completed the crossing to Oyambre, near Comillas, Cantabria, Spain, in 29 hours 52 minutes, even with a stowaway (Arthur Schreiber) aboard. This aircraft is now preserved in the Musée de l'Air et de l'Espace.

The third 191GR was used by Antoine Paillard to set two world airspeed records, for 62 mi with a 4,400 lb payload, and for 620 mi with a 1,000 kg 2,200 lb payload.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on December 17, 2019, 10:29:40 PM
SAB Bernard 70 Series.

The Bernard 70 was a 1920s design for a French single-seat monoplane fighter aircraft by the Société des Avions Bernard.It was developed into a racing monoplane designated the Bernard S-72, and was further developed into single-seat fighters, the Bernard 74-01 and Bernard 74-02.

The Bernard S-72 was a wooden stressed skin constructed low-wing monoplane powered by a Gnome-Rhône 5Bc radial engine and had a fixed landing gear. Flown by Paillard, the Bernard S-72 participated in the 1930 Coupe Michelin race. On 29 June, but had to retire near Lyon as a result of engine failure.

The S-72 was re-engined with a Gnome-Rhône 7Kb and re-designated the Bernard S-73. The S-73 was then developed into the Bernard 74 single-seat fighter and retained the Titan-Major engine.
Two prototypes were built with the first flying in February 1931, powered by a 280 hp Gnome-Rhône 7Kbs radial engine,the second was fitted with a 360 hp Gnome-Rhône 7Kd engine and first flew in October 1931.Both were armed with wo fixed 7.7mm (0.303in) synchronised Vickers machine-guns.
The first prototype 74 was re-engined with a Gnome-Rhône 9Kbrs radial engine and re-designated the Bernard 75 it was later used as a pilot-trainer but no further aircraft were built.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on December 18, 2019, 05:05:25 PM
Société des Avions Blanchard Brd.1

The Blanchard Brd.1 was a French reconnaissance flying boat, to the 1923 STAé HB.3 specification, used by the French navy in the 1920s.
It was a large biplane with two engines mounted in the gap between the wings, each engine driving a pusher propeller. In 1924, one Brd.1 was used to set several world altitude records for seaplanes.

The aircraft was powered by 2 × Hispano-Suiza 8Fe V-8 water-cooled piston engines, of 260 hp each, driving two blade fixed pitch props, which gave a max speed of around 110mph.
Crew was usually 3 or 4, and it carried a 7.7 mm (0.303 in) machine-gun on flexible mount in bow, another 7.7 mm (0.303 in) machine-gun in flexible mount in rear fuselage, and around 300kg of bombs.
The French Navy ordered 24 aircraft, but most were retired from service after 3 years.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on December 19, 2019, 08:53:01 PM
Société des Avions Marcel Bloch MB.81

The MB.81 was a French military aircraft for use as a flying ambulance since it was designed to carry one passenger, in or out of a stretcher.

The aircraft was designed to be able to seek patients or casualties by scouting, even at high altitudes, during military operations in mountainous countries, like then-French Morocco over the Atlas Mountains.
The main design feature made it possible to transport a casualty lying down, in a compartment between the pilot and the engine. The wings could be adapted to hold casualties, remaining constantly under the sight of the pilot and connected to him by an onboard communication system.

The MB.80 made its first flight in the summer of 1932. It was an all-metal monoplane with low wings,equipped with a French Lorraine 5Pc of 120 hp which allowed it to reach a speed of 120 mph at an altitude of 21,000 ft.It was able to take off and land in a very short space.

The aircraft was built without assistance from the government, but an initial order of 20 was placed by the Ground French Forces (the Armée de l'Air was founded later in 1933), and it was one of the aircraft that relaunched Marcel Bloch in the aeronautical industry.

The production model, called the MB.81, was fitted with a French uprated Salmson 9Nd of 175 hp. It took part in military operations in Morocco and in Syria at the beginning of the 1930s.
The MB.81 entered service in 1935, and was used extensively throughout North Africa and the Middle East. A small number were used in 1939-1940, before the French surrender, and in July 1941 in the battle for Syria between the Vichy French and the British/Free French.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on December 19, 2019, 09:12:14 PM
Société des Avions Marcel Bloch MB.120

The Bloch MB.120 was a French three-engine colonial transport aircraft from the 1930`s.

The MB.120 design was selected by the French government for transport use in French overseas territories. It was an all-metal high-wing cantilever monoplane.
The prototype was developed from the MB.71.Standard set up was for a crew of three and up to 10 passengers. The civil aircraft normally carried only four passengers, the rest of the aircraft was filled with mail. Ten production aircraft were produced, six for civil use and four for the French Air Force.

The aircraft entered operation in 1934 for Air Afrique, which was an airline founded by the French government in May 1934 to provide service between the French African territories. Both the civil and military aircraft served only in French Africa.
Power was provided by 3 Lorraine 9Na Algol 9-cylinder air-cooled radial piston engines, of 300 hp each,max speed was around 160 mph, but a normal cruise was 120mph.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on December 20, 2019, 08:18:51 PM
SFCA Lignel 20

The SFCA Lignel 20 was a French, single engine, low wing monoplane, one of a series of this type built by SFCA in the 1930s.

The Lignel 20 was a low wing cantilever monoplane of entirely wooden construction apart from its engine mounting. In the nose a 220 hp Renault 6Q-03, an air-cooled, inverted six cylinder inline engine supercharged to 2,000 m (6,600 ft) was mounted on steel tube bearings.
Behind the engine fuselage had an oval section.The cockpit was behind the wing trailing edge; though primarily a single seat aircraft a passenger could be accommodated. The cockpit glazing was faired into a raised rear fuselage.

The Lignel 20 had retractable landing gear with mainwheeels on forked cantilever legs from the outer edges of the centre section, swinging outwards into wing recesses. There were covers attached to the inner side of the forks, acting as aircraft fairings when retraction was complete.

The aircraft first flew on 15 April 1937. Two were built. During 1937 the second of these was re-engined with a more powerful 280 hp Régnier R-161 which increased its maximum speed to 260 mph. It was redesignated the SFFCA Lignel 20S and first flew in November 1937. It was announced at the 1938 Paris Salon that the Lignel 20S was being fitted with a supercharged, eight cylinder Régnier engine producing 360 hp, in preparation for attempts in 1939 on world records in the 8 l capacity engine category; with this engine the maximum speed was 290 mph.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on December 21, 2019, 06:35:43 PM
SFCA Taupin

The SFCA Taupin was a French tandem-wing aircraft, designed to provide a simple, stable and safe aircraft able to take-off and land in small spaces.

In 1935 they designed and built the tandem wing Taupin which, apart from a different engine, was very similar to the earlier Peyret VI of 1933.
Taupin is the French vernacular name for beetles of the family Elateridae or click-beetles, known for their ability to jump rapidly into the air.

The Taupin had rectangular plan wings, the forward one providing 65% of the wing area, both mounted on the central fuselage.The wings were mounted with equal and significant dihedral. Both had full-span flaps which were interconnected and could move differentially as ailerons,and together as camber changing flaps, a system first used on the glider and acknowledged as the source of its "extraordinary controllability".
The exact date of the Taupin's first flight is not known, but it was thought to be late October 1935 when it took part successfully in the 1935 Tour de France des Prototypes.
Later that year it went for certification at Villacoublay; it returned to SFCA in January 1936 for modifications.It lived up to its name, needing only 15 m (49 ft) to take off.

During 1937 SFCA introduced a two-seat version of the Taupin, the Taupin 5/2. This had a 60 hp Regnier inverted inline engine, wings with duralumin tube spars and side-by-side seats. Take-off weight rose by 80% but the dimensions were only slightly increased.

After World War II SFCA introduced the metal framed Lignel 44 Cross-Country, which was slightly larger than the Taupin 5/2, with a 74 hp Régnier 4 D2 inverted inline engine and a new, enclosed cabin fuselage; the seats, accessed by side doors, were still under the trailing edge of the wing though without a cut-out. As in the earlier designs there was no vertical separation of the wings, both mounted on the upper fuselage longerons. It was 20% heavier than the Taupin 5/2 and had a maximum speed of 84 mph.

The final production figures were forty-eight Taupins,four Taupin 5/2s and one Lignell 44. The reconstructed French pre-war register shows that many of the single seat aircraft were used in the national Aviation Populaire programme, though others were used by French aero-clubs.At least two of the tandem wing types flew for several years after WW II.
The Lignel 44 was destroyed in an fatal accident in May 1955, killing Louis Clément, but Taupin F-AZBG remained on the French register in 2014.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on December 22, 2019, 04:00:25 PM
Société Industrielle Pour l’Aéronautique (SIPA) was a French aircraft manufacturer established in 1938 by Émile Dewoitine after his previous company, Avions Dewoitine, was nationalized.
From 1938-1940, SIPA principally manufactured parts for other French aircraft companies. After WWII, and developed a series of trainers for the French Air Force.

SIPA S.90, The SIPA S.90 was a French-built two-seat light touring and training aircraft of the 1940s and 1950s.

The prototype first flew on 15 May 1947,it had won a French government competition for a new light two-seat aircraft for operation by the French aero clubs.The initial production S.90 was a low-wing aircraft with fixed tailwheel undercarriage and side-by-side seating for two. It was powered by a 75 hp Mathis G4F engine. Just four examples were built.

100 aircraft were ordered by the government, on behalf of the aero clubs, and these were powered by the 75 hp Minie 4DC engine as the SIPA S.901.The first flew on 25 June 1948 and deliveries were completed in the early 1950s. Various spec and power engines were later installed in the S.901, giving rise to new model numbers.

The S.90 series found buyers in the secondhand market and examples have flown with private owners in Belgium, Germany, Switzerland and the United Kingdom.
Nine further aircraft were built later with plywood covering in lieu of fabric, receiving new designations. In 2001,15 examples remained airworthy in France, Switzerland and the UK.
Total production of all models was 113 aircraft.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on December 23, 2019, 05:06:50 PM
SIPA S.200 Minijet

The SIPA S.200 Minijet was a French two-seat light sporting jet aircraft, with a single engine jet.

The first of two prototypes made its first flight on 14 January 1952.The aircraft had a shoulder-wing and twin booms supporting vertical stabilisers with a tail plane joining the two booms.
The cabin was located in the central fuselage, and accommodated two people side-by-side.The entire canopy hinged forward to assist access to the small cabin. The second prototype was fitted with attachment points for auxiliary wingtip fuel tanks. The Minijets were stressed for aerobatics.
Power was by a single 330 lb s.t. Turbomeca Palas jet engine, which gave the aircraft a max speed of 245mph with a normal cruise of around 220mph.Max ceiling was 26000ft.

The Minijet was designed for the dual role of high-speed, short-range liaison and transitional training.A pre-production batch of five Minijets was completed in 1955/56, but plans for further construction were cancelled.
The final production SIPA Minijet F-PDHE is owned by the Collection Bezard at Persan-Beaumont Airport NW of Paris and can be seen by prior arrangement only. Another survivor exists in the USA.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Mu0WFTL_Z0Q (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Mu0WFTL_Z0Q)  A short clip of a Minijet performing a low pass, there are other clips on youtube of the aircraft,but they are RC models.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on December 23, 2019, 05:26:22 PM
SIPA S.1000 Coccinelle

The SIPA S.1000 Coccinelle was a light civil utility aircraft of the 1950s.

The Coccinelle was designed by Yves Gardan for SIPA as a very low cost all-metal trainer of very simple construction, intended for aero club use.
It was a two-seat side-by-side low-winged aircraft with fixed-tricycle undercarriage and incorporated a number of standard car parts.

The prototype first flew on 11 June 1955. Series production was intended to commence in 1956, but only two further examples were completed, the last was exported to Argentina.
The aircraft were fitted with a Continental C90-8F 4-cylinder air-cooled horizontally-opposed piston engine of 90 hp, which gave a cruise speed of 110mph or max speed of 125mph.

In 2001, the first and third aircraft remained airworthy in France and Argentina, respectively.By 2010 F-BHHL no longer appeared on the French civil register, as of March 2013 LV-GFG remained active in Argentina.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on December 24, 2019, 06:00:05 PM
SIPA Antilope

The SIPA S.251 Antilope was a low-wing monoplane, seating four or five and powered by a single turboprop engine.

The Antilope was one of the first turboprop powered light aircraft. Apart from its engine, it was a conventional all-metal low-wing machine. The cantilever wing was built around two spars and was a semi-monocoque structure.
The Antilope was powered by a 665 hp Turbomeca Astazou X driving a 3-bladed FH76 propeller, on a long spinner, ahead of the surrounding air intake.This gave a cruising speed of 240mph and a max speed of 280mph
The cabin had seats for up to five, two at the front and a bench seat behind. In a proposed air ambulance configuration, the Antilope would have carried two stretchers and a medic. Access to the cabin was via a large rear hinged door on the right hand side.

It first flew on 7 November 1962 and gained certification in April 1964. Later that year, P. Bonneau set six international Class C1c (1000 – 1750 kg) records with it, achieving for example a speed of 267 mph over a 3 km course and reaching an altitude of 34,186 ft.

The aircraft was exhibited at the 1965 Paris Air Show wearing registration F-BJSS. By mid 1966 development had been completed without a decision to commence production. The production version would have been known as the SIPA S.2510 Antilope but none were built; the prototype (F-WJSS) carried the designation S.251 on its fin.
The sole Antilope is undergoing restoration in a private museum, owned by the Association Antilope, at Montpelier-Mediterranee Airport, in southern France.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on December 24, 2019, 06:17:11 PM
Société Latham 43

The Latham 43 was a flying boat bomber from the 1920s for service with the French Navy.

It was a two-bay biplane with unstaggered wings, and engines mounted tractor-fashion on struts in the interplane gap. The pilot sat in an open cockpit, with a gunner (0.303) in an open bow position, and another in an open position (0.303) amidships.

Two examples, designated Latham 42 powered by liquid-cooled Vee engines were evaluated by the navy in 1924, leading to a contract for 18 aircraft powered by air-cooled Gnome et Rhône 9Aa, of 380 hp each. These were designated Latham 43 by the manufacturer and HB.3 in naval service, they remained in service between 1926 and 1929.
Eight other machines with the original liquid-cooled Lorraine engines were sold to Poland.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on December 25, 2019, 10:59:56 PM
Société Latham 47

The Latham 47,or Latham R3B4 in Naval service, was a twin-engine flying boat designed and built for the French Navy.

The Latham 47 was designed to fill a French Navy requirement for a long-range flying boat with a transatlantic capability. The prototype appeared in 1928, although it was lost in a fire after two flights. The Type 47 was a large biplane powered by two 500hp Farman 12We engines mounted in tandem below the upper wing.Cruising speed of the aircraft was around 100mph.
The flight crew sat side by side in an open cockpit,with two further machine-gun equipped area`s were located in the nose and amidships.

Twelve production aircraft were built and delivered to the French Navy.
Two further aircraft were built as the Latham 47P as civilian mail carriers with Hispano-Suiza 12Y engines. These 47Ps were used on Mediterranean routes until 1932.

On 6 June 1928 a Latham was tasked to help search for the airship Italia which had crashed on pack ice in the Arctic Ocean just north of Spitsbergen in late May.
The aircraft, piloted by Norwegian Leif Dietrichson and Frenchman René Guilbaud, picked up the explorer Roald Amundsen and a colleague at Bergen.
On 18 June the aircraft left Tromsø, Norway to fly across the Barents Sea, but it disappeared without a trace until, on 31 August the same year, the torn-off port float was found off the coast of Troms and, in October,some more wreckage was found on Haltenbanken.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on December 26, 2019, 07:08:44 PM
SPAD (Société Pour L'Aviation et ses Dérivés) was a French aircraft manufacturer, active between 1911 and 1921.

The SPAD S.A (also called S.A.L.) was a French two-seat tractor biplane.

The SPAD A.1 prototype was the first aircraft produced by SPAD following its reorganization from the pre-war Deperdussin company. It was designed to carry its pilot in the normal position, and also an observer in a nacelle ahead of the propeller. This configuration gave the observer a clear field of view to the front and sides without the drag penalty of the typical pusher. However, communication between the pilot and the observer was almost impossible,it also put the observer at risk of being crushed in a "nose-over". Mechanisms to allow a gun to fire through the propeller were not yet available, and the observer's nacelle on the S.A-1 represented a temporary solution.

The aircraft was fitted with a 110HP Le Rhône 9J rotary engine,which permitted a top speed of 95mph.The SPAD S.A.2 was an improved version of the S.A.1 which first flew on 21 May 1915.
The S.A-2's 110 hp engine frequently suffered from overheating, so the design reverted to the S.A-1s 80 hp Le Rhone in the S.A-4, with the same engine being retrofitted to some S.A-2s.

The S.A had a short career in the French Aviation Militaire, and was quickly replaced in service by less dangerous aircraft.The Imperial Russian Air Service operated the SPAD S.A-2 and S.A-4 for a longer period of time due to a shortage of available aircraft. Some 57 S.A-2s and S.A-4s went to the Imperial Russian Air Service. During winter operations, Russian aircraft were fitted with skis instead of wheels.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on December 27, 2019, 06:16:40 PM
SPAD S.XII


The SPAD S.XII or SPAD 12 was a French single-seat biplane fighter aircraft of the First World War developed from the successful SPAD 7.

It was inspired by the ideas of French flying ace Georges Guynemer, who proposed that a manoeuvrable single-seat aircraft be designed to carry a 37 mm cannon, a weapon which had previously been mounted only in large two-seat "pusher" aircraft.
The gun chosen for the SPAD XII was a new 37 mm (SAMC), built by Puteaux, for which 12 shots were carried. The Hispano-Suiza aviation engine had to be geared to allow the gun to fire through the propeller shaft. The aircraft also carried a single 0.303 inch synchronized (7.7 mm) Vickers machine gun mounted on the starboard side of the nose.

To carry the heavy cannon the airframe was lengthened and the wingspan and wing area increased.To accommodate the canon the engine was replaced by the geared 220 bhp model 8Cb, and gave the SPAD XII a clockwise rotating propeller, as seen from a "nose-on" view.
Early production models were highly successful after overcoming initial problems with the reduction gear between engine and propeller,however, deliveries were slow, the SPAD VII and later SPAD XIII having top priority, and even the modest total of 300 aircraft which were ordered were not all completed.Best estimates are only 20 produced.

No units were entirely equipped with SPAD 12s. They were distributed one or two per squadron.Few were delivered to combat units, 8 being recorded on strength in April and again in October;Single examples for testing were delivered to the Royal Flying Corps and one to the Aviation Section of the American Expeditionary Force, with the AEF's 13th Aero Squadron receiving the aircraft, which was given the number "0".
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on December 28, 2019, 08:13:00 PM
SPAD S.XV

The SPAD S.XV was a single-seat fighter designed and offered to fulfil a 1918 specification.

The 1918 C1 specification called for a medium altitude fighter with 220 kg payload and a 21,300 ft service ceiling, a max speed of 150 mph.The specification called for the use of different engine types, one of which was the 160 hp Gnome Monosoupape 9Nc rotary engine.

SPAD, designed a single-bay biplane with un-staggered, equal span wooden wings and a moulded plywood monocoque fuselage. The cowled Gnome engine was mounted in the nose, driving a 2-bladed propeller. Two 7.70 mm (0.303 in) Vickers machine-guns were mounted in the forward upper decking, firing through the propeller disc, using synchronising gear.

First flown on 31 July 1917, the low power of the Gnome engine limited any performance advantage over the SPAD S.XIII, so production was not authorised. The moulded plywood monocoque fuselage concept, however, was used extensively in subsequent designs due to its light weight and high strength.
None of the five S.XVs were accepted by the Aviation militaire.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on December 29, 2019, 06:15:23 PM
SPAD S.XX

The S.XX was an upgrade of the S.XVIII and was a two-seat fighter biplane which carried a pilot and tail gunner. The design was fairly conventional, but featured an upper wing with a pronounced sweep-back. This was joined to the lower wing by large I-struts. Like its predecessor, the S.XX became known colloquially as the "Herbemont", after its designer.

Originally the French government issued an open-ended contract for these aircraft at the rate of 300 per month, however, this was cancelled at the Armistice, before any aircraft had been delivered.
The order was later revived to obtain a modern fighter for France's post-war air force, and 95 were purchased. Additionally, the Japanese Mitsubishi company bought three examples, and the government of Bolivia bought one.

In 1918, a S.XX set the world airspeed record for a two-seat aircraft, with a speed of 143 mph.
The standard engine was a 300hp Hispano-Suiza 8Fb inline engine rated for a max speed of 135mph, but several aircraft had custom built engines with airframe tweaks for racing and speed records.
1920 saw S.20s used to break records not only in their own class, but the world absolute airspeed record three times over. On February 28, Jean Casale reached 176 mph, but this was soon broken by Bernard de Romanet, first on October 9 with a speed of 182 mph, and then on November 4 at 193 mph.The same year, the two S.20bis-5s competed in the Gordon Bennett Cup.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on December 30, 2019, 11:11:42 PM
Sud Aviation

Sud-Aviation was a French state-owned aircraft manufacturer, originating from the merger of Sud-Est SNCASE and Sud-Ouest SNCASO on 1 March 1957. Both companies had been formed from smaller privately owned business`s that had been nationalized into six regional design and manufacturing pools prior to WW II.

Sud Aviation SE-116 Voltigeur

The twin turboprop Sud Aviation SE-116 Voltigeur of the late 1950s was an army support aircraft capable of observation and ground attack operations.
The first prototype had 800 hp Wright Cyclone nine cylinder radial engines mounted ahead of the wing leading edges, with cowlings, largely above the wing, projecting beyond the trailing edge. On the second prototype the Cyclones were replaced with 760 hp Turbomeca Bastan turboprops in much more slender cowlings on the top of the wings.

The aircraft had tricycle gear with main legs that retracted backwards into under-engine cowlings; the nose wheel retracted into the fuselage. Each main leg carried a pair of wheels to assist with operations from rough strips.
The Voltigeur was fitted with two 20 mm (0.79 in) guns and six underwing attachment points for bombs and rockets.The piston-engined Voltigeur was first flown on 5 June 1958 by Roger Carpentier who also took the turboprop version on its first flight on 15 December 1958.

A few weeks later, on 9 January 1959, Carpentier, Yves Crouzet and Marcel Hochet were killed when tail flutter developed in a high-speed run. After tests of the SE-117 first pre-production machine, conducted in collaboration with Marcel Dassault, the Voltigeur programme was abandoned with just three aircraft completed.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on December 31, 2019, 01:51:03 PM
Voisin III

The Voisin III was a French World War I two-seat pusher biplane multi-purpose aircraft.

The first Voisin III was powered by a 130 hp Salmson M9 engine water-cooled 9 cylinder radial engine, later examples used the similar 150 hp Salmson P9 or R9.
It had a range of 120 miles, a top speed of 65–70 mph and a ceiling of 10,990–19,690 ft depending on engine and manufacturer.
The pilot sat ahead of the passenger, who could fire weapons, release bombs or take photos,some versions could carry up to 330lbs of bombs. It incorporated a light steel frame structure which made it highly durable when operating out of makeshift wartime military aviation airfields.

It became one of the most common Allied bombers early in the war. Significant numbers were purchased by the French and the Imperial Russian Air Force. Russia ordered more than 800 from France and built a further 400 under license and over 100 were built in Italy and 50 in the United Kingdom.Small numbers were purchased by Belgium and Romania. One French aircraft was forced to land in Switzerland in 1915 after running low on fuel in combat with a German aircraft and was put into service with the Swiss Fliegerabteilung.

Like many aircraft of its era, Voisin III was a multi-purpose aircraft. Its missions included day- and night bombing, reconnaissance, artillery spotting and training.
It is notable for being the aircraft used for the first successful shooting down of an enemy aircraft on October 5, 1914, and to have been used to equip the first dedicated bomber units, in September 1914.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on January 01, 2020, 05:49:47 PM
Voisin VI

The Voisin VI or Voisin Type 6 was a French pusher biplane bomber aircraft of World War I.

The first Voisin Type VI entered service in 1916 and replaced the Voisin III on the production lines. However, the Voisin 155 hp Salmson engines were held in low regard by their crews.
Despite the more powerful engine, the Voisin Type VIs' payload was only marginally better and the maximum speed was only a very sedate 70 mph- not enough improvement to make a difference, while climb rate suffered substantially.

A single Voisin Type VI was fitted with a second Salmson in the nose of the fuselage, driving a tractor propeller. It is believed that the intention was to test a possible twin pusher and tractor propellor configuration for a new bomber planned by Voisin.
Approximately 50 Voisin Type VIs were built, and these served alongside the Voisin Type IIIs during 1916.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on January 01, 2020, 06:04:18 PM
Voisin XII

The Voisin XII was a prototype French two-seat four-engine biplane bomber built near the end of the First World War.

The Voisin XII was a long-range night bomber with four 220hp Hispano-Suiza 8Bc V-8 water-cooled piston engines mounted in pairs in tandem.
The aircraft was built in response to the BN2 requirement for a long-range night bomber. Just one prototype was built and test flights were successful, but the war's end prevented the Voisin XII from being ordered into production.
The aircraft had a max speed of 90mph and a range of just over 430 miles. It had a 7.7 mm (0.303 in) Lewis gun, with the option for one 37 mm (1.457 in) Hotchkiss cannon, and could carry a bombload of around 1,800lbs.

It was the last aircraft Voisin produced, After WWI, Gabriel Voisin abandoned the aviation industry in favor of vehicle construction under the name Avions Voisin.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on January 02, 2020, 06:09:27 PM
Wassmer WA-40 Series

Wassmer was a woodworking company formed by Bernard Wassmer in 1905, which later became an aircraft manufacturer specializing in gliders.

The Wassmer WA-40 Super 4 Sancy is a French single-engined light aircraft of the 1960s and 70s. It was a low-winged monoplane with a retractable nosewheel undercarriage. The fuselage was of steel tube construction with fabric covering, while the wings were wooden. The first prototype flew on 8 June 1959,and received French certification on 9 June 1960.
With the 53rd production aircraft ( in 1963 ), a swept vertical fin and rudder were introduced (designated WA.40A; first flew in January 1963 and receiving French certification in March 1963); all further units produced continued the swept design.

In 1965 the WA.41, with fixed landing gear was introduced, named Baladou. In March 1967 the Super 4/21 Prestige was introduced, powered by a 235 hp Lycoming O-540 engine, it also featured a variable-pitch propeller, autopilot, and IFR instrumentation. Wassmer suffered financial difficulty in early 1977, and became insolvent in September 1977.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on January 03, 2020, 06:37:49 PM
Wassmer WA-80

The Wassmer WA-80 Piranha is a French two-seat low-wing cabin monoplane trainer.It had a similar construction as the company's WA-50 four-seater, however the WA-80 was a scaled down version.
The prototype, registered F-WVKR, first flew in November 1975 powered by a 100 hp Rolls-Royce Continental O-200 engine.Wassmer appointed a receiver and suspended production in 1977 after 25 had been built.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on January 03, 2020, 06:55:45 PM
Wassmer Cerva CE.43 Guépard Series.

Wassmer decided to produce an alternate all-metal version of the Wassmer WA.4/21. He teamed up with Siren SA to form a joint-company known as Consortium Europeén de Réalisation et de Ventes d'Avions (CERVA). The two aircraft have identical dimensions but the all-metal Guépard is heavier.

The prototype first flew on 18 May 1971 and was exhibited at the 1971 Paris Air Show. The aircraft was certified on 1 June 1972,and the French government ordered 26 aircraft, eight for the Navy, and 18 for the Airforce.
First deliveries to private customers began in 1975 and by the time production ended in 1976 44 aircraft had been produced with some being exported including to Finland.

Components for the Guépard were manufactured by Siren and final assembly, equipment fit and flight testing was carried out by Wassmer at Issoire.
Two new versions were developed, the CE.44 Couguar powered by a 285 hp Continental Tiara 6-285 engine, and the CE.45 Léopard powered by a 310 hp Avco Lycoming TIO-540.
Development ended when the Wassmer went into liquidation in 1977.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on January 04, 2020, 05:43:37 PM
Well, that is France done, time to move on to Spain.

Aeronáutica Industrial S.A. is a Spanish aeronautical company. It took over another company, Talleres Loring which had been founded by Jorge Loring in 1923.

AISA González Gil-Pazó GP-1

The González Gil-Pazó GP-1 was a single-engine, two-seat open cockpit training aircraft, built in Spain in the 1930s to compete for a government contract.

The Gil-Pazo No1 was a low-wing cantilever monoplane, built of wood and metal with plywood skinning, seated two and had an unfaired conventional undercarriage. It was powered by an ADC Cirrus engine. Almost no specifications are known, but it first flew in June 1932 and was last recorded at Cuatro Vientos, Madrid in July 1936.

In 1934 a specification for a two-seat trainer was issued and Gil-Pazó's response was a development of the No1,named GP-1. The aircraft had two open cockpits and a trousered undercarriage was similar to the Miles Hawk Major in appearance. Its wings, of semi-elliptic plan, had a wooden structure and a stressed plywood skin.For its first flight in June 1934 it was powered by the same Cirrus engine as the No.1 but this was replaced by a 195 hp Walter Junior inverted inline engine for the competition.

The Gil-Pazó GP-1 was the winner, and in 1936 González Gil and Pazó received an order for 100 aircraft. These were to be built by AISA but none of these had been completed by July 1936 at the start of the Spanish Civil War.
AISA retreated to Alicante. About forty GP-1s were built there during the war in a collaboration with Hispano-Suiza.About thirty of the forty GP-1s built at Alicante were captured by the Nationalist forces and given military serials. After the war at least twelve of these were given Spanish civil registrations; one remained on the register until 1961.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on January 05, 2020, 05:23:16 PM
(AISA) INTA HM.1 Series

The INTA HM.1, also known as Huarte Mendicoa HM-1, was a 1940s Spanish primary trainer designed by the Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeronáutica (INTA) and built by (AISA).

The HM.1 was a two-seat primary training monoplane with a fixed tailwheel landing gear. It was followed by a number of similar aircraft with equipment and accommodation changes.
The last of the family was the HM.7 built in 1947 which was an enlarged four-seat version powered by a 240 hp Argus As 10C engine, the HM.7 was the last powered aircraft designed by the Institute.

The HM.1 first flew in 1943 and had a fixed undercarriage.Later models had enclosed cockpits and retractable gear.It soldiered on in Spanish service till the end of the 1950’s, it was not a very successful aircraft and had a reputation for poor handling,especially spin recovery.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on January 06, 2020, 06:18:16 PM
AISA I-11

The I-11 was a Spanish built two-seat civil utility aircraft from the 1950s.

The original design was by another Spanish aircraft company Iberavia, its first of two prototype flew on 16 July 1951. Iberavia was acquired by AISA before the aircraft had gone into production.
It was a low-wing monoplane with a fixed, tricycle undercarriage and a large, bubble canopy over the two side-by-side seats.

AISA decided to continue with development, but made some changes to the design, reducing the size of the canopy, and replacing the undercarriage with a taildragger arrangement. This configuration entered production in 1952 with an order from the Director General for Civil Aviation for 70 aircraft for use in Spain's aeroclubs. The Spanish Air Force then ordered 125 for use in training.
It was powered by a 90hp Continental C90-12F Four-cyliner air-cooled engine, which was good for a max speed of 125mph with a cruise of 110mph.
The Air Force later requested 200 aircraft, but with tandem seating, which were designated I-115 and powered by a 150 hp ENMA Tigre inverted air-cooled engine.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on January 07, 2020, 07:46:57 PM
AISA I-115

The AISA I-115 is a low-wing single-engined military primary trainer with tandem seating, which went into service with the Spanish Air Force in 1956.
The I-115 was a development of the I-11B, but was a longer machine because the SAF wanted tandem seating for its trainers, had a slightly greater span and was considerably heavier.
These changes called for more power, so the I-115 used a 150 hp ENMA Tigre inverted in-line engine.The first prototype flew on 20 June 1952.

About 200 I-115s were delivered to the SAF, 150 by the Spring of 1956; at that time there was an order for another 150. They were initially known as the type EE.6, but became the E.9 which was in service from 1956 to 1976. Despite the long service, there was criticism of its spinning behaviour and its weight.
Most E.9s were powered by the Tigre engine but some late models had the 145 hp de Havilland Gipsy Major engine and others a 190 hp Lycoming O-435-A.

Many I-115s were sold to civilians at the end of their military service and in 2014 seven were still on the Spanish civil register. Three of these were in museums but were active until at least 2009
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on January 08, 2020, 10:06:20 PM
Aerotécnica AC-12

The Aerotécnica AC-12 Pepo was a Spanish two-seat light helicopter of the 1950s.

It was designed by Jean Cantinieau and like his other designs featured a distinctive "spine" above the fuselage pod that carried the engine ahead of the rotor assembly. Development costs were subsidised by the Spanish government, and the first of two prototypes flew on 20 July 1954.
Power was supplied by a 168 hp Lycoming O-360-B2A air-cooled flat-four engine.Twelve aircraft (two prototypes and 10 production) were ordered for the Spanish Air Force where they served for three years under the designation EC-XZ-2.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on January 09, 2020, 05:09:15 PM
Aerotécnica AC-14

The Aerotécnica AC-14 was a Spanish five-seat light helicopter of the 1950s, designed by Jean Cantinieau.

The AC-14 continued Cantinieau`s practice of mounting the engine ahead of the main rotor, and like the Norelfe, used the ducted exhaust from the turboshaft to counter the torque of the main rotor at low speeds, while at high speeds the exhaust gases were deflected rearwards to increase speed, torque being compensated for by movable twin tail fins.
The first of prototype flew on 16 July 1957. Power was from a 400hp Turbomeca Artouste IIB engine, which gave a max speed of 110mph and a cruise of 92mph.
A pre-production order for ten aircraft was placed by the Spanish Air Force where they served designation EC-XZ-4. No production followed, as they were costly compared to used Bell 47G-2 and G-3.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on January 09, 2020, 05:27:07 PM
CASA III

Construcciones Aeronáuticas SA (CASA) was founded by José Ortiz-Echagüe in 1923.

The CASA III was a 1920s Spanish two-seat monoplane.

In 1929 using experience from the production of licence-built aircraft the company built the CASA III. It was originally designed as a light bomber monoplane for the Aeronáutica Naval air arm of the Spanish Navy, but its performance was poor the prototypes ending up as trainers at Pollensa´s Naval Air School.
The CASA III was a parasol wing monoplane with a fabric-covered steel tube fuselage. It had tandem open cockpits, and wide track fixed conventional landing gear with a tail skid.
The wings were hinged at the rear spar and they could be folded for storage or transport.

The prototype first flew on 2 July 1929 and was powered by a 90 hp Cirrus III piston engine.A total of nine aircraft were built, all with different engines, including the de Havilland Gipsy III and the Elizalde A6 radial engine.The last aircraft built was delivered to the Spanish Navy.
Power plants included:- de Havilland Gipsy I, de Havilland Gipsy II, de Havilland Gipsy III, Isotta Fraschini Asso 80 R., Lorraine 5P, Walter Venus and Elizalde D V.
During the Spanish Civil War all the remaining CASA IIIs were operated by the Republican forces and none survived the conflict.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on January 10, 2020, 10:18:49 PM
CASA 2.111

The CASA 2.111 was a medium bomber derived from the Heinkel He 111 and produced in Spain under licence.

During the Spanish Civil War, in 1937, the Spanish Nationalist Air Force received a number of He 111Es. There was a requirement for more modern aircraft,in 1940, CASA negotiated a contract with Heinkel to produce 200 of the new He 111 H-16 in Seville.Setting up production was slow, with little support from Germany, but Spain managed to locate a store of Jumo 211F-2 engines in France, and this enabled completion of 130 Jumo powered aircraft in three versions, a bomber, reconn bomber and dual trainer.

The first Spanish-built aircraft flew on 23 May 1945. At the end of the war, access to the German-built Junkers engines became a major problem, but CASA found an alternative with the Rolls-Royce Merlin 500. In April 1956, 173 Merlin engines were ordered and installed on the aircraft in a nacelle type originally developed by Rolls-Royce for the Beaufighter II and later on the Avro Lancaster. The newly Merlin-powered bombers and reconnaissance bombers became the 2.111B and 2.111D, respectively.
A nine-passenger transport, the 2.111T8, was also developed and produced.Spanish 2.111s served into the late 1960s and,some of the transports, early 1970s. Many of the aircraft retired in the 1960s, and some were used in films such as Battle of Britain and Patton,due to the resemblance to Heinkel He 111s.

The CASA 2.111 was used in combat in the close air support role during the Ifni War in 1957-1958. Approximately 14 Spanish licensed built CASA 2.111s survive today in various conditions on display or in storage.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on January 11, 2020, 01:34:59 PM
CASA C.127

The CASA C.127 was license-built version of the Dornier Do 27.STOL Utility Aircraft.

Dornier's facilities in Spain designed the Do 25 to a Spanish military requirement for a light utility aircraft, as a precursor to the production Do 27. Powered by a 150 hp ENMA Tigre G.V engine, the Do 25 was not selected for production.

The Do 27 seated four to six, and the original prototype first flew in Spain on 27 June 1955. Most production aircraft were built in Germany, the first German-built aircraft first flight was on 17 October 1956. 50 more were manufactured in Spain by Construcciones Aeronáuticas SA as the CASA-127. In addition to the military operators in Germany and Spain, Portugal received 40 new-build and 106 ex-German machines.
Powerplant for most models was a 275hp Lycoming GO-480-B1A6 6-cylinder air-cooled horizontally-opposed piston engine.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on January 12, 2020, 04:54:37 PM
CASA C-201 Alcotán

The CASA C-201 Alcotán ("Kestrel") was a 1950s transport aircraft, for the Spanish Air Force.

The aircraft was the result of an agreement between the Spanish government CASA, to develop a transport aircraft for the air force capable of carrying a payload of one tonne over a range of 1,000 km (620 mi). The design was a twin-engine low-wing cantilever monoplane. The main units of the tailwheel undercarriage retracted into the engine nacelles.

The first of two portotypes flew on 11 February 1949. An order for twelve pre-production aircraft and one hundred series aircraft was then placed. The pre-production machines were planned to demonstrate a range of different equipment fits for the airframe. A number of engines were also to be evaluated, including the 475 hp Armstrong Siddeley Cheetah that had powered the prototypes.
The Pratt & Whitney R-1340, and the locally produced ENMASA Sirio were also used in a number of the aircraft.

Due to problems in the supply of powerplants and propellers, the Alcotan project began to suffer. Spain's domestic engine industry was not capable of producing powerplants in sufficient quantity, and Spain was unable to afford to import foreign engines. The shortage of engines meant that by 1956, only eleven complete aircraft had been finished and delivered.
By 1962, the project was finally cancelled, without the engine problem ever having been resolved. By then, CASA had 96 complete airframes in storage awaiting powerplants, these were scrapped, and the Spanish government compensated the manufacturer.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on January 13, 2020, 07:39:57 PM
CASA C-202 Halcón

The CASA C-202 Halcón was a twin-engine transport aircraft, from the early 1950`s.

The Halcón was designed for use on Spain's international air routes. It had tricycle landing gear and a heated/air-conditioned cabin which could accommodate fourteen passengers.
Twenty aircraft were initially ordered, and delivered to the Spanish Air Force with the designation T.6.
The aircraft were powered by 2 ENMASA Beta B-41 nine-cylinder air-cooled radial engines, of 775 hp.These allowed a max speed of 233 MPH and a cruise of 208 MPH.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on January 14, 2020, 09:35:32 PM
CASA C-207 Azor

The CASA C-207 Azor was a transport aircraft and was a scaled-up version of the CASA C-202 Halcón.

It was developed as an airline-suited aircraft, for short- to mid-range routes that were common in Spain and other Europe areas. The Azor was deemed almost obsolete and uneconomical for its time, for which better aircraft were available for its role.

CASA turned to the Spanish Air Force, which had interest in new transport aircraft,and CASA had previously experimented with transport aircraft to replace types already in service, such as the CASA C-201 and CASA C-202. They were plagued with unreliable engines and were cancelled.
The 207A was built for the Air Force with a capacity of 40 passengers plus a crew of four.They were powered by 2 Bristol Hercules 730 radial piston engines of 2040 hp each.
A batch of ten C-207C (or T.7B) were built with large doors and capacity for 37 Paratroops.

Two survivors are at the Spanish Air Force museum, one is at Getafe Air Base, one is preserved in the exterior in Sevilla after a 2015 restoration.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on January 15, 2020, 10:57:42 PM
CASA C-212 Aviocar

The CASA C-212 Aviocar is a turboprop-powered STOL medium cargo aircraft designed for civil and military use.

CASA introduced the C-212, a twin engined 18 seat transport aircraft that would be capable of fulfilling a variety of military roles, including passenger transport, ambulance aircraft and paratroop carrier, while also being suitable for civil use.The first prototype flew on 26 March 1971. In 1974, the Spanish Air Force decided to acquire the Aviocar to update its fleet.
The C-212 has a high-mounted wing, a box fuselage, and a conventional tail and tricycle undercarriage is non-retractable. It can carry 21–28 passengers depending on configuration. Since the C-212 has an unpressurized fuselage, it is limited to relatively low-flight-level airline usage below 10,000 ft, thus ideal for short legs and regional airline service.

Airlines noted the type's success with the military, so CASA developed a proposed commercial version, the first examples of which were delivered in July 1975.
In August 2006 a total of 30 CASA C-212 aircraft (all variants) remain in airline service around the world. The -400 was introduced in 1997 with a glass cockpit and more powerful engines.
Its operators including numerous charter and short-haul aviation companies and several national air forces. The C-212 is also in the service of the United States Army Special Operations Command with the designation C-41A.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on January 16, 2020, 08:58:02 PM
Hispano HA-100

The Hispano HA-100 Triana was a military trainer aircraft developed in Spain in the 1950s.

It was the first aircraft designed by Willy Messerschmitt after World War II, and was a conventional, low-wing cantilever tandem monoplane with retractable tricycle undercarriage.
The programme was initiated when the Spanish government issued a requirement in 1951 for a new trainer aircraft. Hispano proposed two versions with different engine power, the HA-100E and HA-100F, the former for basic training, the latter for advanced training, and the construction of two prototypes of each was undertaken.

Development was full of problems with suitable parts, and most particularly with engines. The ENMASA Sirio was originally selected for the HA-100E, but was unavailable, the ENMASA Beta was used instead.
It was a much heavier and powerful engine than had been envisaged for the basic trainer.The performance of this engine was far from satisfactory, and when the second prototype flew in February 1955 (the first HA-100F), it was powered by a Wright R-1300.

Flight testing went well and positive results were achieved, the HA-100 performed well in comparative tests against the American T-28 Trojan, leading to a contract for 40 of the aircraft.
However, obtaining engines remained a stumbling block, with Spain unable to afford to import the Wright engine in quantity. Eventually, production ground to a halt, and the decision was taken to scrap the airframes under construction, salvaging only the wings and empennages for use on the HA-200 project. Just two aircraft were completed.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on January 16, 2020, 09:07:45 PM
Hispano HS-42

The Hispano HS-42 and its derivative, the HA-43, were advanced military trainer aircraft produced in Spain in the late 1940s.

The basic design was that of a conventional, low-wing, cantilever monoplane with seating for the pilot and instructor in tandem. The HS-42 had fixed, tailwheel undercarriage with spatted mainwheels, while the HA-43 had retractable main units.
It was powered by an Armstrong Siddeley Cheetah 27 seven-cylinder radial engine of 390 hp, which gave a max speed of around 210mph and a cruise of 183mph. It was armed with 2 × fixed, forward-firing 7.7 mm Breda-SAFAT machine guns in wings.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on January 18, 2020, 09:11:51 PM
Hispano HA-200

The Hispano HA-200 Saeta was a twin-seat jet advanced trainer.

During the early 1950s, Willy Messerschmitt worked on the HA-100 Triana, a piston-engine prototype trainer, the design would subsequently serve as the basis for the HA-200.
The two aircraft directly shared many design features, including the wing, tail unit, and tricycle undercarriage; original elements were largely confined to the area forward of the cockpit.
It was Spain's first indigenously-developed aircraft to be powered by the turbojet engine. On 12 August 1955, the first prototype conducted its maiden flight, flown by Major Valiente, the company's chief test pilot.He praised the prototype's handling qualities, stating them to be light and responsive.

The French Turbomeca Marboré turbojet engine had been selected and Spain had successfully negotiated a license to locally produce the engine. Development was slow and protracted, the first production aircraft, which was designated as HA-200A, first flew during October 1962. Shortly thereafter, the initial version of the aircraft were delivered to the Spanish Air Force; in service, it was operated under the service designation E.14.

The trainer model was shortly followed on by a single-seat version, designated as HA-220, which was designed to perform ground attack missions. On 25 April 1970, this new model made its first flight. During the early 1970s, the ground attack-orientated HA-220 entered into service with the Spanish Air Force, which designated the type as C.10.It remained in service for barely a decade, all of the C.20s being withdrawn from Spanish service by the end of 1981.

During 1959, an agreement was reached so the HA-200 was produced under license in Egypt. Both the airframe and the engines were locally manufactured.A total of 85 HA-200s were reportedly constructed between 1960 and 1969. In Egyptian Air Force service, the type was commonly referred to as the Helwan HA-200B Al-Kahira.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on January 19, 2020, 05:14:03 PM
Hispano-Suiza E-30

The Hispano Suiza E-30, later renamed Hispano E-30 , was designed in Spain in 1930 as a multi-purpose intermediate trainer.

It was a single engine, parasol wing monoplane.The wing of the E-30 was straight edged, with rounded wing tips and a large, rounded cut-out in the trailing edge above the fuselage to improve visibility from the rear cockpit, the wings could be folded to save space.
The first prototype, flew in 1930 and was designated E-30 H, was powered by an upright V-8 180 hp Hispano-Suiza 8Ab engine. It had a maximum speed of 112 mph or cruise of 100mph. A second prototype flew the following year, powered by a 220 hp Hispano-Wright 9Qa, an early licence-built version of the 9-cylinder radial Wright Whirlwind. The third prototype had a modified wing fitted with flaps and Handley Page slots for low speed flight. Production aircraft used a slightly developed version of this radial, the 250 hp Hispano-Wright 9 Qd which gave a top speed of 140mph and cruise of 115mph.

The E-30 could be armed,if required, options included a fixed, forward firing 7.7 mm (0.303 in) Vickers machine gun or a similar gun in the rear cockpit. Up to six 12 kg (23 lb) bombs could be attached to under fuselage and fuselage side racks.
The Aeronáutica Militar purchased ten E-30s in 1932-3 and another five in 1935. The Aeronáutica Naval ordered seven between 1933-4, though they were later reported as having eight. The Militar aircraft had their radial engines cowled with Townend rings and driving a metal propeller; their wings carried Hadley Page slots. the Naval machines had uncowled engines, wooden propellers and foldable wings.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on January 19, 2020, 05:24:01 PM
Hispano-Suiza E-34

The Hispano-Suiza E-34, later renamed Hispano HS-34, was a single engine, tandem seat biplane, designed as a basic trainer.

The E-34 had a rectangular cross-section fuselage formed from steel tubing with internal wire bracing. Its cockpits were open. The undercarriage used a pair of internally sprung mainwheels with balloon tyres and a tailskid.It had unswept single bay wings of the same span and constant chord, with some stagger. The wings were fabric-covered wooden structures.
The prototype and production series aircraft were powered, as the specification required, by a 105 hp Walter Junior four-cylinder inverted inline engine, although the second prototype was fitted with the more powerful 130 hp de Havilland Gipsy Major of the same configuration.Performance was a top speed of around 110mph and a cruise of 85mph.

The E-34 did not win the Aeronáutica Militar competition, and was therefore not ordered, but the Aeronáutica Naval placed an order for twenty five in August 1935. Only five had been built before the Spanish Civil War put an end to production of non-combat aircraft. Just 6 aircraft were completed.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on January 20, 2020, 10:48:40 PM
Loring R-1

The Loring R-1 or R-I was a reconnaissance aircraft and light bomber produced fromthe late 1920s.

It was the firm's first aircraft of its own design, it had manufactured aircraft under license, beginning with Fokker C.IV`s and later built some of Juan de la Cierva's autogyro prototypes, such as the Cierva C.7 and Cierva C.12.
The R-1 was a biplane with staggered wings that were braced with struts in a Warren truss-like configuration.The pilot and observer sat in open cockpits in tandem.
Thirty examples were produced for the Spanish Army. They remained in service until December 1931 when they were phased out during military restructuring promoted by Manuel Azaña, the new Minister of War of the republican government. He wanted to modernize the Spanish Military and cut down the expenses of the state.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on January 22, 2020, 07:28:15 PM
Loring R-III

The Loring R-III or R-3 was a 1920s two-crew sesquiplane reconnaissance and light attack aircraft.

During the mid 1920s, General Primo de Rivera's dictatorship the R-III entered a contest along with the Potez 25 for the modernization of the Military Air Arm. Both machines had similar characteristics, but the Military Directory decided on the Loring R-III to promote local industry, thus the Aeronáutica Militar placed an order of 110 aircraft.

In October and November 1926 three variants of the R-3 were exhibited at the National Aeronautics Exhibition in Madrid. The R-3, the C-1 fighter and the T-1 light trainer. Neither the fighter nor the trainer variants, went into production. The aircraft was powered by an 800 hp Hispano-Suiza 12Hb engine, which allowed a max speed of around 145mph.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on January 22, 2020, 08:35:15 PM
That`s Spain finished, now on to Italy.

Aerfer Ariete

The Aerfer Ariete (Ram) was a prototype fighter aircraft built in Italy in 1958.

The Ariete was a derivative of the Aerfer Sagittario 2, and was an attempt to bring that aircraft up to a standard where it could be a viable mass-produced combat aircraft.

It retained much of the Sagittario 2's layout, with a nose intake and ventral exhaust for the main Derwent engine, the Ariete added a Rolls-Royce Soar RS.2 auxiliary turbojet engine to provide additional power for climbing and sprinting. This used a dorsal, retractable intake with its exhaust at the tail.
No production version followed and just two aircraft were completed, and were evaluated by the Italian Air Force. A proposed version with an auxiliary rocket engine instead of the turbojet, the Aerfer Leone, was abandoned before a prototype could be built.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on January 23, 2020, 08:02:43 PM
Aer Lualdi L.59

The Aer Lualdi L.59 was an Italian helicopter that failed to reach quantity production.

The L.59 was the culmination of work by Carlo Lualdi throughout the 1950s, and was an enlarged version of earlier two-seat designs.The L.59 featured four seats accommodated in an extensively glazed cabin.
It was a conventional pod-and-boom design with skid landing gear, the aircraft had the slightly unusual feature of having its engine mounted in the nose, turning the main rotor by a long driveshaft that reached through the cabin.It was powered by a 260hp Continental IO-470-D air-cooled flat-six engine.

Two Macchi-built prototypes began flight tests in 1960. Civil certification was achieved in August the following year. Although faultless, the performance of the L.59 was not comparable with that of other helicopters on the market at the time. Macchi planned an initial production batch of 50 machines, but only a single example was sold - one of the prototypes was purchased by the Italian Army for evaluation purposes,but no orders were placed. The prototype was exhibited at the 1963 Paris Air Show, but again, no orders were obtained for the aircraft.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on January 23, 2020, 08:13:29 PM
Ambrosini S.7

The Ambrosini SAI.7 was an Italian racing aircraft flown before World War II that later entered production as a military trainer (designated S.7) after the war.

The SAI.7 was built to compete in the Avioraduno del Littorio rally, which departed Rimini on 15 July 1939.Two SAI.7s were fitted with special glazed fairings extending from the canopy to the nose,for extra streamlining. The aircraft began its proving flights too late, and were disqualified from the competition, but on August 27, one of them set a new world airspeed record for a 100 km closed circuit, at 403.9 km/h (252 mph) powered by a Hirth HM 508D engine.

During WWII, the Regia Aeronautica was interested in the aircraft as a trainer for fighter pilots, and a revised version entered limited production in 1943 as the SAI.7T. Only 10 were built, but in 1949 a modernised version powered by an Alfa Romeo engine of 225hp was produced, 145 of them for the re-formed Italian Air Force, including some single-seat versions.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on January 24, 2020, 10:08:24 PM
Ambrosini SAI.10

The Ambrosini SAI.10 Grifone ("Griffon") was a military trainer aircraft produced in small numbers for the Italian Regia Aeronautica early in World War II.

The Ministero dell' Aeronautica ordered a prototype primary trainer from Ambrosini. This aircraft, was a parasol monoplane of mixed construction, it first flew on July 8 1939, and a production batch of 50 was ordered, but this was soon reduced to just 10, all of which were delivered in 1940.

Production aircraft differed by having a 85hp Fiat A.50 radial engine in place of the prototype's CNA D. Other engine fits that were trialled included an example with a Siemens-Halske Sh 14, and one with an Alfa Romeo 110; this latter machine designated SAI.11. Another experimental development that did not enter production was a float-equipped SAI.10 Gabbiano ("Seagull").
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on January 25, 2020, 07:37:58 PM
Ambrosini SAI.207

The Ambrosini SAI.207 was a light fighter interceptor built entirely from wood.

The SAI.207 was developed from the Ambrosini SAI.7 racing and sporting aircraft after the light fighter concept had been proven with the Ambrosini SAI.107 prototype. It was designed to have a lightweight structure and light armament to allow lower-powered engines to be used, without unduly reducing performance.
The first of three prototypes flew in the Autumn of 1940 with a 540 hp Isotta Fraschini Gamma engine, the Sai.107 reached a speed of 350 mph and manoeuvrability proved to be excellent.

In level-flight the performance of the SAI.207 was impressive. Armament consisted of two fuselage-mounted 12.7 mm Breda-SAFAT machine guns.The Ministero dell' Aeronautica placed a production order for 2,000 machines, plus a pre-production batch of 12 aircraft for operational testing.The SAI.207 used a 750hp Isotta Fraschini Delta III R.C.40 inverted V-12,giving an impressive max speed of just under 400mph.

Flight testing revealed some major shortcomings, the low power and high wing loading resulted in poor climb performance; the rear cylinders of the engine overheated during recovery from a dive; the light structure also led to problems, with the second prototype wing exploding during a dive recovery due to internal pressure build up, and the wooden structure was also badly affected by rain or humidity.
Despite its speed, Italian pilots were not impressed by the type and its service in the summer of 1943 quickly ended. The aircraft of 83rd Squadriglia were returned to SAI-Ambrosini to be refurbished.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on January 25, 2020, 07:49:34 PM
Ambrosini S.1001

The Ambrosini S.1001 Grifo ("Griffin") was an Italian light airplane that appeared shortly after the end of World War II.

It was the first plane built by SAI Ambrosini postwar, the prototype flew in 1947 and was derived from the pre-war SAI.2S. It was a four-seat monoplane with spatted fixed undercarriage.
A small series was produced for the Italian aeroclubs with an Alfa Romeo 110-ter engine of 130 hp. Three examples were bought by the Italian Aeronautica Militare (AMI), which used them between 1948 and 1950.

A two-seater version powered by a de Havilland Gipsy Major of 160 hp  was offered to the AMI as a trainer. but they were not interested, although a few aircraft were built as the S.1002 Trasimeno for aeroclubs.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on January 26, 2020, 06:45:23 PM
Ambrosini Rondone

The Ambrosini Rondone is two/three-seat light touring monoplane of the early 1950s.

The Rondone was designed as a modern touring aircraft, for aero clubs, Stelio Frati prepared the basic design for the prototype two-seat F.4 Rondone I which was built by CVV in 1951.
This was followed by nine production examples produced by SAI Ambrosini in collaboration with Aeronautica Lombardi.

It is of wooden construction with a plywood-covered one-piece single spar wing,and a monocoque fuselage.The tricycle undercarriage is retractable,and the aircraft had two-position flaps and dual controls fitted.The two-seater had an 85 hp Continental engine.
The Rondone II has an extended cabin with additional rear side windows,it was a three-seater with a 90 hp Continental C90-12F engine.Some were later fitted with a 135 hp Lycoming O-290-D2 engine. In total 20 aircraft were completed with a few still airworthy.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on January 27, 2020, 10:21:24 PM
Agusta A.105

The Agusta A.105 was an Italian rotorcraft designed by Agusta, however it was never developed beyond the prototype stage.

The A.105 was designed to have a simple manufacturing process, it was planned to be a liaison, aerial photography and high-speed transport helicopter, it was powered by the Agusta built Turbomeca-Agusta TA-230 turbine engine.

The A.105 and A.105B were displayed at the 1965 Paris Air Show, the latter wearing Italian Air Force markings.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on January 27, 2020, 10:32:57 PM
Agusta AZ.8L

The Agusta AZ.8L, was an Italian airliner prototype first flown on 9 June 1958.
It was a low-wing monoplane with tricycle undercarriage and used an all-metal construction. Filippo Zappata's design was a development of his unused design twin-engined transport, the AZ.1.

When the AZ.8L failed to attract customers, Agusta abandoned the project to focus on its helicopter manufacturing operations, in particular a new Zappata design, the A.101.
It was powered by 4 Alvis Leonides 503/2 9 cyl. air-cooled radial piston engines, of 540 hp each, which gave a cruise of around 250mph and range of 1500 miles.
The aircraft first flew 9th June 1958, just one was completed and it was retired in 1963.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on January 28, 2020, 10:35:22 PM
Agusta A.106

The Agusta A.106 was a single-seat light helicopter designed to provide an anti-submarine warfare (ASW) platform for the destroyers of the Italian Navy.
The aircraft was provided with a sophisticated electronics suite by Ferranti for autostabilisation and contact identification.A pair of  torpedoes could be slung under the fuselage.
The tail and two-bladed main rotor could be folded for shipboard stowage, and the skid undercarriage had fittings for flotation bags if required.

Two prototypes were built, the first flying in November 1965. A pre-production batch of 5 was cancelled by the Navy in 1973.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on January 29, 2020, 10:59:11 PM
Ansaldo A.1 Balilla

The Ansaldo A.1, was Italy's only domestically-designed fighter aircraft of World War I.

The first prototype was completed in July 1917, but acceptance by the Air force did not occur until much later that year. Test pilots were not enthusiastic in their evaluation, they found a marked increase in performance over the earlier SVA.5, but the A.1 was still not as manoeuverable as the French types in use by Italy's squadrons, notably the Nieuport 17, which was also produced by Macchi in Italy. This resulted in a number of modifications, including a slight enlargement of the wings and rudder, and a further 10% increase in engine power.

While the fighter's speed was impressive, it proved difficult to fly. Nevertheless, the air force ordered the A.1 anyway.
The first of an original order of 100 machines entered service in July 1918. The A.1s were mostly assigned to home defence duties. In the four months before the Armistice, A.1s scored only one aerial victory, an Austrian reconnaissance aircraft.Despite this, the air force ordered another 100 machines, all of which were delivered before the end of the war. At the armistice, 186 were operational, of which 47 aircraft remained on hand with training squadrons, and the rest were to be put in storage.

The A.1 was built under license in Poland for the Polish Air Force, and was also operated by the Soviet and Latvian Air Force.Some also found their way to South America via a promo tour for the aircraft.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on January 30, 2020, 11:10:31 PM
Ansaldo A.120

The Ansaldo A.120 also known as the FIAT A.120, since FIAT bought Ansaldo, was a reconnaissance aircraft developed in the 1920s. It was a conventional, parasol-wing monoplane with fixed tailskid undercarriage. It had a crew of two with the pilot and observer in tandem open cockpits. The prototype flew in 1925, and over 70 were completed.

The design was based on a wing developed for the Ansaldo A.115 and the fuselage of the Dewoitine D.1 fighter which Ansaldo had built under licence. The type was operated in modest quantities by the Italian Air Force, and was exported to the air forces of Austria and Lithuania, the latter's machines remaining in service until the Soviet annexation of the country.
It was powered by a 550hp Fiat A.22 piston engine,in production versions which gave a max speed of around 155mph.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on January 31, 2020, 11:41:54 PM
Ansaldo A.300

The Ansaldo A.300 was an Italian general-purpose biplane aircraft built from 1920 to 1929.

It was a single-engined two-crew open cockpit biplane of mixed metal and wood-and-fabric construction, powered by a water-cooled Fiat A.12bis V12 engine. Most variants had two fixed Vickers guns and one mobile gun mounted in the rear cockpit. It first flew in 1919.

The A.300/3 was a three-crew version intended for reconnaissance, of which around 90 were delivered. The most significant variant was the A.300/4, again mostly three-crew, which started full production in 1923, just as Ansaldo was absorbed into FIAT. This became the standard multi-role aircraft in the newly formed Regia Aeronautica and served in Italy, Sicily, Sardinia, Corfu, Libya and Eritrea.
They served as a light bombers, transports, fighter and reconnaissance aircraft, and finally as an advanced trainer, some examples in service as late as 1940. 50 examples were also license-built in Poland but were not a success due to poor build quality.

The A.300 was one of the most numerous aircraft of its time, with the production run of the A.300/4 alone, at 700 units, exceeding the total production of any other type of the 1920s except the Breguet XIX and Potez 25. Despite this, it remains one of the least documented types.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on February 02, 2020, 12:17:42 AM
Ansaldo SVA

The Ansaldo SVA was a family of Italian reconnaissance biplane aircraft of World War I.

It was originally conceived as a fighter, but was found inadequate for that role. However, with its impressive speed, range and operational ceiling,its top speed making it one of the fastest of all Allied combat aircraft in World War I, gave it the right properties to be an excellent reconnaissance aircraft and even light bomber. Production of the aircraft continued well after the war, the final examples were delivered during 1918.

The SVA was a conventionally laid-out unequal-span biplane - it was unusual in featuring Warren Truss-style struts joining its two wings, and therefore having no transverse (spanwise) bracing wires. The plywood-skinned fuselage had the typical Ansaldo triangular rear cross-section behind the cockpit, transitioning to a rectangular cross section going forwards through the rear cockpit area, with a full rectangular cross section forward of the cockpit.Two minor variants were produced, one with reconnaissance cameras, the other without cameras but extra fuel tanks.

It was powered by a 200 hp SPA 6A 6-cylinder water-cooled in-line piston engine, which gave it a max speed of around 140mph.
The Italian Air Force's High Command urged for the SVA to be provided in vast quantities; thus, production output made rapid advances. Only 65 aircraft had been completed by the end of 1917, 1,183 SVAs were build during 1918; this made the type the second-most numerous aircraft to be built by the Italian aviation industry.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on February 02, 2020, 06:57:55 PM
Aviamilano A2

The Aviamilano A2 or A2 Standard is an Italian high performance Standard Class sailplane.

The A2 was designed in the early 1960s at the Polytechnic University of Milan by Carlo Ferrarin, his cousin Francis Ferrarin and Livio Sonzio. It is a single-seat cantilever mid-wing monoplane, its high-aspect-ratio wing built around an all-metal torsion box and spar. It is skinned with light alloy, the centre section trailing edges carries air brakes.

Its fuselage is similar to that of the Aviamilano CPV1 with a wooden structure and ovoid cross-section. The rear part is plywood skinned, but the forward part is covered with glass fibre.
It has a long, single, semi-reclining seat cockpit with a single piece canopy following the fuselage contours is placed ahead of the leading edge.
The A2 first flew in 1964 and a short production run began in 1966. In all, five were built,one of which remained on the Italian civil register in 2010.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on February 03, 2020, 10:24:56 PM
Aviamilano Sequoia Falco

The aircraft was designed by Italian designer Stelio Frati in 1955, and was originally built by Aviamilano, then Aeromere and later Laverda.
It is a single-engined, propeller driven lightweight 2-seater aerobatic aircraft, designed for private and general aviation use.The Falco was sold in kit or plans form for amateur construction.

The design was adopted in the US in the 1980s and converted to kit form. The aircraft is regarded as one of the best handling, strongest, and most aesthetically pleasing designs made available to home builders, with high performance includes a 200mph max speed and 6g aerobatic capability, powered by a 160hp Lycoming O-320-B1A air-cooled flat-four engine.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on February 04, 2020, 08:01:04 PM
Aviamilano Nibbio

The Aviamilano F.14 Nibbio  is a four-seat, single engine cabin monoplane from the late 1950s.

The Nibbio is a conventionally laid out,low wing monoplane, seating four in two rows. It is a scaled-up version of Frati's successful two seat F.8 Falco. The Nibbio has a wooden structure and is mostly plywood skinned with fabric overall, though the rear control surfaces have only fabric covering.The Nibbio first flew on 16 January 1958.

The upper fuselage line merges into the cabin glazing over a baggage space behind the rear bench seat. The front seats have dual controls and the cabin access is via a starboard side door.
The Nibbio is powered by a 180 hp Lycoming O-360 air-cooled four cylinder horizontally opposed engine, fed fuel from one fuselage and two wing tanks. It has an electrically retractable tricycle undercarriage with hydraulic brakes and a steerable nosewheel. The max speed of the aircraft was around 210mph.

Including the prototype, just eleven aircraft were completed.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on February 05, 2020, 07:46:55 PM
Aviamilano Scricciolo

The Aviamilano P.19 Scricciolo  "Wren" was a light civil trainer aircraft built in the 1960s.

The Scicciolo was designed to compete in a competition by the Aero Club d'Italia for a light civil trainer. The aircraft was evaluated by the Milan Aero Club and the CVV P.19 emerged victorious and two batches of twenty-five were produced at Aviomilano.

It is a low-wing monoplane with tailwheel undercarriage, some were fitted with tricycle gear and designated P.19Tr. The pilot and instructor sat side by side under a large bubble canopy. The fuselage was of fabric-covered steel tube construction while the wings and tail surfaces were made of wood with plywood covering.

After 1964, a few examples were fitted with a 150 hp Lycoming O-320 engine, ( instead of the standard 100hp Continental O-200-A air-cooled flat-four ) , for use as glider tugs and designated P.19R
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on February 06, 2020, 10:55:34 PM
Breda A.4

The Breda A.4 was a biplane trainer produced in Italy in the mid-1920s.

It was of conventional configuration with a two-bay unstaggered wing and seating for the pilot and instructor in tandem open cockpits.It made it`s first flight in 1926 with a 130hp 6-cylinder water-cooled in-line engine.Aside from civil use, the A.4 was also adopted by the Regia Aeronautica as a trainer. At least some examples were produced in floatplane configuration as the A.4idro.

Production versions were powered by a 180 hp Hispano-Suiza 8 V-8 water-cooled piston engine, and known as the A4 HS.Max speed was around 100mph with a 80 mph cruise.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on February 07, 2020, 10:31:39 PM
Breda A.7

The Breda A.7 was a reconnaissance aircraft developed in Italy for use by the Regia Aeronautica in 1929.
It was a parasol monoplane of conventional configuration with tailskid undercarriage. The pilot and observer sat in tandem, open cockpits. A single prototype of a long-range example, originally designated A.7 Raid and later A.16 (or Ba.16) was also constructed, but the air force showed no interest in it.

14 aircraft were completed fitted with various engine types, from 400hp to 510hp.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on February 08, 2020, 11:56:03 PM
Breda A.9

The Breda A.9 was a biplane trainer produced in 1928 for the Regia Aeronautica. It featured a single-bay, unstaggered wing cellule and fixed tailskid undercarriage.
The student and instructor sat in tandem, open cockpits. A slightly smaller version, designated A.9-bis was developed for use in Italy's aeroclubs.

It was powered by a 25HP Isotta-Fraschini Asso 250 6-cylinder water-cooled in-line piston engine, which gave it a max speed of 115mph or a cruise of 95mph.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on February 09, 2020, 02:58:02 PM
Breda Ba.15

The Breda Ba.15 was a two-seat light aircraft produced in the late 1920`s.

It was a high-wing braced monoplane that seated the pilot and passenger in tandem within a fully enclosed cabin. Ba.15s were fitted with a wide variety of engines,the most popularly selected was the 110hp Walter Venus, but some were powered by Cirrus III, de Havilland Gipsy, Colombo S.63, Walter Mars I, and Isotta-Fraschini 80 T engines.

Some Ba.15s were operated by the Regia Aeronautica, one example is preserved at the Science Museum in Milan. A Ba.15 was bought in 1929 by an Italian resident in Paraguay, Nicola Bo. The plane had the Italian civil registration I-AAUG. This aircraft was later sold to the Paraguayan Military Aviation and used in the Chaco War as a light transport plane with the serial T-8. It was destroyed in an accident in 1933.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on February 09, 2020, 03:10:56 PM
Breda Ba.19

The Breda Ba.19 was a single-seat aerobatic biplane aircraft, later developed as an air force trainer in 1928.

The Ba19 was a single-bay, unequal-span, unstaggered biplane which seated its pilot in an open cockpit. A few Ba.19s were produced as two-seaters with a second open cockpit in tandem.
The aircraft entered service in 1931 and were used throughout the 1930s for display flights by the Squadriglia di Alta Acrobazia Aerea, performing formation aerobatics.
It was powered by a  200hp Alfa Romeo licence-built Armstrong Siddeley Lynx radial engine, which permitted a top speed of 130mph, and a cruise of around 105mph.

Of the 42 built, just one survives,perched in an inverted position in a museum in Trento, NW Italy.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on February 10, 2020, 09:22:52 PM
Breda Ba.27 / Metallico

The Breda Ba.27 was a fighter produced in the early 1930s.

The Ba.27 was a low-wing braced monoplane, of steel tube construction, skinned with light corrugated alloy metal, it had wooden wings and tailplane. Evaluation of the two prototypes by the Regia Aeronautica in 1933 was very negative, which resulted in an extensive redesign. The fuselage shape was made more rounded and the pilot's open cockpit was moved forward and slightly higher to improve visibility. The corrugated alloy skinning was also replaced with smooth sheet metal.

A prototype of this revised version, known as the Metallico, first flew in June 1934, but it`s appraisal was still disappointing, but despite the lack of domestic interest, the type was ordered by the Republic of China for use against Japan. Out of eighteen machines ordered, only eleven were actually delivered.
Production aircraft were powered by a 540hp Alfa Romeo Mercurius radial engine, which gave the aircraft a top speed of around 235 mph. Armament was 2 fixed, forward-firing 12.7 mm (.5 in) Breda-SAFAT machine guns.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on February 11, 2020, 07:02:33 PM
Breda Ba.32

The Breda Ba.32 was an airliner prototype from 1931.

The Ba.32 prototype first flew in 1931, It was a low-wing trimotor monoplane with fixed, spatted main landing gear. It was powered by three 320hp Pratt & Whitney R-985 Wasp Junior nine-cylinder air-cooled radial engines. It had a crew of two, and its cabin could accommodate up to 10 passengers.

Despite displaying good flight characteristics, no production orders ensued and no further examples were built.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on February 11, 2020, 07:12:32 PM
Breda Ba.44

The Breda Ba.44 was a biplane airliner developed in the mid-1930s.

The Ba.44 was developed from the de Havilland Dragon Rapide, which Breda had purchased a manufacturing licence for. Breda believed some changes would better suit the aircraft to the company's manufacturing techniques, the biggest differences in the prototype Ba.44 was the design of the cockpit and empennage, and the change to locally produced Colombo S.63 engines.
In production, however, these were changed back to the same 185 hp de Havilland Gipsy Six engines as the Dragon Rapide.

Four examples were purchased by Ala Littoria, which used it on its Albanian routes, while the prototype was sold to the Regia Aeronautica, which operated it as a VIP transport and air ambulance in Libya. The excellent performance of the aircraft in this role led to the air force impressing the civil Ba.44s in 1936.

The government of Paraguay purchased one Ba.44 for its Military Aviation in 1933 and it was used as an air ambulance/transport in the Chaco War. In 1945, this Ba.44 was transferred to the first Paraguayan Airline, L.A.T.N. (Líneas Aéreas de Transporte Nacional) and was withdrawn from service in 1947.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on February 12, 2020, 08:50:21 PM
Breda Ba.64

The Breda Ba.64 was a single-engine ground-attack aircraft used by the Regia Aeronautica during the 1930s.

The Ba.64 was designed in 1933 to requirements set out by the Regia Aeronautica.They wanted an aircraft able to undertake multiple roles: fighter, bomber and reconnaissance.
It was an all-metal, low-wing monoplane with a wire braced tail unit and fixed tail wheel. The open cockpit was placed forward on the fuselage in line with the wing roots to provide an excellent field of vision down as well as forward.

Two prototypes powered by a 700 hp Bristol Pegasus were developed, the first as a two-seater bomber with an armament of four 7.7 mm (0.303 in) machine guns in the wings and up to 400 kg (882 lb) of bombs in racks under the wings.The second was a single-seater fighter configuration fitted with a semi-retractable main landing gear that when in its rearward retracted position, provided less drag as well as protection in case of a wheels-up landing.

The first prototype flew in 1934 but testing revealed a disappointing performance despite the use of a variable-pitch, three-blade propeller. A limited production order was placed for a composite variant that combined the two-place configuration of the bomber with the semi-retractable fighter landing gear. The production variant was powered by a 650 hp Alfa Romeo 125C and although single-seat variants were built, all the Ba.64s were converted to two-place bomber/attack aircraft with a single 7.7 mm (0.303 in) machine gun mounted in the rear cockpit. Production of the 42 Ba.64s was complete by 1936.

They saw limited use in front-line service, the Ba.64s were relegated to second-line duties although a small number survived until March 1943.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on February 13, 2020, 08:43:27 PM
Breda Ba.79S

The Breda Ba.79S was a four-seater private aircraft from the late 1930s.

It was a single-engined high-wing monoplane with a well equipped cabin for four. The wings were joined to the upper fuselage and braced with streamlined struts.The wings had almost straight leading edges with taper on the trailing edges and rounded tips. The tailplane was mounted at mid-fuselage height and was braced to the rounded fin, which carried a wide chord and unbalanced rudder. The tail surfaces were fabric over wooden frames.

The aircraft was powered by a 200 hp Alfa-Romeo 115 six-cylinder inverted inline engine,which gave the Breda 79 a long-nose look. It had a two-bladed propeller, max speed was an impressive 155mph.
The fuselage was a fabric-covered welded steel structure,behind the engine and under the wings was the cabin with four seats in two rows of two.Glazing was extensive, including a roof window, and the cabin was both thermally and acoustically insulated with controllable ventilation.
The divided undercarriage had widely splayed legs attached at the bottom of the wing bracing struts, carrying semi-spatted wheels.

The first Breda 79, c/n 78001 was registered as I-ABFU on 20 April 1936 together with a second example, I-ABFT c/n 78002 but it is not known when they first flew. Records are sketchy, but three seem to have been flown and used by the Ministero Aeronautica.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on February 14, 2020, 09:59:51 PM
Breda Ba.88

The Breda Ba.88 Lince ( Lynx ) was a ground-attack aircraft used by the Italian Regia Aeronautica during World War II.

The aircraft was designed to fulfill a 1936 requirement by the Regia Aeronautica for a heavy fighter bomber capable of a maximum speed of 325+ mph, armament of 20 mm cannons and range of 1,240 mi.The Ba.88 was an all-metal, twin-engine, two-crew monoplane,and it first flew in October 1936. The project was derived from the aborted Ba.75.

It was powered by two 1000hp Piaggio P.XI air-cooled radial engines, and drove two three-blade, continuous-speed 10.4 ft diameter Breda propellers. The engine nacelles also carried the two main undercarriage units. The aircraft had a twin tail to provide the dorsal 7.7 mm (0.303 in) Breda-SAFAT machine gun with a better field of fire.
The aircraft had three nose-mounted 12.7 mm (0.5 in) Breda machine guns and another Breda (7.7 mm/0.303 in caliber, with 250-500 rounds) with a high arc of fire, was fitted in the rear cockpit and controlled by a complex motorised electrical system. A modern "San Giorgio" reflector gunsight was fitted, and there was also provision to mount a 20 mm cannon instead of the central Breda-SAFAT machine gun in the nose.

Production numbers of the first series (started in 1939) were 81 machines made by Breda, and 24 by IMAM . The first series included eight trainers, with an elevated second pilot's seat. This was one of the few combat aircraft to have a dedicated trainer version, but it was not enough to prevent the overall failure of the programme.

The second series totalled 19 Breda and 24 IMAM machines fitted with small engine cowling rings. There was a limited evolution in this series, with the second series mainly being sent straight to the scrapyard.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on April 21, 2020, 02:43:47 PM
Breda-Zappata BZ.308

The B.Z.308 was a four-engined civil transport developed in the late 1940s for operation over both European and transatlantic routes.
It was a large low-wing monoplane of all-metal construction, powered by four Bristol Centaurus radial engines driving five-bladed propellers. It featured a large tailplane with endplate fins and rudders, and had fully retractable landing gear. The fuselage had an oval cross-section, and accommodated a flight crew of five and 55 passengers in two cabins; a version was planned with seats for up to 80.

Construction began during 1946, under aircraft designer Filippo Zappata at Breda's Sesto San Giovanni works, however the Allied Commission halted the work, which did not restart until January 1947. Problems in the delivery of Bristol Centaurus engines delayed the first flight, which was on 27 August 1948, although flight testing went well, the project was abandoned as a result of financial problems, anticipated competition from American airliners in the postwar market, and pressure (under the Marshall plan) to close down Breda's aeronautical section. Breda subsequently stopped producing aircraft entirely.

The prototype B.Z.308 was acquired by the Italian Air Force in 1949 as a transport aircraft (MM61802). Despite orders in 1950 from India, Argentina and Persia, only the prototype was built, allegedly also due to pressure from the allies for Italy to refrain from competing in civilian aircraft manufacture after the war.

The prototype, which passed to the Italian Air Force in 1950, was used to fly between Rome and Mogadishu until 21 February 1954, when it was damaged beyond repair by a collision with a cement truck, and was abandoned in a field in Somalia before being broken up.

The aircraft made a brief appearance in the 1953 movie Roman Holiday, as all you Audrey Hepburn fans will know. ;)
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on April 22, 2020, 05:56:03 PM
Breda-Pittoni BP.471

The Breda-Pittoni B.P.471 was an Italian twin-engine airliner/military transport produced by Breda, as part of its efforts to get back into aircraft manufacturing following WWII.

The prototype first flew in 1950.The aircraft was an all-metal twin-engine monoplane of stressed-skin construction. It had a retractable tricycle undercarriage and wings were of an inverted-gull configuration, this allowed the main landing gear to be short and light.
It was powered by two Pratt & Whitney R-1830-92 Twin Wasp 14-cylinder air-cooled radial engines, of 1,200 hp each, and had a cruising speed of around 255 mph.
The cabin had room for 18-passengers or cargo/freight. Breda proposed many uses for the aircraft including a civil airliner and freighter, military navigation trainer or utility freighter. With no interest from buyers the prototype was operated by the Italian Air Ministry as a staff transport, until it`s retirement in late 1954.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on April 22, 2020, 08:42:48 PM
CANT 6

The CANT 6 was a flying boat designed for Italian military service in 1925. The first flight of the type was also in this year.
It was a large biplane of conventional design with three × Lorraine-Dietrich 12Db, 400 hp each engines mounted in nacelles within the interplane gap. Only a single example was produced in its original military configuration,and two further aircraft redesigned as 11-seat passenger aircraft. One of these was retained by CANT, but the other entered airline service with Società Italiana Servizi Aerei.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on April 23, 2020, 07:18:11 PM
CANT 10

The CANT 10 was a flying boat airliner produced in Italy in 1925.
It was a conventional biplane design with single-bay, unstaggered wings of equal span, having seating for four passengers within the hull, while the pilot sat in an open cockpit. The engine was mounted in pusher configuration just below the centre of the wing.It was powered by a Fiat A.12bis, of 300 hp, which permitted a cruise speed of 90 mph.

CANT 10 flying boats were used by Società Italiana Servizi Aerei for over a decade, linking destinations in the Adriatic Sea.
Two aircraft were used by a company called TAXI AEREI in Buenos Aires, operating flights from the River Plate. One of them was lost in an accident and the other one was bought by the Paraguayan government for the Naval Aviation in 1929; it was used as a transport during the Chaco War and was withdrawn from use in 1933.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on April 24, 2020, 07:23:48 PM
CANT 22 and CANT 22R1

The CANT 22 was a flying boat airliner built in Italy in the 1920s and operated by Società Italiana Servizi Aerei (SISA) on their Adriatic routes.
It was a conventional biplane design with unstaggered wings braced by Warren trusses. The three engines were mounted in nacelles carried in the interplane gap. Accommodation for passengers was provided within the hull, the pilots sat in an open cockpit.
Although it was originally designed to carry eight passengers, an engine upgrade on later examples allowed the addition of two more seats.
The first aircraft flew in 1927, and 10 machines were completed in total.

The Cant 22 was powered by three 200 hp Isotta-Fraschini piston engines.
The Cant 22R.1 was powered by two 250 hp Isotta-Fraschini piston engines,and one 510 hp Isotta-Fraschini piston engine.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on April 25, 2020, 05:28:52 PM
CANT 26

The CANT 26 was an Italian two-seat biplane trainer from 1928.
It was an unusual product from CANT as it was a landplane. It was a two-seat biplane with tailwheel landing gear and powered by an Isotta Fraschini Asso 80 hp engine.
Just seven examples were built, one of which competed in the Challenge 1929 trials, and another of which was temporarily converted into a seaplane. One aircraft was registered in Argentina as R-183,it was later sold to an Italian citizen resident in Paraguay.He later sold it to the Paraguayan Military Air Arm, where it received the serial T-6 and it was used as a liaison aircraft.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on April 25, 2020, 07:39:25 PM
CANT Z.501

The CANT Z.501 Gabbiano (Gull) was a high-wing central-hull flying boat, with two outboard floats. It was powered by a single engine installed in the middle of the main-plane, and had a crew of 4 or 5.
It served with the Italian Regia Aeronautica during World War II, as a reconnaissance aircraft.

The prototype Z.501 first flew in 1934, the aircraft had a very slim fuselage, a high parasol wing and a single wing-mounted engine nacelle.The prototype had a 750 hp inline Isotta Fraschini Asso-750.RC engine, with a circular radiator that made the installation resemble a radial engine, although it was actually a liquid-cooled inline.
Production versions had an 880hp  Isotta Fraschini Asso XI R.2C.15 ,driving a three bladed prop, which gave a cruise speed of around 150 mph and a max speed of 170 mph.
The engine nacelle design was extended to carry a rear-facing machine gun, while other guns were mounted in the centre fuselage and nose. All were 7.7 mm Breda-SAFAT machine guns. A bomb load of up to 640 kg could be carried under the wings.

The aircraft served with the air arms of Italy, Romania and Spain, all were retired by 1950.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on April 26, 2020, 05:54:11 PM
CANT Z.509

The CANT Z.509 was a three-engine Italian floatplane developed from the Z.506A, it was designed to be used as a long range postal aircraft.

It was a larger and heavier development of the Z.506A, three aircraft were built in 1937 for Ala Littoria. The aircraft were for use on the airline's transatlantic postal service to South America.
The aircraft was a twin-float seaplane powered by three 1000 hp Fiat A.80 R.C.41 radial engines.Cruising speed was around 215 mph, and a max speed of 265 mph.
With the outbreak of World War II, development of the type was abandoned with just three aircraft built.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on April 26, 2020, 06:08:59 PM
CANT Z.511

The CANT Z.511 was a four-engine long-range seaplane,originally designed for the Central and South Atlantic passenger routes, it was later adapted as a military transport and special bombing raider.

The design called for a large four-engine, twin-float seaplane began at the end of September 1937, when the technical department of CRDA who required a long-range seaplane for carrying mail, cargo and passengers to Latin America.
These plans were cancelled on the outbreak of World War II, but a version of the aircraft was adapted for long-range maritime patrol, armed with 10 single-mount 12.7 mm (0.500 in) machine guns in both side gun positions, in two upper turrets, and belly positions. Plans were made to install 20 mm (0.787 in) cannon in a front turret or in a glazed nose position, and more machine guns in a tail position.

It could carry up to 4,000 kg of bombs in an internal bay and on outer wing positions: up to four launch racks, for 454 mm (17.9 in) air-launched torpedoes for surface attack, or "Maiale" manned torpedoes or midget submarines for special operations.
The aircraft was powered by 4 × Piaggio P.XII RC.35 air-cooled radial piston engines of 1,500 hp each.

The Z.511 had its first test flights between October 1940 and March 1942. The prototype was then transported to Grado, Venezia for further evaluation.
After the division of the Italian forces, one aircraft was appropriated by the Fascist Aeronautica Nazionale Repubblicana. It had been damaged only weeks before by British fighters, which had strafed it on Lake Trasimeno where it was undergoing final trials.
It was transferred to the seaplane base at Vigna di Valle, where it was sabotaged by base personnel to prevent it falling into the hands of either the Allies or the Germans.
The other aircraft, still under construction at the CRDA factory, was retained by Axis forces and scrapped.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on April 27, 2020, 06:27:02 PM
CANT Z.515

The CANT Z.515 was a twin engine monoplane floatplane designed and built for maritime reconnaissance in Italy.
The aircraft was the result of a requirement for a reconnaissance seaplane with light bombing capability. It was smaller and lighter than the 3 engine CANT Z.506 reconnaissance bomber.

The Z.515 was a cantilever low wing monoplane with straight tapered wings ,dihedral and rounded tips. There were flaps inboard of the ailerons,it was powered by a pair of 750 hp V-12 Isotta-Fraschini Delta engines, mounted well forward of the leading edge.The rear engine mounting also supported the forward attachment points for the rearward sloping, N-form struts to the two long, single stepped floats. The floats were braced by inverted-V struts to the bottom of the fuselage. The Z.515's tailplane was mounted on top of the fuselage with greater dihedral than the wing and carrying endplate fins.

The lower nose of the Z.515 was completely glazed, with the long cockpit largely forward of the wing leading edge. There was a low dorsal machine gun turret and three further lower calibre machine guns. Up to 600 kg  of bombs could be carried.

The CANT Z.515 first flew in 1939 but was not developed further. Some suggest a first flight date of 8 or 9 July 1940. The Regia Aeronautica approved the production of the Z.515 in 1941 with 64 aircraft ordered from CANT, and 50 from Aeronautica Sicula, a company in Palermo. Only ten were completed.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on April 28, 2020, 06:20:11 PM
CANT Z.1010

The CANT Z.1010 was a single engine, five seat Italian passenger aircraft flown in the mid-1930s. Just one example was completed, as no orders were forthcoming.

The Z.1010 was a wooden monoplane with a high wing of elliptical plan .On each side,a pair of V lift struts ran from the lower fuselage to the two wing spars, assisted by struts. The tail surfaces were conventional and curved in profile, with a rudder that ran down to the base of the fuselage between split elevators.
The control surfaces were unbalanced and the fin and tailplane externally braced together. The aircraft was powered by a licence built Alfa Romeo version of the de Havilland Gipsy Major 4-cylinder inverted inline engine, which produced 120 hp and drove a two blade propeller.This gave a cruise speed of 108 mph and a max speed of around 130 mph.

Behind the pilot's side windows, two further rectangular windows on each side lit the passenger cabin, the forward one on the port side incorporated into a cabin access door. The Z.1010 had a fixed, conventional undercarriage with enclosed, faired mainwheels on faired half axles mounted on the lower fuselage.
The Z.1010 had been built for the Littorio Air Rally, starting on 24 August 1935, which it attended shortly after its first flight on 14 August 1935.
The aircraft attracted no orders despite attending several rallies; it was badly damaged in 1936 in practice for the Saharan Circuit competition and was not rebuilt.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on April 29, 2020, 03:51:48 PM
CANT Z.1011

The twin-engined CANT Z.1011 was one of two bombers of similar size and powered by the same engines, from the mid-1930s.
The other was the better known three-engined CANT Z.1007, which in the end was the type ordered by the Regia Aeronautica of which over 650 were built between 1938 and 1943.

The CANT Z.1011 was a low wing cantilever monoplane with a wooden structure. The wings had three wooden spars, spruce and plywood ribs and plywood covering. The entire trailing edge was occupied by ailerons and inboard flaps. The fuselage was flat sided with plywood covering. The tailplane, placed on top of the fuselage, was braced to it with pairs of parallel struts and carried twin fins and rudders.
The engines were conventionally wing mounted and the main legs and wheels of the tailwheel undercarriage retracted rearwards into cowling extensions behind them.
The cocpit area was over the leading edge of the wing, with a bomb-aimer's position in the nose. There were dorsal and ventral gunner's positions respectively over and aft of the wing, each equipped with twin machine guns.

Power was provided by two 820hp Isotta-Fraschini Asso XI.RC 60° V-12, water-cooled supercharged piston engines,which gave a max speed of around 230mph, or a cruise of around 210mph.
The Z.1011 made its first flight on 2 March 1936 powered by 950 hp Gnome-Rhône Mistral Major RC radial engines, but these were soon replaced.Just five Z.1011 prototypes were built before the Regia Aeronautica chose to order the three-engined Z.1007. After that decision the Z.1011 was used as a transport.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on April 29, 2020, 11:47:20 PM
CANT Z.1012

The CANT Z.1012 was a small three-engined monoplane built in Italy in the late 1930s.
In 1937 CANT (Cantieri Riuniti dell'Adriatico) won a contract to build an aircraft for the Italian diplomatic corps in their embassies,the result was the CANT Z.1012

It was a low wing cantilever monoplane with an aerodynamically clean wooden structure and plywood skin.The cabin, over the wing, was fully glazed and had a starboard side seat for one passenger beside the pilot,and a bench seat behind for two more. A third row could be included if a lower fuel load was carried. The rear of the bench seat folded to access a baggage compartment.

The Z.1012 was powered by three inverted air-cooled inline engines, one mounted in the nose and the other two in wing fairings. There were two engine options,120 hp) Alfa-Romeo 110, a four-cylinder unit, or its six-cylinder relative, the 185 hp Alfa-Romeo 115. The more powerful engines raised the top speed by 30 mph . The main undercarriage units retracted into the engine fairings but the tail wheel was fixed.
The aircraft first flew on 13 November 1937 with the four-cylinder engines, appearing at the Belgrade air show that summer.This aircraft was used by the Italian Air Attaché in Washington.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on April 30, 2020, 03:40:42 PM
Caproni Ca.1 (1910)

The Caproni Ca.1 was an experimental biplane built in Italy in 1910. It was the first aircraft to be designed and built by aviation pioneer Gianni Caproni.

It was a light single-engine biplane featuring an uncovered rectangular truss as a fuselage, two mainplanes of equal span, a biplane tailplane and a twin-propeller pulling configuration.
The wings were fitted with ailerons and had a conventional structure, with tubular plywood spars and wooden ribs supporting a fabric covering.

The tail assembly consisted of two vertical surfaces which acted as rudders and as stabilizers, and of two horizontal surfaces whose fixed portion had a lifting and a stabilizing function, while a movable section acted as an elevator. This was controlled by the pilot, using a yoke. The wings were fitted with a patented device that allowed its angle of incidence to vary, in order to experiment with different aerodynamic conditions; the tailplanes were fitted with a similar device in order to compensate for the attitude changes caused by the adjustment of the wings.
The four-cylinder 25hp Miller fan engine drove two wooden two-blade counter-rotating propellers by means of two roller chains. A safety device would block both propellers in case of the failure of one of the chains.

The Ca.1 flew for the first time on 27 May 1910; although the flight was mainly successful, the aircraft crashed while landing and was badly damaged; it was repaired, but never flew again. The Ca.1 is now on display at the Volandia aviation museum, Malpensa Airport, Milan.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on May 01, 2020, 08:13:55 PM
Caproni Ca.1 Bomber (1914)

The Caproni Ca.1 was an Italian heavy bomber of the World War I era.

The Ca.1 was a three-engine biplane of fabric-covering and wooden construction. It had four crew members in an open central pod: two pilots, a front gunner, and rear gunner-mechanic, who manned upper machine guns, standing upon the central engine in a protective cage, just in front of the rear propeller. The Ca.1 had a tricycle landing gear.
After replacing early models with more powerful inline engines, the air arm of the Italian Army became interested in purchasing the Caproni 300 hp (later known as the Ca.32), which they designated the Ca.1. A total of 166 aircraft were delivered between August 1915 and December 1916.

The Ca.1 entered service with the Italian Army in mid 1915 and first saw action on August 20, 1915, attacking the Austrian air base at Aisovizza. Fifteen bomber squadrons were eventually equipped with Ca.1, Ca.2, and Ca.3 bombers, bombing mostly targets in Austria-Hungary. The 12th squadron operated in Libya. In 1918 three squadrons operated in France.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on May 02, 2020, 01:06:25 PM
Caproni Ca.4

The Caproni Ca.4 was an Italian heavy bomber of the World War I era.

The huge Ca.4 was a three-engine, twin-fuselage, triplane of wooden construction with a fabric-covered frame.It shared the unusual layout of the Caproni Ca.3, being a twin-boom aircraft with one pusher engine at the rear of a central nacelle, and two tractor engines in front of twin booms, providing a push-pull configuration. The twin booms carried a single elevator and three fins.The main landing gear was fixed and consisted of two sets of four wheels each.

It featured an open central nacelle attached to the underside of the center wing. It contained a single pusher engine, pilot, and forward gunner. The remaining engines were tractor mounted at the front of each fuselage.The aircraft was usually powered Liberty L-12 V-12 water-cooled piston engines, of 400 hp each,but other types were fitted.
At least one variation of the central nacelle seated the crew in a two-seat tandem format with the forward position for a gunner/pilot and the rear position for the pilot. Others used a forward gunner with side-by-side pilot positions to the rear of the gunner. Two rear gunners were positioned, one in each boom behind the center wing. An engineer or second pilot could also be accommodated in that location.

The new bomber was accepted by the Italian Army under the military designation Ca.4, but it was produced in several variants, differing in factory designations.
Ca.4s were tested by the Italian Air Force in 1917 and began operations in 1918. They were used for attacking targets in Austria-Hungary. In April 1918, six Ca.42s were issued to the British RNAS but were never used operationally and they were returned to Italy after the war. At least three CA.42s were sent to the USA for evaluation.
Figures vary for the number of aircraft completed, but it is thought to be 45 to 55.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on May 03, 2020, 08:57:24 PM
Caproni Ca.18

The Caproni Ca.18 was a military reconnaissance aircraft built in Italy shortly prior to World War I.

The Ca.18 was a monoplane of conventional configuration and fixed tailskid undercarriage. The wings were mounted to the fuselage with a bayonet fitting, to facilitate the rapid assembly and dismantling of the aircraft.It became the first Italian-designed and -built aircraft to see service with the Italian armed forces.

It made it`s first flight in 1913, but did not enter service until 1915 due to to the initial lack of interest in the aircraft.
The aircraft was originally designed for a government competition in early 1913, but no orders for the aircraft were forthcoming until the nationalisation of the Caproni company later in the year, when a small batch was built for the 15th Squadron.It was powered by a Gnome rotary engine of 80 hp, which gave it a max speed of 75 mph and a cruise of around 62 mph.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on May 03, 2020, 09:15:58 PM
Caproni Ca.20

The Caproni Ca.20 was an early monoplane fighter. Developed by Giovanni Battista Caproni in 1914.

The Ca.20 was derived from the Ca.18, an observation monoplane. It used a more powerful engine, the Rhône. It used an unusual rounded nose cover for the wooden propeller which was cowled smoothly to match the fuselage and pierced to allow engine cooling. The improved aerodynamics helped speed and manoeuvrability and as it was designed as a fighter, a Lewis machine gun was installed above the pilot, placed above the propeller disc, with an eye level sight.

Only a single Caproni Ca.20 was built, because the Italian government rejected the design in favour of bomber aircraft.It made it`s first flight in 1914, then later stored in a barn on Giovanni Battista Caproni's property for 85 years, before being sold to the Museum of Flight in Seattle in 1999.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on May 04, 2020, 07:42:19 PM
Caproni Ca.90

The Caproni Ca.90 was a prototype Italian heavy bomber designed and built by Caproni.

The Ca.90 was a six-engined inverted sesquiplane designed as a heavy bomber and first flew in 1929, at the time it was the largest aircraft in the world.
It had two tandem pairs of 1,000 hp  Isotta-Fraschini Asso 1000 W-18 inline piston engines mounted above the lower wing, each pair driving a four-bladed pusher and a two-bladed tractor propeller. Another pair of engines was mounted above the fuselage.Only one Ca.90 was built.the Caproni Ca.90 remained the largest landplane until the arrival of the Tupolev ANT-20 in 1934.

It`s lower wingspan was 152 ft 11 in and upper was 114 ft 6 in, and the fuselage was almost 90ft long.
The aircraft had 12 machine guns for defense, and could carry a 18,000lb bomb load, max speed was 127 mph with a cruise of around 115 mph.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on May 04, 2020, 10:18:50 PM
Caproni Ca.97

The Caproni Ca.97 was a civil utility aircraft produced in Italy in the late 1920s and early 1930s.

It was originally designed, as high-wing braced trimotor monoplane of conventional configuration with one engine mounted on the nose, and two carried on strut-mounted nacelles at the fuselage sides. Examples were also produced with only the nose mounted engine.The typical single engine was an Alfa Romeo Jupiter VIII Ri 9-cyl air-cooled radial piston engine,of 500 hp.

Some aircraft were used by airlines in small numbers.Military versions were used by the Regia Aeronautica in colonial policing roles.Thirteen aircraft in all were completed.
The aircraft first flew in 1927,it was flown by a single pilot,military versions had a crew of 4 or five,these were armed with two 0.30 in machine guns.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on May 05, 2020, 07:27:17 PM
Caproni Ca.101

The Caproni Ca.101 was a three-engine Italian airliner which later saw military use as a transport and bomber.

The aircraft was planned as a civil airliner, it was soon converted to the bomber/transport role. The aircraft was a typical 1920s design. It had three engines, one in the nose and one under each wing, high wings and a fixed undercarriage.The fuselage was of quadrangular cross-section, was made of steel tubes covered with fabric, as were the wings and tail. The floor was made of wood.
A variety of engines were used, sometimes with a composite layout: The Piaggio P.VII (370 hp), the Alfa Romeo Jupiter (420 hp), and other models of (240 hp) and (270 hp).
Exports of the Ca.101 were made to Australia, China and Paraguay. Hungary bought 20 aircraft for use as air mail aircraft.

The Ca.101bis, designed for use in Italy's colonies, was slightly larger and heavier than the original model.It was fitted with an Alfa Romeo Jupiter in the nose, and an Armstrong Siddeley Lynx under each wing, giving it over 800 hp in total. The ceiling was improved to 18,045 ft, but the greater drag and weight reduced the maximum speed to 127 mph, and the endurance to only six hours.

The Regia Aeronautica ordered 72 Ca.101 and 34 Ca.102.
Though the Ca.102 was more advanced, only the Ca.101 served in the Second Italo-Abyssinian War. It was vulnerable to small arms fire, the aircraft proved generally effective. Several were also used as airliners, flying from Italy to Africa.

In 1939, the Regia Aeronautica retired their Ca.101's. The Ca.102's were apparently retired before that, possibly because the twin-engine layout gave less overall reliability.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on May 06, 2020, 06:28:35 PM
Caproni Ca.113

The Caproni Ca.113 was an advanced training biplane produced in Italy and Bulgaria in the early 1930s.

It was a development of the Ca.100, it was a more powerful and robust aircraft capable of aerobatics. It was a conventional design with two cockpits in tandem, single-bay staggered wings of equal span, and mainwheels covered by large spats.It was powered by Piaggio Stella P.VII C.35, of 370 hp which gave the aircraft a max speed of 155 mph.

The Ca.113's abilities were demonstrated by winning the aerobatic trophy at the 1931 Cleveland Air Races, and its use in setting a number of aerial records, including a world altitude record of 14,433 m (47,352 ft) set by Renato Donati on 11 April 1934.
Other records included a women's world altitude record of 12,010 m (39,400 ft) set by Contessa Carina Negrone in 1935. Also world endurance records for inverted flight set by Tito Falconi at the US 1933 National Air Races, who flew inverted from Los Angeles to San Diego and after the race meet, and made an inverted flight from St. Louis to Chicago.

The Ca.113 was also produced by the subsidiary that Caproni established in Kazanlak, Bulgaria,where it was known as the Chuchuliga ("Skylark") and was produced in a number of versions designated KB-2, KB-3, KB-4 and KB-5 in 1938-1939, some of which were armed. 107 of these aircraft were produced, most going to the Bulgarian Royal Air Force, where they saw service until 1944.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on May 07, 2020, 12:31:37 PM
Caproni Ca.114

The Caproni Ca.114 was a fighter biplane produced in Italy in the early 1930s.

Caproni designed the Ca.114 in 1933 to compete against other designs to provide the Regia Aeronautica, with a new single-seat fighter. Its airframe was based on the Caproni Ca.113 trainer, it was a single-bay biplane with staggered wings of equal span. The fuselage was made of steel tubing covered by detachable metal panels on the forward part of the aircraft, and fabric on the rear, the two-spar wooden wings were also fabric-covered. The Bristol Mercury IV radial engine was geared, supercharged, rated at 530 hp, and drove an adjustable-pitch three-bladed propeller. Armament consisted of two fixed forward-firing 7.7-millimeter machine guns.

After official flight trials, the Regia Aeronautica rejected the Ca.114 in favour of the Fiat CR.32. But, Caproni found a buyer in the Peruvian Aviation Corps, which ordered 12 examples in April 1934. These aircraft were delivered in batches, the first in late November 1934, and the second in January 1935.
The heavy exhaust collector ring was removed and replaced by individual exhaust stacks, which improved the aircraft max speed.After the war the Ca.114s were withdrawn from the front line and four aircraft employed in training duties until late 1944 when they were grounded and, shortly after, scrapped. Around 36 aircraft had been built in total.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on May 07, 2020, 10:42:15 PM
Caproni Ca.164

The Caproni Ca.164 was a training biplane produced in Italy shortly prior to World War II. The prototype was designated the Ca.163, built by Caproni Taliedo and first flown on 17 November 1938.

It was intended as a follow-on to the Ca.100 and shared that aircraft's layout with a slightly smaller upper wing.The prototype was designated the Ca.163, first flew on 17 November 1938.
Flight tests revealed poor handling characteristics, which made it completely unsuitable for its intended role. Despite this, the Regia Aeronautica acquired some 280 examples of the Ca.164 to use in liaison roles within bomber units. Some of these were pressed into use for tactical reconnaissance during the Croatian campaign. The Armée de l'Air also purchased 100 aircraft.

No examples of the Ca.164 survive, but the prototype Ca.163 is on display at the Gianni Caproni Museum of Aeronautics, Trento Airport, Italy.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on May 08, 2020, 06:55:23 PM
Caproni A.P.1

The Caproni Bergamaschi AP.1 was an Italian monoplane attack aircraft.

It was developed from the Ca.301, a single-seat fighter version of a similar design that was not put into production, the AP.1 was a two-seater. It was fitted with a more powerful Alfa Romeo Radial 126 RC.34, 780 hp engine, which gave a max speed of around 215 mph.
It was designed to serve both as a fighter and an attack aircraft, and was a low-wing monoplane with a fixed landing gear of mixed construction, having trouser-covered legs.

The AP.1 prototype first flew on 27 April 1934. An initial batch of 12 aircraft was delivered within 1936. In the same year, the Regia Aeronautica ordered a second series with improvements including a more powerful Alfa Romeo engine and more aerodynamic landing gear. In service, the large landing gear trousers were often removed for ease of maintenance.
It took part in the Spanish Civil War, but its unsatisfactory performance led to its quick replacement.Four examples were acquired by El Salvador, and another seven were sold to Paraguay.
Approx 60 aircraft were completed including 3 prototypes.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on May 09, 2020, 02:35:12 AM
Caproni Ca.308 Borea

The Caproni Ca.308 Borea ("North Wind") was a small airliner built in the mid-1930s.

The Ca.308 was a streamlined, low-wing cantilevered monoplane design of conventional configuration, with a fixed undercarriage fitted with spats.
The prototype, designated Ca.306, was shown at the Milan Exhibition of 1935.The design of the Ca.308 subsequently served as the basis for a large family of military aircraft, beginning with the Caproni Ca.309.

The Italian airline Ala Littoria ordered five examples, and the Italian government ordered two aircraft for general-purpose use by its colonial administration.All these aircraft received the Ca.308 designation, and were powered by two de Havilland Gipsy Six six-cylinder inline engines of 200 hp each.
Max speed was around 205 mph with a normal cruise of around 155 mph.Eight aircraft including the prototype were completed, before production changed to the Ca.309
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on May 09, 2020, 12:33:26 PM
Caproni Ca.309

The Caproni Ca.309 Ghibli was an Italian aircraft used in World War II.
The aircraft was based on the Ca.308 Borea transport. It was intended to replace the obsolete IMAM Ro.1 biplane, and to serve as a reconn and ground-attack aircraft.

The Ca.309 was a low-wing cantilever monoplane with a crew of three, it was powered by two 390 hp  Alfa Romeo 115-II (or 115-I) 6-cylinder inverted air-cooled in-line piston engines.Max speed was around 160 mph with a cruise of 130 mph. It was armed with 3 × 7.7 mm (.303 in) Breda SAFAT machine guns, and could carry a small bomb load of 300kg.

It`s first flight was in 1937, it was also produced in Bulgaria, 24 of which were built, known as the Kaproni-Bulgarski KB 6/KB 309 Papagal.
The Ca. 309 served in Libya during the first part of World War II with the Auto-Saharan Company, with good operational results.

After the loss of the African colonies the surviving planes were returned to Italy, where they were used as transports. Two Ghiblis were bought by the Paraguayan government for its Military Air Arm.
They were used as transports from 1939 to 1945 and in that year they were transferred to Líneas Aéreas de Transporte Nacional (LATN), the Paraguayan first airline which was run by the Military.They were in active service until the early 1950s and later sold to a private owner.

Approx 270 aircraft were completed including those built in Bulgaria.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on May 10, 2020, 07:31:39 PM
Caproni Vizzola F.5

The Caproni Vizzola F.5 was an Italian fighter aircraft from the late 1930`s.

The F.5 was developed in parallel with the Caproni Vizzola F.4, with which it shared a common airframe. Design began in late 1937, the aircraft had a welded steel-tube fuselage and wooden wings; the fuselage was covered with duralumin, and the wing had a stressed plywood skin.The F.5 had a two-row 14-cylinder 870 hp Fiat A.74 R.C. 38 radial engine.
Max speed was 320 mph, and the aircraft was armed with 2 × 12.7 mm (0.5 in) forward-firing Breda-SAFAT machine guns.

The F.5 prototype first flew on 19 February 1939 and the aircraft displayed very high manoeuverability during official testing, which prompted an order for both a second prototype and 12 preproduction models. The last preproduction aircraft was selected for use as a prototype in a renewed F.4 program, but the rest of the F.5 order was delivered to the Regia Aeronautica (Italian Royal Air Force).

The Regia Aeronautica assigned the 11 preproduction F.5 fighters to the 300° Squadriglia, 51° Stormo for operational use. By 1942, they were serving as night fighters.
The F.5 was offered to foreign customers, Aeroplani Caproni subsidiary in Peru acquired the license rights for local manufacture, but no F.5s were ever built in Peru.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on May 11, 2020, 12:51:00 AM
Stipa-Caproni

One of the oddest looking aircraft ever built, and slightly out of strict alphabetical order,the Stipa-Caproni, also generally called the Caproni Stipa, was an experimental Italian aircraft designed in 1932.

It featured a barrel-shaped fuselage with the engine and propeller completely enclosed by the fuselage, the entire fuselage was a single ducted fan. The Regia Aeronautica (Italian Royal Air Force) was not interested in pursuing development of the Stipa-Caproni, its design influenced the development of jet propulsion.

Designer Luigi Stipa's basic idea, which he called the "intubed propeller", was to mount the engine and propeller inside a fuselage that formed a tapered duct, or venturi tube, and compressed the propeller's airflow and engine exhaust before it exited the duct at the trailing edge of the aircraft.This is a similar principle as used in turbofan engines, but used a piston engine to drive the compressor/propeller rather than a jet engine.

Stipa spent years studying the idea whilst working in the Engineering Division of the Italian Air Ministry. He determined that the venturi tube's inner surface needed to be shaped like an airfoil in order to achieve the greatest efficiency. He also determined the optimum shape of the propeller, the most efficient distance between the leading edge of the tube and the propeller, and the best rate of revolution of the propeller. He petitioned the Italian Fascist government to produce a prototype aircraft, seeking to showcase Italian technological achievement in aviation,they contracted the Caproni company to construct the aircraft in 1932.

The fuselage was a short barrel-like tube, open at both ends to form the tapered duct, with twin open cockpits in tandem mounted in a bulge on top. The wings were elliptical and passed through the duct and the engine nacelle inside it. The propeller was mounted inside the fuselage tube, flush with the leading edge of the fuselage, and the 120-horsepower de Havilland Gipsy III engine that powered it was mounted within the duct behind it at the midpoint of the fuselage. The aircraft had low, fixed, spatted main landing gear and a tailwheel.

Testing showed that the design did increase the engine's efficiency as Stipa had calculated, and additional lift provided by the shape of the interior of the duct itself allowed a very low landing speed of only 42 mph and assisted the Stipa-Caproni in achieving a higher rate of climb than other aircraft with similar power and wing loading. The placement of the rudder and elevators in the exhaust from the propeller wash at the trailing edge of the tube gave the aircraft handling characteristics that made it very stable in flight, although they later were enlarged to further improve the plane's handling.
As the aircraft did not perform noticeably better than conventional designs, the Regia Aeronautica decided to cancel further development. No further prototypes were built.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c_FH7wsugIg (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c_FH7wsugIg)
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on May 11, 2020, 07:11:02 PM
Caproni Ca.316

The Caproni Ca.316 was a reconnaissance seaplane produced in Italy during World War II, it was intended for catapult operations from Italian Navy ships.
It was one of the large family of Caproni designs derived from the Ca.306 airliner prototype of 1935, and more directly a modification of the Ca.310 Idro seaplane.

The aircraft was powered by two 616 hp Piaggio P.VII radial engines, which gave a max speed of 205 mph, it had a crew of 3 and was armed with a 7.7 mm (.303 in) Breda-SAFAT machine gun,and could carry a bomb load of 400kg.

It`s first flight was 14th Aug 1940,the basic Ca.310 design was modified with the attachment of large pontoons carried underneath the engine nacelles on streamlined pylons, and a revised nose with extensive glazing on the ventral surface.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on May 12, 2020, 08:54:04 AM
Caproni Ca.331

The Caproni Ca.331 Raffica ("Gust of Wind" or "Fire Burst") was an Italian aircraft from the early 1940s as a tactical reconnaissance aircraft/light bomber.

The Ca.331 O.A. prototype, was a twin-engine low-wing monoplane with an unstepped cockpit and glazed nose.It had duralumin stressed skin on both its fuselage and wings, and its wings were of an inverted gull-wing configuration. It had two Isotta Fraschini Delta RC.40 engines rated at 770 hp each. The aircraft had a three-man crew of pilot, observer/gunner, and radioman/gunner, it was armed with four 12.7-millimeter (0.5-inch) Breda-SAFAT machine guns—two in fixed mounts in the wing roots firing forward, one in a dorsal turret, and one in a ventral mount. The Ca.331 O.A. also had a bomb bay capable of carrying up to 1,000 kilograms (2,205 pounds) of bombs and four external bomb racks under its wings.

The Ca.331 O.A. prototype first flew on 31 August 1940,but its original Piaggio propellers proved unsuitable, their replacement with Alfa Romeo-built propellers in 1941 resulted in the aircraft having greatly improved performance. In 1941 Caproni delivered the prototype to the Regia Aeronautica , which began official tests with good results. However, the Regia Aeronautica handed the aircraft back without a production order. The Luftwaffe then requested control of the aircraft for trials in Germany. Although the Luftwaffe was impressed with the aircraft, again no orders were received.

By 1942, Italy perceived a greater need for air defense capabilities.In May 1942 the Italian Air Ministry ordered the second Ca.331 prototype, originally planned as a second Ca.331 O.A., to be completed as the first prototype of a night fighter version. The night fighter prototype was designated Ca.331 C.N., it also was known as the Ca.331B.

The Ca.331 C.N.,first flew in the summer of 1942, differed from the Ca.331 O.A. in having a stepped cockpit and less nose glazing. Its armament was installed in the spring of 1943 and consisted of four fixed forward-firing 20-millimeter Mauser MG 151 cannon and four 12.7-millimeter (0.5-inch) Breda-SAFAT machine guns—two forward-firing and fixed, one in a dorsal turret, and one in a ventral mount. Its original 800-hp 12-cylinder air-cooled Isotta Fraschini Delta IV engines were replaced by the spring of 1943 with improved 850-hp versions of the Delta IV. Like the Ca.331 O.A. prototype, it was at the Caproni airfield at when the Italian armistice took effect on 8 September 1943, and it suffered the same fate: The Germans seized it there, disassembled it and shipped it to Germany.
A second Ca.331 C.N. prototype was built, differing from the first in having an armament of two 20-millimeter Ikaria cannon and four 12.7-millimeter Breda-SAFAT machine guns, all mounted in the nose. It was still being assembled when Italy surrendered to the Allies on 8 September 1943, it was also seized by the Germans.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on May 12, 2020, 08:47:50 PM
Caproni Campini N.1

The Caproni Campini N.1, also known as the C.C.2, was an experimental jet aircraft built in the 1930s. The N.1 first flew in 1940 and was briefly regarded as the first successful jet-powered aircraft in history, before news emerged of the German Heinkel He 178's first flight a year earlier.

The N.1 was powered by a motorjet, a type of jet engine in which the compressor is driven by a conventional reciprocating engine.It was an experimental aircraft, designed to be a technology demonstrator, proving the practicality of jet propulsion. On 27 August 1940, the maiden flight of the N.1 occurred at Caproni facility in Taliedo, near Milan.
Flight tests with the first prototype led to a maximum speed of approx 320 mph being achieved. On 30 November 1941, the second prototype was flown from Milan's Linate Airport to Rome's Guidonia Airport, in a highly publicised event that included a fly-past over Rome and a reception with Italian Prime Minister Benito Mussolini. Testing of the N.1 continued into 1943, by which point work on the project was disrupted by the Allied invasion of Italy.

The N.1 achieved mixed results, while it was commended as a milestone in aviation, the performance of the aircraft was underwelming, lower than some existing conventional aircraft of the era, while the motorjet engine was incapable of producing sufficient thrust to deliver viable performance levels to be used in a military combat aircraft.
The surviving prototype is now on display at the Italian Air Force Museum at Vigna di Valle, near Rome.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on May 13, 2020, 08:54:42 PM
Caproni Vizzola F.6

The Caproni Vizzola F.6 was a World War II-era Italian fighter aircraft.

It was a single-seat, low-wing cantilever monoplane with retractable landing gear. Two prototypes were built, one designated F.6M and the other as F.6Z.

The F.6 design was the result of a project to adapt the airframe of the Italian Caproni Vizzola F.5 fighter with the German Daimler-Benz DB 605A liquid-cooled inverted V-12 engine. To accomplish this, the Caproni retained the F.5 fuselage but designed metal wings to replace the wooden wings used in the F.5. The new aircraft was designated F.6M, with "F" standing for Fabrizi, the designer of the F.5, and "M" for Metallico. It was designed to carry twice the offensive armament of the F.5, with four 12.7-millimeter (0.50-inch) Breda-SAFAT machine guns; the prototype F.6M flew with two of these mounted in the fuselage and provision for two more in the wings.
The F.6M prototype first flew in September 1941, using a large radiator mounted under he nose, just behind the propeller, but flight tests showed that this location produced significant drag, and the prototype was reworked to mount the radiator on the belly.

After Caproni began to design the F.6M, it began work on a second F.6 prototype, this time designed to use the Isotta-Fraschini Zeta R.C.25/60 24-cylinder X-type engine and designated the F.6Z, with "Z" standing for Zeta. The aircraft was to carry three 12.7-millimeter (0.50-inch) Breda-SAFAT machine guns, one in the fuselage and two in the wings. Problems with engine development greatly delayed the F.6Z, but it finally flew in August 1943,despite the engine not producing the power expected. The project was halted by the Allies invasion in Sept 1943
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on May 14, 2020, 06:43:36 PM
Caproni Ca.193

The Caproni Ca.193 was an Italian liaison and air-taxi aircraft.

The design work started in 1945 and only the prototype was built. It was the last aircraft the Caproni company designed and built in Milan.
The aircraft was of all-metal construction, with cantilever mid-wings complete with detachable tips. The leading edges were swept-back, and had flaps inboard of the ailerons. The fuselage was a monocoque structure, with a hinged nose to allow loading of a stretcher or other loads. Seating was for five passengers,and a single pilot or two pilots and three passengers. The tailplane had twin fins and the tricycle landing gear was retractable. The two Walter Minor 6-III 6-cylinder in-line piston engines,of 160 hp each were mounted towards the rear of the wing, driving 2-bladed propellers.

The first flight of the prototype, I-POLO, was flown at Linate Airport, Milan, on 13 May 1949. The aircraft was then briefly tested by the military in Rome, but was returned to the manufacturer with no orders forthcoming. Several variants were then considered, including the use of turboprop engines, a radar-equipped naval patrol version,but none was implemented.
The aircraft was purchased by the Air Force as MM56701 in March 1950, and in July 1952 it was sold for civilian use, it was withdrawn from use in 1960. It is now on display, after refurbishment in 1991, at the Gianni Caproni Museum of Aeronautics in Trento, Italy.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on May 15, 2020, 01:48:49 PM
Caproni Trento F-5

The Caproni Trento F.5 was a small two-seat trainer designed by Stelio Frati and built by Aeroplane Caproni Trento.

By the 1950s the Caproni company had collapsed, one of the group members to continue working was Aeroplane Caproni Trento, based at Gardola in Trento. It was originally involved with aircraft maintenance and support, but the company decided to design and build a small jet trainer in 1951.
The F.5 aircraft was designed by Stelio Frati and was a low-wing all-wood monoplane with retractable tricycle landing gear. The engine was a small Turbomeca Palas turbojet located in the fuselage. It had two inlet ducts, one either side of the fuselage and the exhaust was below the rear fuselage. It had an enclosed cabin with tandem seating for an instructor and student and was fitted with a jettisonable canopy.

The small (331 lbf) thrust turbojet was only able to achieve a max speed of 225 mph.The F.5 made its maiden flight on 20 May 1952. It was the first jet aircraft developed in postwar Italy, and although it was evaluated by the Italian Air Force it gained little interest, and was not ordered into production.The prototype, registered I-FACT, is on display at the Museo dell'Aeronautica Gianni Caproni in Trento.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on May 16, 2020, 03:41:51 PM
Caproni Vizzola Ventura

The Caproni Vizzola C22 Ventura was a light jet-powered aircraft developed for use as a military trainer.
It was of conventional sailplane configuration and had a family resemblance to the Caproni gliders, although the Ventura had an mostly metal aircraft.It had a side by side cockpit under a bubble canopy; weapons hardpoints were provided under each of the high-mounted wings and the aircraft featured a retractable, tricycle undercarriage.

The aircraft made it`s first flight 21st July 1980, and proved to be stable and fairly agile, but was tricky to land due to it`s short undercarriage clearance, although this was easily adjusted.
It was powered by two Microturbo TRS 18-046 turbojets, of just 220 lbf thrust each, but a max speed of 295 mph, with a cruise of 215 mph.
In 1981, Agusta acquired 50% of the C22 programme and proposed a new version, the C22R, a reconnaissance aircraft also capable of Forward Air Control and ELINT operations. The basic C22J trainer was exhibited at the Farnborough Air Show in 1980 and September 1982, but failed to attract orders, and the proposed C22R was not built.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on May 16, 2020, 03:59:31 PM
CNA PM.1

The CNA PM.1 was a single-engine light sport and training aircraft designed and built in Italy at the start of WW II.

The PM.1 was designed by students at the Instituto di Construzioni Aeronautische del Regio Politecnico di Milano in a 1938 competition for a modern, two-seat light private training and sports aircraft. It`s name came from Polytechnic Milano. The prototype was built by CNA,[and made it`s first flight on 25 October 1939.

The PM.1 was a cantilever high-wing monoplane. Its wing was straight-tapered, with rounded tips and long span ailerons, built of wood with a plywood skin.The fin and rudder were rounded and pointed; the rudder featured a trim tab.The fuselage was also wooden and plywood-covered, with flat-sides and car-type doors giving access to the side-by-side seats in the cabin which was placed under the leading edge of the wing.It had a conventional undercarriage with mainwheels on centrally mounted, faired V-form half axles, and a tailskid.

Power came from a 60 hp CNA D.4 flat four engine driving a 2-blade propeller. Max speed was 112 mph with a cruise speed of 90 mph. An order for 10 aircraft was placed in August 1942, but the partially completed aircraft were destroyed in an Allied bombing raid on Rome in July 1943.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on May 17, 2020, 07:26:11 PM
Fabbrica Aeroplani Ing. O. Pomilio

Pomilio FVL-8

The Pomilio FVL-8 was a biplane fighter aircraft built by Fabbrica Aeroplani Ing. O. Pomilio for the Engineering Division of the Aviation Section, U.S. Signal Corps.
It was built from of a wood framework, and covered in plywood. The wings were separated from the fuselage by struts. It was powered by a 290hp Liberty 8 engine, and armed with two machine guns. Six prototypes were constructed, the first had its first flight in February 1919, but no orders for production aircraft were forthcoming.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on May 17, 2020, 07:37:23 PM
Fabbrica Aeroplani Ing. O. Pomilio Gamma

FAIP designed and manufactured the Gamma, which was a wooden, single-seat, single-bay biplane with wings of unequal span, the upper wing being of greater span than the lower.
It was powered by a 200-hp SPA 6A water-cooled engine driving a two-bladed propeller, which gave a max speed of around 140 mph.

The Gamma prototype first flew early in 1918. An official commission observed a demonstration, but concluded that although it was fast and had good maneuverability, its rate of climb was insufficient to merit a production order. FAIP responded with the Gamma IF, fitted with a more powerful Isotta Fraschini V6 engine rated at 250 hp.
After another demonstration of the Gamma IF in 1918, they could not agree on whether it merited a production order. During the final weeks of World War I, the commission finally decided to order a small number of Gamma IF fighters, although the Gamma IF never entered active service.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on May 18, 2020, 06:25:34 PM
Fabbrica Aeroplani Ing. O. Savoia-Pomilio SP.3

The Savoia-Pomilio SP.3 was a reconnaissance and bomber aircraft built during the First World War.

It was a development of the family of designs that had started with the SP.1. All of these took their basic configuration from the Farman MF.11: a biplane with twin tails and a fuselage nacelle that accommodated the three man crew and a pusher-mounted engine. But, since the preceding SP.2 had been found to be very slow and vulnerable in front-line service, the SP.3 was designed for higher performance.
The updated design had a reduced wingspan, lower weight, and other aerodynamic improvements. Some were also equipped with an uprated Fiat A.12 engine, with its power output increased from 250 hp to 300 hp.

The SP.3 flew in 1917 and was soon in production with SIA and Pomilio, who together built around 350. By summer 1917, one quarter of all Italian front-line aviation units were equipped with Savoia-Pomilio types.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on May 19, 2020, 03:50:33 PM
Fiat AN.1

The Fiat AN.1 was an Italian two-seat biplane from 1930, and a demonstrator of Fiat's first aircraft diesel engine.

The AN.1 was a two-seat reconnaissance aircraft built to explore the suitability of diesel engines in tasks requiring long endurance flying. In the early 1930s, diesel engines seemed to offer several advantages in such situations, particularly better reliability because of greater mechanical simplicity and lower fuel consumption, because of greater thermodynamic efficiency. Additionally, heavy oil fuel posed no fire risk and was at the time a fifth of the price of petrol.

The AN.1 used a Fiat-built engine of the same name, which was based on the Fiat A.12 petrol engine, but with a new compression ignition upper section. It was a conventional biplane design,and it first flew in 1930. Endurance was around 3hrs 30 mins and it had a max speed of 125mph.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on May 19, 2020, 03:57:46 PM
Fiat APR.2

The FIAT APR.2 was a prototype airliner built in 1935. It was a sleek, low-wing cantilever monoplane of conventional configuration with tailwheel undercarriage, the main units of which retracted into the engine nacelles, one on each wing.
The cabin could carry 12 passengers, and at the time of its introduction on Ala Littoria's Milan-Turin-Paris route, it was believed to be the fastest airliner in regular service in the world.
Despite this, only one example was built, although the design served as a starting point for the Fiat BR.20 bomber.

The aircraft had a crew of two and was powered by a pair of 700hp  Fiat A.59 engines, which gave a max speed of 240 mph and a cruise of 205 mph.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on May 20, 2020, 06:52:57 PM
Fiat AS.1

The Fiat AS.1 was a light touring monoplane aircraft developed in the late 1920s. It was a basic and conventional design: a parasol wing with tailskid undercarriage and seating for two in tandem open cockpits. The type proved extremely popular, production run would eventually extend to over 500 machines, with roughly half of these purchased by the Regia Aeronautica as trainers and liaison aircraft.

The aircraft was built of wood throughout, covered by plywood, fabric, and (around the nose) metal. A later development, designated TR.1 featured a metal structure and a shorter span wing.
The first flight was in 1928; the aircraft was powered by a 90 hp Fiat A.50 engine, but later versions had the more powerful 105 hp Fiat A.50 S.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on May 20, 2020, 07:14:55 PM
Fiat G.2

The Fiat G.2 was an Italian three-engine six-passenger monoplane transport aircraft designed by Giuseppe Gabrielli.

The aircraft was an important step for the Fiat company as their first low-wing cantilever monoplane. The structure was all-metal, with fabric-covered control surfaces. It had a wide-track tailwheel undercarriage was fixed, and its mainwheels were covered by spats. The tailwheel was free-pivoting.

The aircraft was powered by three 135 hp Fiat A.60 inline piston engines, one mounted on the fuselage nose, and two in wing-mounted nacelles. Variants were also produced with other engine installations. The enclosed cabin had space for six passengers.

The prototype first flew in 1932, max speed was 145 mph with a cruise of 115 mph, the G.2 represented a promising design, however it failed to sell and operated only a limited service with the ALI airline between Turin and Milan. The aircraft was also operated in Brazil.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on May 21, 2020, 06:25:06 PM
Fiat G.5

The Fiat G.5 was an Italian two-seat aerobatic tourer / trainer.

The aircraft first flew in 1933, powered by a 135 hp Fiat A.70 radial piston engine.It was designed originally as a two-seat light aerobatic trainer, it was a low-wing cantilever monoplane with fixed tailwheel landing gear and tandem open cockpits for the instructor and pupil.

It was built in small numbers and was followed by a prototype G.5/2 with an inverted inline 140 hp Fiat A.60. A small number were also built of the G.5bis which was fitted with a higher output 200 hp Fiat A.70 engine. This gave a max speed of 165 mph, and a cruise of 130 mph.
Some aircraft were later modified to single-seat configuration.One example of the G.5bis, registered I-BFFI, survived in civil ownership and operation until 1955 and is now preserved in a museum.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on May 21, 2020, 11:53:44 PM
Fiat G.8

The Fiat G.8 was a military utility aircraft from the mid-1930s.

The design and production took place at the CMASA works in Pisa which became part of Fiat in 1930, the type is sometimes referred to as the CMASA G.8 or Fiat-CMASA G.8.
It was a conventional biplane design with staggered wings of unequal span braced by struts,The pilot and a single passenger (or instructor) sat in tandem open cockpits, and the aircraft was fitted with fixed tailskid undercarriage with divided main units.

The powerplant was a 135 hp Fiat A.54 engine, which was good for a max speed of 132 mph, with a cruise of 110 mph. The aircraft first flew 24th Feb 1934, 60 aircraft were purchased by the Regia Aeronautica and used for liaison and training duties.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on May 22, 2020, 08:37:43 PM
Fiat G.12

The Fiat G.12 was an Italian transport aircraft of World War II.

The G.12 was an all-metal low-wing transport aircraft. It had three 770 hp Fiat A.74 R.C.42 radial engines, one mounted on the nose and the other two in wing-mounted nacelles.
It first flew 15th October 1940, 104 were built and the last aircraft retired from service in 1956.
The engines drove three-blade feathering metal propellers. The mainwheels of its landing gear retracted into the nacelles; the tailwheel was fixed.Later versions had Alfa Romeo 128 radial engines.

The flight deck and cabin were fully enclosed. Access was via a door to the rear of the wing.The aircraft had a crew of four, and could carry 14 troops or 24 passengers,depending on the variant.
The G.12 was designed as a civil aircraft, but served mainly in military roles during the war, with Italy, Germany and Hungary. Only a limited number were built, some as late as 1944, after the Italian armistice. 104 were built in total.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on May 22, 2020, 08:53:47 PM
Fiat G.18

The Fiat G.18 was an Italian airliner developed in the mid-1930s.

It`s first flight was 18th March 1935, but the feedback received was that the type was underpowered, the first three aircraft had 700 hp Fiat A.59 radial engines.
It was a low-wing monoplane with the engines mounted on the wings, similar in appearance to the Douglas DC-2. The main units of the tailwheel undercarriage retracted into the engine nacelles, leaving their wheels partially exposed. The cabin seated 18 passengers.

Three G.18s were put into service with Fiat's own airline, ALI, early in 1936. Fiat came up with a revised version, the G.18V which had more powerful engines 1000hp FIAT A.80`s , and a redesigned fin . Six of the improved versions were delivered to ALI, which operated them on its European routes until the outbreak of war.
In June 1940, ALI was under control of the Regia Aeronautica, and the G.18s were put to use as transports. Just nine aircraft were completed, and none survived the war.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on May 23, 2020, 02:16:49 PM
Fiat G.49

The Fiat G.49 was a two-seat basic trainer designed by Giuseppe Gabrielli .

It was to be a replacement for the US North American T-6 advanced trainer and was first flown in September 1952. The aircraft was an all-metal low-wing monoplane with retractable tailwheel landing gear. It had an enclosed cockpit with a raised canopy for a pupil and instructor in tandem. Two variants were built with different engine types ; the G.49-1 with a 550 hp Alvis Leonides radial engine and the G.49-2 with a 600 hp Pratt & Whitney R-1340-S3H1 Wasp radial engine.

The aircraft was evaluated by the Italian Air Force, but no orders were placed despite the good overall performance.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on May 23, 2020, 02:30:48 PM
Fiat G.80 / G.82


The Fiat G.80 was a military jet trainer developed in the 1950s.

It was italy`s first true jet-powered aircraft, a conventional low-wing monoplane with retractable tricycle undercarriage and engine air intakes on the fuselage sides.Pilot and instructor sat in tandem under a long bubble canopy.The aircraft made it`s first flight 9th December 1951.

Two G.80 prototypes were followed by three preproduction machines, but the Aeronautica Militare found it unsuitable for their requirements and did not purchase it in quantity.
Fiat developed an improved version, dubbed the G.82, for entry in a NATO competition to select a standard jet trainer.

The G.82 featured a longer fuselage, a Rolls-Royce Nene engine in place of the G.80's de Havilland Goblin, and wingtip tanks. Five aircraft were built, but the competition was cancelled,the G.82 was not selected by NATO or the Aeronautica Militare, the development programme was ended.
The G.82s were used for a few years by the Aeronautica Militare's training school at Amendola before being handed over to the ("Department of Experimental Flight") in 1957.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on May 24, 2020, 05:08:28 PM
Fiat G.212

The Fiat G.212 was a tri-engine airliner of the 1940s.

It was a scaled up development of Fiat's earlier G.12 transport, and was used in small numbers in commercial service and by the Italian Air Force.
The first prototype G.212, the G.212CA military transport, flew on 19 January 1947. It was a low-wing all-metal monoplane with a retractable tailwheel undercarriage, the G.212 was longer, and had a larger wing and a wider fuselage, than the G.12. It was powered by three 860 hp Alfa Romeo 128 radial engines.

It was followed by two civil version, the G.212CP airliner, with accommodation for 34 passengers, and the G.212TP freighter, both used the more powerful 1065 hp Pratt & Whitney R-1830 Twin Wasp engines.Max speed was 240 mph with a cruise of 190 mph, the aircraft had two pilots and a radio operator.

The G.212CP entered service in 1947 with Avio Linee Italiane which ordered six, which operated on routes within Europe.
New G.212s were also bought by the Egyptian airline SAIDE, which received three aircraft in 1948, and the French airline Cie Air Transport. Four of the Avio Linee Italiane aircraft were sold to Ali Flotte Riunite, one of which was sold again to the Kuwaiti airline Arabian Desert Airlines. In total 45 machines were completed.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on May 25, 2020, 05:37:17 PM
Fiat B.R. Series.

The Fiat B.R. 1/4 was a light bomber series, desgined just after WWI.

The B.R was a development of the SIA 9 reconnaissance aircraft, but the aircraft had substantial strengthening. The layout was identical to its predecessor: a two-bay biplane with tandem, open cockpits for pilot and observer, and tailskid undercarriage. Shortly after entering service with the Regia Aeronautica, an improved version using the Warren truss-style bracing that would become a hallmark of Fiat BR designs over the next decade, was produced.

At its peak, the BR equipped 15 light bomber squadrons of the Regia Aeronautica. Two examples were also exported to Sweden, and one to Hungary.
In 1922, a specially modified BR designated the R.700 was used to set the absolute world airspeed record at 336 km/h (210 mph).
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on May 25, 2020, 05:50:32 PM
Fiat C.29

The Fiat C.29 was a racing seaplane designed by Celestino Rosatelli and built in the late-1920s by Fiat Aviazione for the 1929 Schneider Trophy air race.

It first flew in early June 1929, the twin-float monoplane racer was reported to be laterally unstable. Unusually, the wing structure featured a wooden spar but was skinned with aluminium alloy sheeting. The aircraft used the 1010 hp Fiat AS.5 V-12 engine, specifically designed for this aircraft to minimise frontal area.

On 12 June 1929, Test Pilot Francesco Agello hit the wash of a boat whilst landing causing the first prototype, works number 129, to bounce in the air, stall and dive vertically into the water. Agello was rescued unharmed after being thrown out of the cockpit. The second prototype, 130, was quickly completed, this aircraft having larger tail surfaces to correct the stability problems.

On 12 August 1929, whilst demonstrating the aircraft, the second prototype was written off after sinking back onto the water on its third attempt at a takeoff, Agello was uninjured, but the aircraft was destroyed, the engine sank to the bottom of Lake Garda.
Italo Balbo ordered a third aircraft to be built, 130bis, and sent directly to England without being test-flown for the approaching Schneider Trophy competition. The C.29 did appear at RAF Calshot but did not fly during the competition, the Italian team placing second, fourth and sixth using Macchi M.52 and M.67 racers. The third and sole remaining C.29 is on display at the Italian Air Force Museum.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on May 26, 2020, 08:18:30 PM
Fiat CR.25

The Fiat CR.25 was a twin-engine reconnaissance-bomber fighter aircraft which served in small numbers for the Regia Aeronautica during World War II.

40 CR.25s were ordered (later reduced to ten, the two prototypes and other eight airplanes) after the failure of the Breda Ba.88 bomber. It was decided to use the CR.25 as a reconnaissance plane and escort fighter, with a total of nine aircraft (a prototype and the eight pre-production aircraft) for this role. Despite positive reports from the pilots, and a proposal by Fiat to resume production, no further aircraft were produced.

The aircraft first flew 22nd July 1937, it had a crew of 2 or 3 depending on the role.It was powered by two 841 hp Fiat A.74 R.C.38 14-cylinder air-cooled radial piston engines, which gave it a max speed of 280 mph. It was armed with 3 × 12.7 mm (0.500 in) Breda-SAFAT machine guns and could carry a small bomb load of up to 300kg.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on May 26, 2020, 08:35:23 PM
Fiat CR.30

The Fiat CR.30 was a 1930s Italian single-seat biplane fighter aircraft.

The Fiat CR.30 was a design by Celestino Rosatelli for a single-seat fighter. Four prototypes were built with the first flight occurring in March 1932. The CR.30 was a biplane with W-form struts and a fixed tailwheel landing gear.
The aircraft was powered by a 600 hp Fiat A.30 R.A. V-12 piston engine. The impressive performance led to orders from the Regia Aeronautica for 121 aircraft.

Two of the prototypes were converted into two-seaters designated CR.30B for use as trainers and liaison aircraft. A large number of single-seaters were converted into two-seaters as they were replaced with more modern types.The air force later ordered an additional 20 new-build CR.30Bs.The aircraft was also operated by other European air forces with the Hungarian Air Force being the largest foreign operator, using two CR.30s from 1936 and one single-seater and ten CR.30bs from 1938.

In total 176 were built in a production run that lasted from 1932 to 1935.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on May 27, 2020, 06:08:09 PM
Fiat R.2

The Fiat R.2 was a reconnaissance aircraft produced shortly after World War I, and it was the first aircraft to be marketed under the Fiat brand, (previously they had been marketed as by SIA).

It was a conventional two-bay biplane with equal-span, with unstaggered wings and fixed tailskid undercarriage. The pilot and observer sat in tandem open cockpits. The design was a derivative of the SIA 7 and SIA 9 flown during the war, but was developed and revised by Rosatelli to correct ongoing problems with those types. A total of 129 were produced for the Air Corps of the Regio Esercito.
The aircraft was powered by a 300 hp Fiat A.12bis engine, which gave a max speed of 108 mph. They were armed with between 1 and 3 machine guns
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on May 27, 2020, 06:23:26 PM
FIAT A.120

The FIAT A.120 also known as the Ansaldo A.120, FIAT (Fabbrica Italiana Automobili Torino - ) bought Ansaldo, was a reconnaissance aircraft developed in the 1920s.
It was a parasol-wing monoplane with fixed tailskid undercarriage, the crew of pilot and observer had tandem open cockpits. The design was based on a wing developed for the Ansaldo A.115 and the fuselage of the Dewoitine D.1 fighters that Ansaldo had built under licence.
The type was operated in modest quantities by the Italian Air Force, and was exported to the air forces of Austria and Lithuania.

The aircraft was powered by a 550 hp Fiat A.22 piston engine, which gave a max speed of 158 mph and a cruise of 125 mph. It was armed by 2 fixed, forward-firing 7.7. mm machine guns and a similar rear firing weapon for the observer.A total of 77 aircraft were built.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on May 28, 2020, 07:02:19 PM
Fiat RS.14

The Fiat RS.14 was a long-range maritime strategic reconnaissance floatplane.

It was a four/five crew all-metal low/mid-wing monoplane powered by two wing-mounted 840 hp Fiat A.74 R.C.38 engines. It had a conventional tail unit with a single fin and rudder. Its undercarriage consisted of two large floats on struts. It had a glazed nose for an observer or bomb aimer. The pilot and copilot sat side by side with a wireless operator's area behind them.

The first of two prototypes flew in May 1939.A prototype landplane version AS.14 was built and first flown on 11 August 1943. It was designed as a ground-attack aircraft and intended to be armed with a 37 mm (1.5 in) cannon and 12.7 mm (0.50 in) machine guns. It was not ordered and no others were built.

The RS.14 went into service with the Italian Air Force with a number of maritime strategic reconnaissance squadrons where they were used for convoy escort duties and anti-submarine patrols.  At the end of the Second World War the aircraft were used for liaison duties around the Mediterranean carrying up to four passengers. Including the two prototypes 186 aircraft were built.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on May 29, 2020, 07:54:52 PM
Fiat 7002

The Fiat Model 7002 was a 1960s general-purpose helicopter with a tip-jet driven rotor.

It had a very unusual-shaped fuselage made from alloy sheets to hold two crew and up to five passengers.The fuselage was mounted on a skid landing gear and it had a simple tailboom with a tail rotor.
The aircraft was powered by a Fiat 4700 Turbo-compressor of 530 hp.Max speed was 110 mph with a standard cruise of 85 mph.
The two-blade main rotor was mounted above the fuselage, with the rotor driven by compressed air propulsion nozzles at the blade-tips.The prototype helicopter first flew on 26 January 1961 but no production aircraft were built.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on May 30, 2020, 11:43:09 PM
Fratelli Nardi FN.305

The Fratelli Nardi FN.305 was an Italian fighter trainer and liaison monoplane produced by the Fratelli Nardi company.

The FN.305 was a low-wing monoplane of mixed construction. It had tailskid landing gear, with the main gear retracting inwards. It was powered by a nose-mounted 200 hp Fiat A.70S inline piston engine.The prototype was a tandem two-seater with an enclosed cockpit. It was intended to produce both single-seat and two-seat variants and the next prototype was a single-seat fighter trainer followed by a two-seat basic trainer prototype which both had open cockpits.

The FN.305 was designed as a trainer and liaison aircraft and the prototype first flew on 19 January 1935.It was re-engined with a 185 hp Alfa Romeo 115 engine as the FN.305A which then entered production by Piaggio as the Nardi works did not have enough capacity to build the aircraft.
The Italian Air Force had ordered 258 aircraft, mostly two-seat FN.305A fighter trainers and liaison aircraft. A few of the aircraft were completed as single-seat open-cockpit FN.305Cs and enclosed-cockpit FN.305Ds. In 1938 nine aircraft were sold to Chile and 31 to Romania. Romania then built 124 aircraft under licence by SET. The largest export order came from France but only 41 had been delivered when Italy declared war on France in June 1940. The final export customer was Hungary which ordered 50.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on May 31, 2020, 07:51:32 PM
Fratelli Nardi  FN.310

The Nardi FN.310 was a  four-seat touring monoplane similar but larger than the earlier Nardi FN.305.

It first flew in 1936 the FN.310 was a four-seat touring monoplane powered by a single 180 hp Fiat A.70S radial engine. It had two pairs of side-by-side seats.An ambulance variant had room for stretcher instead of the rear seats.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on May 31, 2020, 08:09:08 PM
Fratelli Nardi FN.316

The FN.316 was an advanced fighter trainer monoplane developed from the Nardi FN.305.

The prototype first flew in late 1941.The FN.316 was a low-wing monoplane powered by a nose-mounted 270 hp Isotta Frashchini Beta RC 10 1Z. The engine had major cooling problems and only an initial order for 50 aircraft was placed for the Italian Air Force. The production aircraft had modified tail units and the single-seater had an enclosed cockpit. Both single-seat (FN.316M) and two-seat (FN.316B) variants were produced.

The aircraft carried 1 or 2 x 7.7mm (0.303in) synchronised machine-guns, and a max speed of just over 200 mph.
The two-seat FN.316Bs entered service with Italian Air Force flying schools in January 1942, followed by the two-seat FN.316Ms in June 1943. After the armistice seven aircraft were flown by the German Luftwaffe in Northern Italy. Forty-nine aircraft were completed in the production run.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on June 01, 2020, 09:44:39 PM
Fratelli Nardi FN.333 Riviera

The Nardi FN.333 Riviera, later SIAI-Marchetti FN.333 Riviera, is a luxury touring amphibious aircraft designed and developed in the 1950s and produced in small numbers by Savoia-Marchetti.

The first prototype Riviera was a three-seat aircraft, and made its maiden flight on 4 December 1952, it was to be the only FN.333 powered by a 145 hp Continental fan-cooled engine.
With the second prototype a more powerful engine was used, as well as the addition of a fourth seat. The second prototype made its first flight on 8 December 1954. The Nardi Company lacked the resources to fully develop the Riviera, and as a result the third aircraft did not fly until 14 October 1956.

Power for this aircraft was provided by a 240 hp Continental O-470-H engine. This aircraft was designated the FN.333S and was to be the basis for series production. Lacking further resources, Nardi sold the manufacturing rights for the Riviera to the much larger SIAI-Marchetti in March 1959.

The first S.I.A.I.-Marchetti manufactured Riviera was completed in February 1962, and by January 1963 the company had delivered four of the aircraft to customers in the USA. The SIAI-Marchetti version had improved power provided by a 250 hp Continental IO-470-P engine, equipped with fuel injection, and manufactured for a pusher-style aircraft. In 1961 the Riviera became available in the United States, where it was initially sold through the North Star Company of Newark, New Jersey. ServAir Inc. of Detroit sold the Riviera in Detroit, Michigan, and received its first Riviera on 13 July 1962.

The Riviera is similar to the famous Republic Seabee of the 1940s. The major difference between the Riviera and the Seabee is the use of a high twin-boom tail arrangement on the Riviera while the Seabee uses a single conventional tail. The Riviera uses a tricycle landing gear, with the nose gear retracting into the nose and concealed behind two small nose gear doors. As a result, forward visibility is somewhat better in the Riviera than in the Seabee when taxiing or taking off on land.
Out of an original production run of just 26 aircraft over six years less only half a dozen are believed airworthy today.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on June 02, 2020, 07:16:11 PM
IRI T22B

The IRI T22B is an Italian helicopter that was designed and produced by Italian Rotors Industries of Aprilia, Lazio.

The T22B features a single main rotor and tail rotor,it has two-seats in side-by-side configuration enclosed cockpit with a windshield, skid landing gear and a four-cylinder, air-cooled, four stroke 160 hp Lycoming O-320-B2C aircraft engine. Max Speed is 121 mph and a cruise of 100 mph.

The aircraft fuselage is made from composites.The aircraft has a two-bladed rotor has a diameter of 7.6 m (24.9 ft). With full fuel of 70 litres (15 imp gal; 18 US gal), the payload for the crew, passenger and baggage is 244 kg (538 lb).
The company was founded in 2013 and went out of business in June 2016, ending production.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on June 03, 2020, 06:22:55 PM
IRI T250A

The IRI T250A is an helicopter that was designed and produced by Italian Rotors Industries of Aprilia, Lazio and introduced in 2015.
The T250A features a single main rotor and tail rotor,it has two-seats side-by-side in an enclosed cockpit with a windshield, skid landing gear and a 250 hp PBS TS 100 turboshaft engine made by PBS Velká Bíteš.

It has a max speed of 121 mph and a cruise of 109 mph.The aircraft fuselage is made from composites. Its two-bladed rotor has a diameter of 24.9 ft. With full fuel of 130 litres (29 imp gal; 34 US gal) the payload for the crew, passenger and baggage is 261 kg (575 lb).
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on June 05, 2020, 07:00:04 PM
IMAM Ro.5

The IMAM Ro.5 was a sport aircraft produced in the late 1920s.

It was a, parasol wing monoplane with fixed tailskid undercarriage and tandem open cockpits in tandem.The type first flew in 1929 and was popular with private owners and flying clubs, and was built in large numbers.
Some Ro.5s were purchased by the Regia Aeronautica for use as trainers and liaison aircraft. A later version, the Ro.5bis, enclosed the cockpits under a long canopy.
The aircraft was powered by a 85hp Walter NZ 85 7-cyl. air-cooled radial piston engine, which gave a max speed of 109 mph.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on June 05, 2020, 07:11:04 PM
IMAM Ro.30

The IMAM Ro.30 was a 1930s Italian observation biplane that was only built in small numbers.

The Ro.30 was developed in 1932 for the Regia Aeronautica, and made it`s first flight in the same year. It was an unequal-span biplane with a fixed tailwheel landing gear. It had an enclosed cockpit for the pilot located forward of the wing leading edge, an observer had a cabin between the wings, and the third crew member had an open cockpit behind the wings.
It was powered either a 530 hp Alfa Romeo Mercury or a 530 hp Piaggio Jupiter radial engine,which gave a max speed of around 140 mph.
The aircraft was armed with 3 x 7.7mm (0.303in) machine-guns.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on June 06, 2020, 07:28:10 PM
IMAM Ro.37

The IMAM Ro.37 Lince (Italian: "Lynx") was a two-seater reconnaissance biplane.

It made it`s first flight 6th Nov 1933, it was a two crew biplane of mixed construction, and a 560 hp Fiat A.30 R.A. V-12 engine. It reached 186 mph and perhaps even more with this engine, the same as that of the Fiat CR.32. The Ro.37 had a 7,000 m (22,966 ft) ceiling, 3,000 m (9,843 ft) climb in 11 minutes, over 1,200 km (750 mi) range, carrying three machine guns (two in the nose and one dorsal), twelve 15 kg (33 lb) bombs.

It was later fitted with the 600 hp Piaggio Stella P.IX R.C.40 radial engine which had better reliability and this was the main version produced.
The Ro. 37 served as standard equipment in observation units for many years. However, during WWII, and particularly on the African front, the aeroplane was used in other roles, including tactical support and fighter duty.The aircraft also served in the Spanish Civil War, with the first ten arriving in late 1936. Another 26 (possibly 58) went to this theatre and were used for many missions and tasks.
Some were in service up to 1943 and perhaps even later. They were very vulnerable, but in World War II Italy did not have sufficient resources to produce a better observation aircraft
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on June 07, 2020, 07:41:16 PM
IMAM Ro.41

The IMAM Ro.41 was a light biplane fighter aircraft, serving in the Regia Aeronautica in the 1930s-1940s, mainly as a trainer.

The first prototype flew on the 16th June 1934 , and was fitted with a Piaggio P.VII engine, and showed itself to be very agile, with excellent climb performance, and no noticeable vices.
A third prototype had a Piaggio P.VII C.45 with two-stage compressor, giving 390 hp at 4,000 m. This was the definitive version of this aircraft, and fifty aircraft,were ordered. This first series entered service in July 1935.

The Ro.41 was of mixed construction, the fuselage of chrome-molybdenum steel frame, covered in fabric. Duralumin covered the bottom and upper fuselage, and also the engine cowling. The wings were made of wood covered with fabric. There was a fixed undercarriage.Armament, when fitted, was two 7.7 mm Breda-SAFAT machine guns mounted inside the fuselage, with 850 rounds.

The Ro.41 found a role as a trainer aircraft, for which it was well-suited, and a series of 30 two-seat aircraft first flew in 1937. The Ro.41 replaced the Breda Ba.25, and soon another 264 single-seat and 66 two-seat models were ordered.
The aircraft was also proposed as light fighter. Twenty-eight were sent to Spain where, thanks to their high rate of climb, they acted as defence interceptors, though it appears that they did not score any victories.

The Ro.41 is almost unknown, compared to many other Italian aircraft, despite being one of the most numerous produced, in its 16-year career, total production reached 753 aircraft.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on June 08, 2020, 03:38:20 PM
Partenavia P.48 Astore

The P.48 Astore was a 1950s light aircraft built by Luigi Pascale and his brother before establishing Partenavia.

The Astore was a strut-braced high-wing cabin monoplane with a fixed tailwheel landing gear. It had two seats in tandem and was powered by a 65 hp Continental A65 engine.
The prototype and only Astore, registered I-NAPA, was built in a garage in Naples and first flew in 1952, it`s max speed was 115 mph with a cruise of 90 mph.
Just one aircraft was built.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on June 08, 2020, 03:57:46 PM
Partenavia P.52 Tigrotto

The Partenavia Tigrotto was a 1950s light aircraft built by Partenavia in Naples.

The Tigrotto was a low-wing cabin monoplane with a retractable tailwheel landing gear. It was a two sitter,side-by-side and was powered by an 85 hp Continental C85 engine.
The prototype and only Tigrotto, registered I-CARB, first flew in 1953.
The aircraft had a useful max speed of 146 mph and a cruise of around 125 mph.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on June 09, 2020, 05:05:58 PM
Partenavia P.53 Aeroscooter

The Partenavia Aeroscooter was a 1950s single-seat light aircraft fitted with a two-bladed rotor.

It first flew on 2nd April 1952,and was a low-wing monoplane powered by a 22 hp Ambrosini P-25 piston engine in the nose.Above the enclosed single-seat cockpit a pylon was to have been fitted with an autorotating, unpowered two-bladed rotor which was to reduce the stalling speed and the rate-of-descent if the engine failed.

Max speed was 93 mph, with a cruise of 75 mph, like their earlier aircraft the Aeroscooter was a one off.
The Aeroscooter survives and is on display at the Museo Storico Dell Aeronautico Militare Italiana.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on June 09, 2020, 05:15:55 PM
Partenavia Tornado

The Partenavia P.55 Tornado is a 1950s high-performance competition and touring monoplane.

The Tornado was a small mid-wing monoplane with a retractable tricycle landing gear. The aircraft was powered by a nose-mounted 150hp Lycoming O-320 piston engine.
This was enough to give the aircraft a max speed of 216 mph and a cruise of 188 mph.It made it`s first flight in 1955

The aircraft was commissioned to win the Tour of Sicily (it: Giro di Sicilia), and it won the race in 1956. Although the aircraft had won, it was too specialised to enter production and only one aircraft (registered I-REGJ) was built. I-REGJ was destroyed in a crash on 13 June 1958.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on June 10, 2020, 04:24:08 PM
Partenavia P.57 Fachiro

The Partenavia P.57 Fachiro is a four-seat, high-wing, touring monoplane, fitted with a fixed tricycle undercarriage.

The 150 hp Lycoming O-320 powered Fachiro I first flew on 7 November 1958, followed by the Fachiro II, on 3 January 1959. A later version, designated the II-f, introduced a swept fin and rudder.
The production Fachiro utilises mixed steel tube-and-fabric construction and is fitted with a 180 hp engine and is aimed at the aero club market and general aviation use.

Max speed was 150 mph with a cruise of 120 mph, in total 37 aircraft were built with a few still airworthy in Italy.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on June 11, 2020, 07:36:15 PM
Partenavia P.59 Jolly

The Partenavia Jolly was an Italian two-seat training monoplane designed by Partenavia to meet a requirement for the Aero Club d'Italia.
The prototype first flew on 2 February 1960 and was a high-wing monoplane with a nose-mounted 95 hp Continental engine. It had a fixed tailwheel landing gear and seated two side-by-side in an enclosed cockpit. The aircraft was later re-engined with a 100 hp Continental O-200 engine and the wing span was increased slightly.Max speed was 122 mph with a cruise of 104 mph.

The competition was won by the Aviamilano P.19 Scricciolo and just one Jolly was built.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on June 12, 2020, 08:24:51 PM
Partenavia Oscar Series

The Partenavia P.64B/P.66B Oscar is a two/four-seat, single-engined, high-wing monoplane.

The aircraft was developed as an all-metal version of the P.57 Fachiro, the prototype was designated the P.64 Fachiro III and first flew on 2 April 1965.
Improvements were made to the design, mainly strengthing the fuselage to fit a panoramic rear window, and now named P.64B Oscar B it first flew in 1967. Also known as the Oscar 180 powered by a 180 hp Lycoming O-360-A1A piston engine, a 200 hp version (with a Lycoming O-360-A1B engine) was known as the Oscar-200.
Twenty-one machines were delivered to South Africa and assembled locally by AFIC then marketed as the AFIC RSA 200 Falcon.

In January 1976 the company flew a new fully aerobatic version, the P.66C Charlie, and 96 were built, mainly for the Aero Club d'Italia.Over 300 aircraft were completed, in various sub types and with different engine fitments.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on June 13, 2020, 03:34:43 PM
Partenavia P.70 Alpha

The Partenavia P.70 Alpha was a 1970s two-seat light aerobatic trainer.

The Alpha was a low-wing monoplane with a fixed tricycle landing gear and powered by a 100 hp Rolls-Royce Continental O-200-A engine. Max speed was 140 mph with a cruise of 120 mph.
The Alpha first flew on the 24 April 1972 but only one was built and it did not enter production as the company was at full capacity producing the Partenavia P.68.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on June 13, 2020, 03:45:25 PM
Partenavia P.86 Mosquito

The Partenavia P.86 Mosquito was a two-seat civil trainer aircraft first flown on 27th April 1986.

It was a high-wing monoplane of pod-and-boom construction with tricycle undercarriage and a twin tail, with side-by-side seating for two.

Partenavia created the Aviolight company in 1988 as a joint venture with two other partners to produce the aircraft, with an initial series of 100 aircraft to be powered by a 75 hp Limbach L2000 engine, with modifications to allow certification. No orders were received, and the prototype was the only example produced. Partenavia was declared bankrupt the same year.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on June 14, 2020, 10:11:44 PM
Reggiane Re.2000

The Reggiane Re 2000 Falco I was an all metal, low-wing monoplane from the late 1930`s.

The Re 2000 was developed to be a lightly-built and highly agile interceptor/fighter aircraft.On 24th May 1939, the prototype performed its first flight.
Flight tests of the prototype revealed it to be able to outfight several combat aircraft of the time, including more modern Macchi C 200 and the German Messerschmitt Bf 109E fighters.
During the run up to and following the outbreak of the Second World War, the aircraft was ordered by several nations, including the Hungarian, Swedish, British and Italian governments.

Although the aircraft was potentially superior to Italian contemporary fighters, the Re 2000 was not considered to be satisfactory by Italian military authorities.In light of this, the manufacturer built the type for export and almost all of the first production served with the Swedish Air Force and Hungarian Air Force, rather than in the Regia Aeronautica.

The aircraft was powered by a Piaggio P.XI R.C.40 14-cylinder air-cooled radial piston engine 1,000 CV of 986 hp.Max speed was 330 mph with a cruise of 270 mph. In total 186 aircraft were completed including some built under license in Hungary.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on June 15, 2020, 05:47:50 PM
Reggiane Re.2001 Falco II

The Reggiane Re.2001 Falco II was a fighter aircraft, serving in the Regia Aeronautica (Italian Air Force) during World War II.

It made it`s first flight in July 1940, powered by an Alfa Romeo R.A.1000 R.C.41-I Monsone V-12 inverted liquid-cooled piston engine,of 1,159 hp. This was a licensed built version of the Daimler-Benz DB 601Aa, which marked a great improvement over the Piaggio engine used in the Re 2000 Falco I.

Much of the Re.2000's fuselage structure was used, even retaining the entire tail unit, the Re.2001's wings were of semi-elliptical design with three spars in each wing. The initial design had conventional fuel tanks with 544 l total capacity. Armament consisted of Breda-SAFAT machine guns, with two nose-mounted 12.7 mm and two 7.7 mm guns in the wings.
The production was to be limited to only 252, but it was a stable,and flexible design that proved to be able to undertake a number of roles. Thanks to its agility it could dogfight with more powerful opponents like the Supermarine Spitfire. The Re.2001 became the basis of a later, even more formidable fighter, the Re.2005.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on June 16, 2020, 10:26:14 PM
Reggiane Re.2005

The Reggiane Re.2005 Sagittario was a monoplane fighter and fighter-bomber from the mid 1940`s.

It first flew 9th May 1942 and the prototype had four Breda 12.7 mm machine guns and one Mauser cannon.It was powered by a 1,475 hp Daimler Benz DB.605A-1 engine, either of original German production or built by Fiat under license.The sophisticated wing design, often described as elliptical, was semi-elliptical, with wing thickness tapering from 15 percent at the root to 8 percent at the tip.

The Re.2005 was the only Italian aircraft of the war to have hydraulically activated flaps.It was one of the most advanced Italian fighters, but it was also too advanced to be made by the Italian industry and one of the most expensive to produce.The complexity of the Re.2005 design and small dimensions led to the Fiat G.55, being evaluated as a superior choice for mass production.
Total production included two prototypes which later saw combat service, 48 series production, three prototypes sent to the Luftwaffe for evaluation and one evaluation aircraft at the factory.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on June 17, 2020, 07:23:41 PM
Piaggio P.2

The Piaggio P.2 was a fighter prototype of advanced design built in 1923.

The P.2 was an aerodynamically clean, single-seat, low-wing, monoplane of very advanced design for the time with either a monocoque or semi-monocoque fuselage and fixed landing gear.
It was built of wood, with plywood skin and fabric-covered control surfaces, and was armed with two machine guns synchronized to fire through the propeller. It had two radiators, one mounted on each side of the fuselage, forward of the open cockpit.

It was powered by a 300 HP Hispano-Suiza HS 42 eight-cylinder water-cooled piston engine which gave a max speed of 145 mph and a cruise of 115 mph.
Piaggio built two P.2 prototypes and entered it for the 1923 Italian official fighter contest. The P.2 was ahead of its time, however the Italian Air Ministry distrusted monoplanes and the P.2's performance did not meet the level that Pegna had predicted, and for these reasons no production order followed.
However, the Regia Aeronautica purchased one of the prototypes for evaluation, taking delivery of it on 23 March 1924.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on June 18, 2020, 08:56:40 PM
Piaggio P.6

The Piaggio P.6 was a catapult-launched reconnaissance floatplane designed and built by Piaggio for the Regia Marina.

Piaggio produced two designs for a possible naval contract. The first, designated the P.6bis, was a small biplane flying boat powered by a 260 hp Isotta Fraschini V.6 engine driving a pusher propeller.
The second design designated, the P.6, was a floatplane with one large central float and two stabilising floats at the wingtips and a nose-mounted 410 hp Fiat A.20 engine.
The aircraft had the same biplane wing structure with rigid strut bracing and both were armed with a single machine gun. Just 15 production aircraft were built and the two prototypes.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on June 19, 2020, 06:01:25 PM
Piaggio P.8

The Piaggio P.8 was a reconnaissance floatplane designed and built by Piaggio for the Regia Marina (Italian Royal Navy).

It was designed the P.8 to meet a requirement for a small reconnaissance seaplane that could operate from a large submarine.The aircraft had to be stowed disassembled in a watertight, cylindrical hangar aboard the submarine. In order to minimize danger to the submarine and the aircraft during flight operations—which required the sub to loiter on the surface while the aircraft was being assembled or disassembled.

The P.8, first flew in 1928, was a single-seat monoplane with twin floats mounted beneath its fuselage and a parasol wing. Its 75-hp Blackburn Cirrus II engine drove a two-bladed propeller and gave it a top speed of 84 mph.None of the five aircraft completed were deployed aboard a submarine.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on June 19, 2020, 08:04:00 PM
Piaggio P.16

The Piaggio P.16 was a heavy bomber from the early 1930`s.

The P.16 was a three-engine shoulder-wing monoplane of metal construction, with inverted gull wings. Its wing was thick and semi-elliptical, and its tail was mounted high on the fuselage. It had retractable main landing gear and a spatted, tailwheel.

The aircraft had a crew of four and armament consisted of four 7.62-millimeter (0.3-inch) machine guns, two were mounted in the leading edge of the wing, one in a retractable dorsal turret, and one in the rear of the fuselage under the tail. The bomb-aimer had a compartment behind the nose engine on the underside of the fuselage.
It was powered by 3 Piaggio Stella P.IX R.C.40 9-cyl. air-cooled radial piston engines of 700 hp each. Max speed was 248 mph with a cruise speed of 195 mph.

The P.16 first flew in November 1934, and an order for 12 aircraft was placed and then cancelled after just one was completed, with preference given to the Piaggio P.32, which was produced from 1936 to 1939.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on June 20, 2020, 07:36:47 PM
Piaggio P.23R

The Piaggio P.23R, also known as the Piaggio P.123 , was a commercial transport aircraft prototype from 1936.

Piaggio designed the P.23R to break speed records for commercial transport aircraft. It was a three-engine low-wing monoplane with twin tail fins and rudders. The three 900-hp Isotta Fraschini Asso ("Ace") XI R V-12 engines were mounted in aerodynamically clean cowlings, and each drove a three-bladed propeller. The fuselage was pencil-shaped. It had a crew of two sat side by side in separate open cockpits, each protected by a windscreen.
Later it was re-engined with three 1,001-hp Piaggio P.XI RC.40 radial engines and its landing gear was modified, also both cockpits were changed to fully enclosed types with canopies.

The P.23R first flew in 1936. On 30 December 1938, it carried a payload of 5000 kilograms at an average speed of 250.8 mph, setting new world records over both the 1,000-kilometer and 2,000-kilometer distances.
The aircraft`s development was halted in 1939. During World War II, Allied aircraft recognition manuals identified it as a possible Regia Aeronautica (Italian Royal Air Force) bomber.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on June 21, 2020, 06:18:58 PM
Piaggio P.32

The Piaggio P.32 was an Italian medium bomber of the late 1930s.

The P.32 was a twin-engine monoplane with a crew of five or six. The main structure was of wood, with a glazed nose, low cockpit, twin tailfins, and an unusual shaped fuselage. It had a dorsal turret with two 7.7 mm (0.303 in) machine guns, a ventral turret, a single machine gun in the nose, and it could carry a 1,600 kg (3,527 lb) bombload.
Piaggio designed the P.32 with very small wings for its size. This meant a high wing loading, which required leading edge slats and double trailing-edge flaps to provide enough lift on takeoff and landing.

The prototype made it`s first flight in 1936, leading to an order for 12 aircraft, followed by a second order for five. These aircraft were fitted with 825 hp Isotta-Fraschini Asso XI.RC inline V-12 engines, and were designated the P.32 I, these were very underpowered, and could not fly on one engine.

The P.32 II, was fitted with more powerful 1,006 hp Piaggio P.XI R.C.40 radial engines was tested, and 12 were delivered in early 1938. The more powerful engines gave a better rate of climb, but the increased weight meant there was no improvement in maximum speed, while the range also suffered,because of higher fuel consumption.
The P.32 Is and IIs were taken out of service in April 1938 and were used as training aircraft. In total 28 aircraft plus one prototype were built and flown.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on June 21, 2020, 06:39:04 PM
Piaggio P.50

The Piaggio P.50 was an Italian prototype heavy bomber from the late 1930`s, built as two separate models.

The first was, the P.50-I, was a four-engine shoulder-wing monoplane with a single large tailfin and rudder. It was powered by four 730-hp Isotta-Fraschini Asso XI.RC V12 engines mounted in tandem pairs on the wings, with each engine driving one three-bladed propeller; two of the propellers were mounted in a pusher and two in a tractor configuration. The P.50-I had three machine gun positions, including a nose turret

Piaggio built two P.50-I prototypes, the first of which—MM369—flew in 1937.The second was badly damaged in a landing accident. No orders for the aircraft were received.

The P.50-II, appeared in 1938. It was re-engined with four 1,001-hp Piaggio P.XI RC.40 radial engines, each driving a three-bladed propeller, dispensing with the pusher-puller configuration of the P.50-I, instead the engines were mounted separately with all four propellers as tractors. Its defensive armament was increased to five 12.7-millimeter (0.5-inch) machine guns.

Piaggio produced a single P.50-II prototype designated MM371. Again no production ordered resulted for the P.50-II.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on June 22, 2020, 08:11:39 PM
Piaggio P.108

The Piaggio P.108 Bombardiere was a four-engine heavy bomber that saw service with the Regia Aeronautica during World War II.

The P.108 was an all-metal, four-engine bomber, with a crew of eight. It had a very strong modern structure (with a six g tolerance), and built almost entirely of duralumin.
The crew included a two-pilot cockpit with five to six crew members located in the mid-fuselage and nose.A noticeable feature was the nose, having a separate structure for the bombardier/bomb-aimer, with the front turret above them.

The aircraft were powered by 4 × 1500 hp Piaggio P.XII R.C.35 18-cylinder air-cooled radial piston engines.Max speed was 270 mph with a cruise of 230 mph. It was armed with 6 × 12.7 mm (.5 in) Breda-SAFAT machine guns and 2 × 7.7 mm (.303 in) Breda-SAFAT machine guns, and could carry 3500kg bombload.

The prototype first flew in 1939 and it entered service in 1941. Four versions of the P.108 were designed, but only one, the P.108B bomber, was produced in any quantity before the armistice. The other variants included the P.108A anti-ship aircraft with a 102 mm (4 in) gun, the P.108C, an airliner with an extended wingspan and re-modelled fuselage capable of carrying 32 passengers.
The P.108T transport version designed specifically for military use. Only one P.108A and 24 P.108Bs were built. Most of the P.108Cs were later modified for use as military transport aircraft and could accommodate up to sixty passengers.Nine P.108 Ts were used by Luftwaffe transport units until the end of the war.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on June 23, 2020, 08:32:59 PM
Piaggio P.111

The Piaggio P.111 was a high-altitude research aircraft designed and built by Piaggio for the Regia Aeronautica.

The Regia Aeronautica awarded a contract to Piaggio to construct a prototype of a three-seat, twin-engine, high-speed, high-altitude bomber with a pressurized cabin. Piaggio constructed a new radial engine especially for the P.111, the 999 hp 18-cylinder double-row air-cooled Piaggio P.XII R.C.l00/2v, which was fitted with a two-stage supercharger.
While the P.111 prototype was under construction, the Regia Aeronatica decided to use it as a high-altitude research aircraft rather than a bomber prototype.

Max speed was 357 mph with a cruise of 275 mph, service ceiling was over 39,000ft. The P.111 first flew on 9 April 1941, it made 110 test and research flights before being retired and scrapped early in 1943.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on June 24, 2020, 11:14:28 PM
Piaggio P.119

The Piaggio P.119 was an experimental fighter of World War II.

The P.119 was a cantilever monoplane, built entirely of metal, with a conventional wide undercarriage. It had a forward-mounted cockpit, with weapons mounted just behind the three-bladed propeller. It had advanced construction for the time, with many removable panels for internal inspection. The number of components were reduced to a minimum, and also standardized.

It was powered by a 1,500 hp Piaggio P.XV RC 45 radial engine located behind the cockpit, with cooling air intakes fitted under the nose. The propeller was a 10 ft 10in diameter Piaggio P.1002 driven by a shaft running under the cockpit.
The armament was concentrated in the nose; a 20 mm Breda cannon with 110 rounds and four 12.7 mm (0.5 in) Breda heavy machine guns with 2,000 rounds. There was also provision to install another four 7.7 mm (0.303 in) Breda machine guns in the wings with 1,200 rounds in total. An anti-tank version was proposed with a Breda 37 mm (1.46 in) gun, but it was not built.

The aircraft was flight-tested, but it was found that firing all the weapons produced excessive vibration. A landing accident slightly damaged one wing on 2 August 1943. One month later, the armistice with the Allies brought an end to the project with just a single aircraft completed.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on June 25, 2020, 07:50:40 PM
Piaggio P.136

The Piaggio P.136 was a twin-engine amphibian flying boat from the late 1940`s.

The design by Piaggio was of a relatively large aircraft, yet still being capable of operations from both relatively rough waters and fairly compact grass air strips. Furthermore, large portions of the aircraft, such as its three-bladed constant-speed propellers, was internally designed by the company.

The Piaggio P.136 was a twin-engine pusher-type amphibian, capable of carrying a maximum of five people with baggage, or a pair of stretchers and a medical attendant. The general configuration and systems remained largely the same across different models, there were some variations in the cabin to suit its customer and intended purpose.
Military versions would often be fitted with alternative instrumentation and radio sets, as well as additional transparent panels in locations like the doors for greater external visibility, civil P.136s would be furnished with more comfortable seating and additional panelling for sound exclusion and insulation.

In 1954, Francis K. Trecker, president of Kearney & Trecker Corporation, was impressed when he witnessed a P.136 in flight, and offered to bring the type to the North American market. A new entity, initially known as the Royal Aircraft Corporation, was formed to distribute the aircraft in Canada, the USA, and Mexico. Trecker secured the right to build complete aircraft, but he typically imported partially-constructed P.136s from Italy and assembled them with additional American-sourced components.

The Italian Air Force was the first organisation to place an order for the type. During the 1950s, they opted to procure a fleet of 14 P.136s, which were used to conduct coastal patrol and air-sea rescue missions. In addition to military sales, the P. 136 also received orders from civilian operators. A number were purchased by individuals and private operators.
Total production was 63 aircraft with a small number still airworthy.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on June 26, 2020, 11:34:26 PM
Piaggio P.148

The Piaggio P.148 was a two-seat primary or aerobatic training monoplane designed and built in the early 1950`s.

It was an all-metal low-wing cantilever monoplane with fixed tailwheel landing gear. It offered room for two in side-by-side seating as well as an optional third seat. The prototype first flew on the 12 February 1951 and after testing and evaluation by the Italian Air Force, it was ordered into production for the air force primary training schools. A four-seat variant was developed as the P.149.

The aircraft was powered by a Lycoming O-435-A air-cooled flat-six engine of 190 hp,which gave a max speed of 145 mph and a cruise of 125 mph.

Italy operated over 70 aircraft from 1951 until 1969 when the P.148 was withdrawn from use with the introduction of an all-jet training programme. However n 1970, the aircraft was re-introduced into the Italian Air Force Service, when the basic piston-engine aircraft regained a role in the selection of pilots.They were finally retired from service in 1979.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on June 27, 2020, 03:46:33 PM
Piaggio P.150

The Piaggio P.150 was a 1950s two-seat trainer designed to replace the North American T-6.

The P.150 was designed and built to compete as an Italian Air Force T-6 replacement against the Fiat G.49 and Macchi MB.323. It was an all-metal low-wing cantilever monoplane with a wide-track retractable tailwheel landing gear. The pilot and instructor were seated in tandem under a glazed canopy. It was originally powered by a 600hp Pratt & Whitney Wasp radial engine and later an Alvis Leonides engine driving a two-bladed prop. The aircraft was not selected and did not go into production, and just one was completed.

Max speed was 220 mph with a cruise of 195 mph.It was fitted with a single machine gun in the port wing. The aircraft was first flown in 1952 and was evaluated from 1952 until 1954.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on June 27, 2020, 04:01:22 PM
Piaggio P.166 Series.

The Piaggio P.166 is a two crew twin-engine pusher-type utility aircraft from the late 1950`s.

The basic P.166 was a development of the P.136 amphibian, and flew for the first time on 26 November 1957. It had a new fuselage and tail unit but retained the wing and engines from the P.136. Several were purchased for use as executive transports or as feeder and taxi aircraft. The improved P.166B was more powerful and had up to ten seats; a prototype was first flown on 27 March 1962.

The aircraft model name was Portofino, and is also known as Albatross in South African military service.A further version, the 12-seater P.166C with improved undercarriage, first flew on 2 October 1964.A turboprop-powered variant, the P.166D, was developed with 600 hp Lycoming LTP101 engines and it first flew on 3 July 1976.

Around 155 aircraft were built in various sub-types and with different powerplants, ranging from 340 hp to 615 hp.The aircraft was operated in Italy, South Africa, Australia, and Somalia
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on June 29, 2020, 05:37:46 PM
Piaggio PD.808

The Piaggio PD.808 was a business jet from the mid 1960`s.

Originally named the PD.808 Vespa Jet the business jet was a joint venture between Piaggio and the Douglas Aircraft Company. The basic design work was carried out by Douglas and the prototype was built by Piaggio.
It was a low-wing cabin-monoplane with tip-tanks and powered by two rear-mounted Bristol Siddeley Viper 525 turbojets. It has retractable tricycle landing gear and was originally designed with a cabin for a pilot and six-passengers.
The first Viper 525-powered prototype first flew on 29 August 1965, this was followed by a second Viper 525 powered prototype and two civil demonstrators.

Production aircraft had Rolls Royce Viper Mk526 turbojet engines of 3,330lb/f each, which gave a max speed of 529 mph (mach 0.85), and a cruise of 449 mph.
The only interest was from the Italian Air Force as a liaison, training and radar calibration aircraft who placed an order for 25.The aircraft were operated from 1970 until being retired in 2003.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on June 30, 2020, 04:38:09 PM
SAI Ambrosini SAI.3

The Ambrosini SAI.3 was a two-seat touring airplane first flown in 1937.

It was a low-wing monoplane with a graceful, elliptical wing, and fixed tailwheel undercarriage. Customers could choose between enclosed or open cockpits, and between an inline Alfa Romeo 115 engine or a 85hp radial Fiat A.50.
A upgraded version was marketed as the SAI.3S with a smaller-chord wing and a Siemens-Halske Sh 14 radial engine, this offered much improved performance to the original SAI.3 design.

Max speed was 124 mph with a cruise of 105 mph. Ten aircraft were completed.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on June 30, 2020, 04:51:04 PM
SAI-Ambrosini SS.4

The SAI-Ambrosini SS.4 was a fighter prototype developed in the late 1930s.

The SS.4 was a single-seat fighter of all-metal construction with a canard configuration wing with twin fins mounted on the wing trailing edges, retractable tricycle undercarriage and short fuselage with rear-mounted engine driving a pusher propeller.
The pilot had an enclosed cockpit positioned in the centre of the fuselage, forward of the two fuel tanks and aft of the armament in the nose. Visibility from the cockpit was excellent to the sides and front, but restricted to the rear by the large main wing, engine and large twin fins positioned at approximately the half-span position.

The swept and tapered, high aspect ratio wings had no sweep on the trailing edge and a cut back to give clearance for the propeller, with the large fins with rudders extending past the trailing edge at the ends of the cut-backs, to ensure enough moment to give adequate control and stability. The delta fore-plane was of low aspect ratio with the elevators sited below the trailing edge.The engine was a high performance liquid-cooled Isotta-Fraschini Asso XI R.C.40 engine capable of 960 hp driving a three-bladed metal propeller, which gave a max speed of 355 mph.

Armament was to be two 20 mm cannon and one 30 mm cannon, mounted in the nose.The aircraft was successfully flown for the first time on 7 March 1939. The next day the SS.4 prototype was scheduled to be transported to Aviano airbase by rail, but chief test pilot Ambrogio Colombo wanted a second test flight. After 45 minutes, an aileron malfunctioned just 2 km (1.2 mi) from Eleuteri. Colombo attempted to land but was unable to reach the runway and crashed near Campagna, hitting a tree. A second prototype was ordered immediately, but development priority was placed on more easily developed wooden aircraft, and the SS.4 design was abandoned in 1942.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on July 01, 2020, 02:52:48 PM
SAI-Ambrosini S.7

The SAI.7 was a racing aircraft flown before World War II that entered production as a military trainer after the war.

The aircraft began their proving flights too late to race, and were disqualified from competitions,but during the war, the Regia Aeronautica expressed interest in the aircraft as a trainer for fighter pilots, and a slightly revised version entered limited production in 1943 as the SAI.7T. Only 10 were built, but in 1949 a modernised version powered by an Alfa Romeo engine was produced, 145 of them for the re-formed Italian Air Force, including some single-seaters. It was of conventional configuration,built from wood, with a tail wheel undercarriage.

Power was provided by an air-cooled inverted inline engine, the 225 hp 6 cyclinder Alfa-Romeo model 115ter.This gave a max speed of 222 mph and a cruise of 165 mph.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on July 01, 2020, 03:02:37 PM
SAI-Ambrosini 10 Grifone

The SAI.10 Grifone ("Griffon") was a military trainer aircraft produced in small numbers for the Italian Regia Aeronautica early in World War II.

The aircraft was a parasol monoplane of mixed construction which first flew on July 8 1939.A production batch of 50 was ordered, but this was quickly reduced to just 10 machines, all of which were delivered in 1940.
Production aircraft differed by having a 85 hp Fiat A.50 radial engine in place of the prototype's CNA D. Other engine fits that were used included an example with a Siemens-Halske Sh 14, and one with an Alfa Romeo 110; this latter machine designated SAI.11. Another experimental development that did not enter production was a float-equipped SAI.10 Gabbiano ("Seagull").
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on July 02, 2020, 06:20:27 PM
SAI Ambrosini 207

The SAI.207 was a light fighter interceptor built entirely from wood during World War II.

The first of three prototypes was completed and flown in the Autumn of 1940. The SAI.107 was a fighter development of the SAI.7, with similar dimensions, but with a 540 hp Isotta Fraschini Gamma engine. The SAI.107 reached a speed of 350 mph in trials and manoeuvrability proved to be excellent. The SAI.107 was lost, along with pilot Arturo Ferrarin, in a crash on 18 July 1941.

Two more fighter prototypes were built as SAI.207s, flying for the first time in the spring of 1941 and 1942.The SAI.207 was a single-seat, low-wing monoplane with a conventional tail-wheel undercarriage.It had a lightweight wooden construction, combined with a 751 hp Isotta-Fraschini Delta R.C.40 inverted-V engine, with a center-line cooling air intake, provided speed and agility. Armament consisted of two fuselage-mounted 12.7 mm Breda-SAFAT machine guns.
A production order for 2,000 machines, plus a pre-production batch of 12 aircraft for operational testing was signed off. After the mixed results of operational evaluation and the signing of the Armistice, no production aircraft were built.

The pre-production batch of 12 aircraft served briefly with three squadrons.The aircraft entered service in July 1943, flying a number of combat missions against heavy Allied raids over the Italian capital, but without success. Despite its speed, Italian pilots were not impressed by the type and its service in the summer of 1943 quickly ended. The aircraft of 83rd Squadriglia were returned to SAI-Ambrosini to be refurbished, but the Armistice made it impossible for them to return to their squadron.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on July 03, 2020, 09:53:20 AM
SAI-Ambrosini.403

The SAI.403 Dardo ("Dart") was a light fighter aircraft built in 1943 during World War II.

The SAI.403 Dardo was a development and refined version of the SAI.207, improvements induced the Ministero dell' Aeronautica in 1943 to cancel its order for 2,000 of the SAI.207 and order 3,000 of the SAI.403 instead (800 from Ambrosini, 1,000 from Caproni, and 1,200 from Savoia-Marchetti). Apart from the fighter's superlative performance, its all-wood construction was attractive at a time when Italy was facing a shortage of strategic materials. However, by the time of the Armistice, the first of these was yet to leave the factory.

The aircraft was powered by a 750 hp Isotta-Fraschini Delta R.C.21/60 Serie I-IV inverted air-cooled V-12 piston engine, which gave a max speed of 403 mph and a cruise of 300 mph.
It was to be armed with fuselage-mounted 12.7 mm (0.500 in) Breda-SAFAT machine guns, and plans were drawn up to fit 15mm or 20mm canon in the wings in later versions, which did not happen.

The single prototype was seized by the Germans and evaluated by the Luftwaffe. Japanese pilots stationed in Germany were also given a chance to fly the aircraft, with the result that it was ordered into production by both Heinkel and Mitsubishi. None of these flew before the end of the war.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on July 03, 2020, 10:03:16 AM
SAI Ambrosini S.1001

The S.1001 Grifo ("Griffin") was an Italian light airplane that appeared shortly after the end of World War II.

It was the first plane built by SAI Ambrosini postwar, the prototype flew in 1947 and was derived from the pre-war SAI.2S. It was a four-seat monoplane with spatted fixed undercarriage. A small series was produced for the Italian aeroclubs with an Alfa Romeo 110-ter engine of 130 hp.This gave a max speed of 150 mph and a cruise of 130 mph.

Three examples were even bought by the Italian Aeronautica Militare (AMI), which used them between 1948 and 1950.
A two-seater version powered by a de Havilland Gipsy Major of 120 kW (160 hp) was offered to the AMI as a trainer. The AMI were not interested, but a few aircraft were built as the S.1002 Trasimeno for aeroclubs.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on July 05, 2020, 12:50:59 AM
SAI Ambrosini F.4 Rondone

The SAI Ambrosini Rondone is a two/three-seat light touring monoplane of the early 1950s.

The Rondone was designed for private pilots and aero clubs for a more modern touring aircraft. Stelio Frati prepared the basic design for the prototype two-seat F.4 Rondone I which was built and first flown in 1951.It was a two-seater with a 65 hp Walter Mikron III engine.

This was followed by nine production examples produced by SAI Ambrosini in collaboration with Aeronautica Lombardi; these were powered by 85 hp Continental engines.The three-seat F.7 Rondone II first flew on 10 February 1954 and the prototype and nine production examples were built with a 90 hp Continental C90-12F engine.

The aircraft are of wooden construction with a plywood-covered one-piece single spar wing, and a monocoque fuselage. The tricycle undercarriage is retractable. Two-position flaps and dual controls are fitted. The Rondone II has an extended cabin with additional rear side windows.Many of the 20 completed aircraft are still airworthy.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on July 05, 2020, 01:01:07 AM
SIAI S.13

The SIAI S.13 was a 1910s reconnaissance flying-boat.

It was a smaller version of the earlier S.12, the S.13 was a single-engined biplane reconnaissance-fighter flying boat. It had a crew of two in side-by-side seats behind a single windscreen; the observer had a single flex-mounted machine-gun. The flying boat was powered by a single 250 hp Isotta Fraschini V6 engine.

The Royal Italian Navy took delivery of 12 aircraft in 1919, and the flying boat was exported to Japan, Norway, Spain, Sweden, and Yugoslavia. In France, the S.13 was built under license as the CAMS C.13 and the Spanish naval workshops in Barcelona also built seven under licence.
A single-seat version, the S.13 Tipo, was ordered by the Royal Italian Navy, but was later cancelled when the Royal Navy decided to develop the Macchi M.7 instead and a civilian version, the S.13bis, failed to attract any orders.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on July 05, 2020, 04:18:48 PM
SIAI S.51

The SIAI S.51, Savoia Marchetti S.51 or Savoia S.51 was an Italian racing flying boat built by SIAI for the 1922 Schneider Trophy race.

The S.51 was a single-seat sesquiplane flying boat, which first flew in 1922. It was powered by a 300 hp Hispano-Suiza 8A V8 engine, mounted on two struts above the hull and below the upper wing, it drove a two-bladed propeller in a pusher configuration. The lower wings had small stabilizing floats mounted on inclined struts so that they hung below and outboard of the outer tips of the lower wing.

Italy entered the S.51 in the 1922 Schneider Trophy race and also two Macchi M.17 flying boats in competition with a British Supermarine Sea Lion II flying boat. The race was held at Naples on 12 August.
The S.51 capsized in an accident during the seaworthiness trials before the race. It was recovered by its crew, and it completed the race, flown by Alessandro Passaleva but could only take second place, with the Sea Lion a comfortable 2 min 22 s ahead. The course was 13 laps long, a total distance of 230 mi, over which the S.51 averaged 142.65 mph.

On 28 December 1922 the S.51, flown again by Passaleva, set a world speed record for seaplanes of 174.080 mph.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on July 05, 2020, 04:31:39 PM
SIAI S.52

The SIAI S.52 was a fighter prototype of 1924.

The S.52 was a single-seat, all-metal biplane with its fuselage suspended between the upper and lower wings. The aircraft was a development of the earlier S.50. The semi-elliptical wings were extremely thin in section and larger in area than those of the previous S.50, and used ailerons to allow lateral control rather than the wing warping as the S.50 employed.
The S.50's all-moving tail surfaces were replaced by a conventional tail unit which combined fixed and moving surfaces. The 300 hp  Hispano-Suiza HS 42 eight-cylinder water-cooled piston engine drove a two-bladed propeller, and the S.52 was armed with two fixed, forward-firing 0.303-inch Vickers machine guns synchronized to fire through the propeller.

The S.52 was too late for the 1923 fighter contest, first flying in 1924. Two prototypes – designated MM.3 and MM.4 – were built, but no Italian production order was received.
The second prototype was shipped to Latin America for demonstration flights, one of which was a 1927 flight from Argentina to Paraguay. SIAI had learned that the Paraguayan Air Arm was interested in purchasing aircraft, so the S.52 made a series of successful flights at the Paraguayan Military Aviation School.

The Paraguayan government decided to buy it in 1927 – the first fighter Paraguay had ever bought and its only fighter until the arrival of seven Wibault 73 C.1 aircraft in 1928 – but placed no order for additional S.52s.  It was destroyed in an accident on 8 May 1933.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on July 06, 2020, 09:26:39 PM
Savoia-Marchetti S.55 Series.

The Savoia-Marchetti S.55 was a double-hulled flying boat produced in 1924.

The S.55 had many innovative features. The passengers and/or cargo were placed in the twin hulls,with the pilot and crew operated the plane from a cockpit in the thicker section of the wing, between the two hulls. The S.55 had two inline contra-rotating propellers, mounted in tandem. The engines were canted sharply at an upward angle. Two wire-braced booms connected the triple-finned tail structure to the twin hulls and wing.The aircraft first flew in August 1924.

The Savoia-Marchetti S.55 was a remarkably reliable craft. In 1926, the S.55P prototype set 14 world records for speed, altitude and distance with a payload. The S.55's greatest successes, were its many flights between Europe and the Americas.
Pilots Francesco de Pinedo and Carlo del Prete took off from Sesto Calende, Italy, in an S-55 in Feb 1927. Four months later, they arrived back in Italy, having flown nearly 30,000 miles in 193 flying hours and having made just over 50 stops, including Rio de Janeiro, Buenos Aires and New York City.

The Italian Air Marshall, Italo Balbo, became famous for organizing a squadron of S.55s for Atlantic crossings, culminating in his 1933 flight with 24 aircraft to Chicago's Century of Progress International Exposition.
On 1 July 1933, General Balbo commanded a flight of S-55s from Orbetello, Italy, completing the flight in just over 48 hours, maintaining a tight "V" formation. These large fleets of aircraft were sometimes called a "Balbo".

The aircraft went on to serve in the Regia Aeronautica as a long-range bomber and patrol aircraft, but by World War II, the last S.55s were no longer serviceable and were in reserve.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on July 07, 2020, 06:03:29 PM
Savoia-Marchetti S.57

The Savoia-Marchetti S.57 was an Italian single-engine biplane flying boat intended for aerial reconnaissance, built by Savoia-Marchetti for Regia Aeronautica after World War I.

It was of wooden construction with a single-step hull, with pilot and observer/gunner in tandem open cockpits in the bow, the S.57 was powered by a single 249 hp Isotta-Fraschini V.6, which gave a max speed of around 135 mph. The observer had a single ring-mounted 7.7 mm (0.303 in) machine gun.

Eighteen S.57s were accepted by Regia Aeronautica in 1925 and used as trainers.In total 20 aircraft were completed.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on July 07, 2020, 06:21:32 PM
Savoia-Marchetti SM.62

The Savoia-Marchetti SM.62 was a single-engine maritime patrol flying boat produced from 1926.

The SM.62 flying boat was one of the main successes of Savoia-Marchetti, developed from the SM.59 which first flew in 1925.
The single-engine, single-spar wing, wooden biplane aircraft was powered by a single Isotta Fraschini Asso 500 R.I., 500 hp engine mounted between the upper and the lower wings, and drove a pusher propeller. It had a wingspan of 51 ft,and had a crew of 3 or sometimes 4, and entered production in 1926.

In 1927 the SM.62bis development was developed with a more powerful engine. This aircraft formed the basis of the future SM.78. The new 750 hp Isotta Fraschini Asso 750 engine produced 50% more power, which allowed a maximum speed of 140 mph.

This was the most successful Italian flying boat outside Italy, with at least one being acquired by Japan for its naval aviation service, several by Romania, and 40 by Spain, some of which were license-built. The USSR acquired the license to construct the SM.62bis as the MBR-4, with many examples built.Romania also acquired the licence to construct the SM.62bis in Brașov. Five of the flying boats were produced there in 1936.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on July 08, 2020, 11:33:17 PM
Savoia-Marchetti S.64

The Savoia-Marchetti S.64 was a monoplane developed in 1928 to contest world duration and distance records.

It was a pod-and-boom design,the empennage was carried on two open truss structures that extended to the rear from the wings. The engine was mounted on struts above the wing, and consisted of a single engine driving a pusher propeller. The cockpit was located inside the stubby fuselage pod and was fully enclosed. The powerplant was a  590 hp Fiat A.22T V-12 water-cooled piston engine, which gave a max speed of around 145 mph.

On 31 May 1928, Arturo Ferrarin and Carlo Del Prete broke three world records in the S.64 by making 51 round trips between Torre Flavia (in Ladispoli) and Anzio. When they landed on 3 June, they had covered 7,666 km (4,791 mi) – a new world distance record over a closed circuit – and stayed aloft for 58 hours 34 minutes – a new world endurance record. They also set the world record for top speed over a distance of 5,000 km (3,110 mi) 87 mph. With the record attempt successfully concluded, an announcement was made that this was to be a proving exercise for a Rome–New York City transatlantic flight.

The following month Ferrarin and Del Prete did cross the Atlantic in the S.64, not to New York, but across the South Atlantic to Brazil. They departed Montecelio on the evening of 3 July, they flew over Sardinia overnight, and then Gibraltar early the next morning. Crossing the Brazilian coast near Natal, they continued south, hoping to reach Rio de Janeiro. However, bad weather forced them to turn back towards Natal.
They were running low on fuel and with the weather still against them, they were forced to abandon landing there as well. Instead, they continued north for another 100 miles and made a forced landing on a beach at Touros. A Brazilian mail plane conveyed Ferrarin and Del Prete first to Natal and then to Rio de Janeiro, where in both cities they were given a heroes' welcome. The S.64 suffered structural damage during its landing on the sand, and was brought to Rio de Janeiro by ship.When it arrived in the city, it was donated to Brazil.

During the flight from Italy, the S.64 had covered 5,030 miles in 48 hours, 14 minutes. The FAI officially recognised this as a flight of 4,500 miles – the orthodromic distance between Montecelio and Natal – and a new world straight-line distance record. The festivities in Rio de Janeiro continued for weeks, but came to an end when Ferrarin and Del Prete crashed during a demonstration flight in a S.62 on 11 August,sadly Del Prete died from his injuries five days later.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on July 09, 2020, 11:53:19 PM
Savoia-Marchetti S.66

The Savoia-Marchetti S.66 was a 1930s twin-hull flying boat.

The S.66 was a development and enlarged version of the S.55 with the aim of replacing the S.55P. The S.66 was a twin-hull cantilever monoplane flying boat with metal hull and wings and wooden twin-booms and tail unit.The two flight crew had enclosed cockpits mounted in the wing centre section between the two hulls, each hull contained seven seats, two sleeping couches and a WC.

The prototype first flew in 1931 powered by three 570 hp Fiat A.22 R. engines strut-mounted above the wing. Twenty three production aircraft were built with three 750 hp Fiat A.24R engines and the couches were replaced by two to four more seats in each hull.

Civil versions were retired in 1939, but military versions were not retired until 1943, when the armistice was signed.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on July 10, 2020, 11:38:13 PM
Savoia-Marchetti S.71

The Savoia-Marchetti S.71 was an eight-passenger light transport designed and built in 1930.

The S.71 was a three-engine, high-wing monoplane with a fixed tailwheel landing gear. It had a crew of four and room for eight passengers. The first four aircraft were powered by three 260 hp Walter Castor II radial engines, but the last three had more powerful 370 hp Piaggio P.VII engines.
It`s max speed was 146 mph and had a range of almost 1000 miles.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on July 11, 2020, 11:51:03 PM
Savoia-Marchetti S.73

The Savoia-Marchetti S.73 was a three-engine airliner that flew in the 1930s and early 1940s.

It was developed in parallel with a bomber version (the SM.81 ) the prototype S.73 first flew on 4 July 1934.The prototype had a four-blade wooden propeller on the central engine, and two-blade wooden propellers on each wing engine. Later all aircraft were fitted with three-blade metal propellers.
The pilot and co-pilot were seated side-by-side in an enclosed cockpit, with a compartment for a radio operator and a mechanic. A passenger compartment could house 18 passengers in two rows.
The prototype had French Gnome-Rhône 9Kfr Mistral engines, but further aircraft had 700 hp Piaggio Stella P.X, 770 hp Wright R-1820, 730 hp Walter Pegasus III MR2V, Alfa Romeo 125 or Alfa Romeo 126, driving ground adjustable, three-bladed, aluminium-steel propellers.

The S.73 had an uneventful test programme with only minor modifications recommended by the Regia Aeronautica. It was easy to fly, strong, and easy to operate on the ground, including the ability to fly from short airfields in difficult terrain, in spite of being under-powered and the lack of leading edge slats. Its mixed construction and fixed landing gear were its main shortcomings, when contemporary aircraft in the US and Germany were of all-metal construction with retractable undercarriages. Some of these had better performance, but the S.73 remained competitive for some years.

At the outbreak of World War II the aircraft was already obsolete, but some were pressed into service with the Regia Aeronautica for operations in Abyssinia and Spain. Five S.73s were present in Eastern Africa and used as military transports. Four S.73s survived until the 1943 armistice, three being used by the Allies and one by the pro-Axis government; all had been retired by the end of the war.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on July 12, 2020, 04:51:05 PM
The Savoia-Marchetti SM.75 series

The Savoia-Marchetti SM.75 was a passenger and military transport aircraft of the 1930s and 1940s.

It was a low-wing, trimotor monoplane of metal and wooden construction with a retractable tailwheel undercarriage. It was the last of a line of transport aeroplanes that Alessandro Marchetti began building in the early 1930s. The SM.75 had a four-man crew, and could accommodate up to 25 passengers. Its short take-off run and shorter landing distance of meant that it could operate from short runways on secondary airfields.
The SM.75 was powered by three Alfa Romeo 126 RC.34 radial engines of 750 hp each. Eleven aircraft fitted with three Alfa Romeo 126 RC.18 14-cylinder engines of 860 hp were designated the SM.75bis.

The Regia Aeronautica showed interest in the SM.75, resulting in the development of a militarized version. It lacked windows in the passenger cabin but was fitted with a reinforced panel to permit the installation of a dorsal gun turret. It was powered by three Alfa Romeo 128 RC.21 engines and had a greater cargo capacity than the SM.75, it entered military service as the Savoia-Marchetti SM.82.

The SM.75 first flew in November 1937 from Novara, in Piedmont. It entered commercial service with Ala Littoria in 1938 and with LATI in 1939, and was used on services both within Europe and to South America, and East Africa.
After Italy entered World War II on 10 June 1940, civil SM.75s continued to perform supply operations to Italian overseas territories, which dwindled as the war progressed, until the Italian armistice with the Allies went into effect on 8 September 1943. They also continued to operate services to South America until December 1941, when Italy declared war on the United States.
After Italy surrendered to the Allies in 1943, some SM.75s entered service with the Italian Co-Belligerent Air Force, which fought on the Allied side for the remainder of World War II.
Only a few of the 90 aircraft produced survived the war and actually remained in service until 1949.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on July 13, 2020, 02:41:31 PM
Savoia-Marchetti SM.83

The Savoia-Marchetti SM.83 was a civil airliner of the 1930s. It was a civilian version of the Savoia-Marchetti SM.79 bomber.

The SM.83 was a monoplane, with retractable undercarriage, and a slim fuselage. The cabin was provided with heaters, oxygen provision and sound insulation, but it was only large enough for the 4 crew and four to 10 passengers. The construction was of mixed materials, steel tubes for the fuselage, wood for the wings, and the outer skin made up of wood, fabric or metal. The wings had slats. The powerplant was three AR.126 engines giving about 750 hp each.

It first flew on 19 November 1937,and entered into production for LATI, SABENA and other companies, but it had less success compared to the more capable 18 seater Savoia-Marchetti S.73 even if had much improved performance. As a result, only 23 were built in two main series.

When war broke out, the Italian aircraft were impressed into the Regia Aeronautica, and used in transport units.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on July 13, 2020, 02:56:37 PM
Savoia-Marchetti SM.91

The Savoia-Marchetti SM.91 was a long-range fighter-bomber prototype, designed to compete in a contract offered by the Regia Aeronautica to the Italian aircraft companies in 1938.

In July 1942, the Regia Aeronautica requested designs for a new aircraft, to be powered by the German DB 605 engine, capable of flying at 385 mph with a range of 990 mi. Armament should consist of six MG 151 cannons in the nose and wings and a 12.7 mm Breda-SAFAT machine gun as a defensive weapon. It should have an 800 kg (1,800 lb) bomb load. At that point, the request for a long-range fighter killed the SM.88, which was still in development, and the SM.91, a larger, heavier and more modern design, was authorized.

The fuselage and the wings were all-metal, to achieve the best performance regardless of cost. The central nacelle held the crew of two, and the wings and tail were similar to the SM.88.
The two DB 605 engines gave a total of 2,950 hp. The aircraft's maximum speed of 363 mph was better than the SM.88. There were three 20 mm MG 151s in the nose. Two more were mounted in the wings, close to the fuselage. Another machine gun was provided for the rear gunner. Bomb load was 1,640 kg (3,620 lb) or a torpedo could be carried.

The prototype,flew for the first time on 11 March 1943. There were two prototypes, the second was a modified SM.88.
It was captured and sent to Germany in October 1943, after which it vanished and is presumed destroyed. The second prototype was captured by the Germans incomplete when they occupied northern Italy in September 1943. This aircraft was tested on 10 July 1944, but was destroyed by Allied bombers later in the year.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on July 14, 2020, 05:20:55 PM
SIAI-Marchetti SM.102

The SIAI-Marchetti SM.102 was a 1940s light transport cabin monoplane.

The SM.102 was developed from the earlier abandoned SM.101 single-engined light transport monoplane. The SM.102 was a twin-engined low-wing monoplane with a tailwheel landing gear with retractable main gear. It had an enclosed cabin for two crew and eight passengers. The prototype was powered by two 500 hp Ranger SGV-770C-1B engines, one mounted on the leading edge of each wing.

The prototype SM.102 first flew on 24 February 1949 , it was demonstrated in India and both the Middle and Far East without the success of any orders so it was decided to modify the design to meet a requirement for a light transport for the Italian Air Force. The new version was re-engined with two 450 hp Pratt & Whitney R-985 Wasp Junior radial engines and first flew on 7 April 1950. A small production run of 21 for the Italian Air Force followed. These were eventually retired in 1959.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on July 14, 2020, 08:00:50 PM
SIAI-Marchetti FN.333 Riviera

The Nardi FN.333 Riviera, later the SIAI-Marchetti FN.333 Riviera, is a luxury touring amphibious aircraft.

The FN.333 Riviera was originally developed by the Nardi Company in Milan. The first prototype Riviera was a three-seat aircraft, it first flew on 4 December 1952, and was to be the only FN.333 powered by a 145 hp Continental fan-cooled engine.The second prototype a more powerful engine, as well as the addition of a fourth seat. The second prototype made its first flight on 8 December 1954.The Nardi Company lacked resources to develop the Riviera, so the third aircraft did not fly until 14 October 1956. Improved power for this aircraft was provided by a 240 hp Continental O-470-H engine. This aircraft was designated the FN.333S and was to be the basis for series production. Nardi sold the manufacturing rights for the Riviera to the much larger SIAI-Marchetti in March 1959.

The SIAI-Marchetti version had improved power provided by a 250 hp Continental IO-470-P engine, equipped with fuel injection, and manufactured for a pusher-style aircraft. In 1961 the Riviera became available in the United States, where it was initially sold through the North Star Company of Newark, New Jersey.
Most of the 26 built by SIAI-Marchetti were sold to customers in the United States, but examples were also sold to Australia, Norway and Sweden.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on July 15, 2020, 06:46:19 PM
SIAI-Marchetti S.202 Series.

The AS/SA 202 Bravo is a two or three-seat civil light aircraft jointly designed and manufactured by the Swiss company Flug- und Fahrzeugwerke Altenrhein (FFA) and the Italy`s  Savoia-Marchetti. The aircraft was designated the AS 202 in Switzerland, and the SA 202 in Italy.

Savoia-Marchetti manufactured the wings, undercarriage and engine installation, while FFA manufactured the fuselage, tail and controls,both companies had assembly plants manufacturing the complete aircraft.The first Swiss model flew on 9 March 1969, the first Italian aircraft following on 8 May.It is a rugged all-metal low-wing monoplane with a full vision canopy. Its tricycle landing gear is fixed.

34 202-15s (150hp engine) and 180 202-18s (180hp engine and fully aerobatic ) were built, with most in service with military customers. The biggest civil operator was Patria Pilot Training at Helsinki-Malmi Airport, Finland during 2000–2011.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on July 16, 2020, 07:11:55 PM
SIAI-Marchetti S.210

The SIAI-Marchetti S.210 was a 1970s Italian twin-engined cabin-monoplane.

The S.210 was developed from the single-engined S.205 and was an all-metal low-wing monoplane with a retractable tricycle landing gear. It was powered by two 200 hp Avco Lycoming TIO-360-A1B engines, one mounted on the leading edge of each wing. It had three pairs of side-by-side seats for one pilot and five passengers.

The prototype S.210M first flew on 18 February 1970 and was exhibited at the 1971 Paris Air Show wearing a military style colour scheme and markings. This aircraft was followed by an improved second prototype with increased baggage capacity and enlarged rear windows. A production batch of ten aircraft were built based on the second prototype.
Max speed was 222 mph and a cruise of 195 mph.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on July 17, 2020, 08:58:31 PM
SIAI-Marchetti S.211

The SIAI-Marchetti S.211 (later Aermacchi S-211) is a turbofan-powered military trainer aircraft from the 1980`s.

SIAI-Marchetti started to develop the S-211 in 1976 as a private venture,it first flew on 10 April 1981. SIAI-Marchetti planned to offer the type to the company's existing customer base, consisting of various air forces around the world that operated their SF.260, a piston-engined trainer.

The S-211 is a compact two-seat shoulder-wing monoplane, with full aerobatic capability.It has a retractable tricycle landing gear and is powered by a single Pratt & Whitney Canada JT15D-4C turbofan powerplant. The S-211 has been principally used as a basic trainer aircraft, the student and instructor being seated in a tandem arrangement; the front and rear cockpits are fully duplicated, the latter being elevated above the former to provide the occupant with improved forward visibility.The aircraft was designed to perform a secondary close air support (CAS) capability, being equipped with four underwing hard points, facilitating the carriage of various armaments and other external stores.Some models feature an additional hard point on the underside of the fuselage.

During 1983, the Singapore Air Force placed the first order for the S-211, for a batch of ten aircraft, later this was increased to 32.Since the 1990s, the Philippine Air Force (PAF) has been using its 25 S-211 fleet both as a trainer and in offensive operations via secondary attack capability. These were redesignated as AS-211s and nicknamed as "Warriors".Following the retirement of the PAF's last Northrop F-5 fighters in 2005, the additional task of air defense has also been assigned to its AS-211s. Around 60 aircraft were completed.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on July 18, 2020, 08:56:52 PM
SIAI-Marchetti SM.1019

The SIAI-Marchetti SM.1019 is a STOL liaison monoplane for the Italian Army, and based on the Cessna O-1 Bird Dog.

SIAI-Marchetti modified the design of the Cessna 305A/O-1 Bird Dog with a new turboprop engine and a revised tail unit. The prototype first flew on 24 May 1969 powered by a 317 hp Allison 250-B15C turboprop engine.
It was evaluated against the Aermacchi AM.3 and was successful and won a production order for 80 aircraft, plus the prototype.
An engine upgrade version with a 400 hp engine was also built as the SM.1019B, but only four were built designated SM.1019E.1 by the Italian Army, these had four hardpoints under each wing.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on July 19, 2020, 04:51:49 PM
SIAI Marchetti SF.600 Canguro

The SIAI Marchetti SF.600 Canguro was a feederliner developed in the late 1970s.

It was a high-wing cantilever monoplane of conventional configuration with a fuselage of rectangular cross-section and a high-set tail.The tricycle undercarriage was fixed, and its main units were carried on sponsons on the fuselage sides. SIAI Marchetti provided funding towards the construction of the prototype,and after flight testing proved positive, the type was put on sale, but failed to attract buyers in any number, even when the original piston engines were upgraded to turboprops and a retractable undercarriage was offered as an option.


Following their acquisition of SIAI Marchetti, Agusta continued to promote the design,a venture to produce the aircraft in conjunction with PADC in the Philippines proved fruitless. PADC acquired two aircraft, RP-C1298 and RP-3101. In 1997, Vulcanair purchased the design from Finmeccanica (Agusta's parent company), but although a small number of examples were produced, no series production was undertaken. Vulcanair next proceeded to use the Canguro's fuselage to develop the single-engine Vulcanair Mission.


That`s Italy done. I am going to go back and revisit the UK manufacturers, as I think I left out too many interesting aircraft.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on July 19, 2020, 04:58:27 PM
British Historic Military And / Or Civil Aircraft Part Two


Abbot-Baynes Scud 2.

The Abbott-Baynes Scud 2 was a 1930s high-performance sailplane.

The Scud 2 was a development of the single seat, parasol winged intermediate-level Abbott-Baynes Scud 1 glider flown a year earlier. The two aircraft were both designed by L. E. Baynes and had many common features but the Scud 2 has a wing of much higher aspect ratio, intended for serious rather than introductory soaring.

The Scud 2 first flew on 27 August 1932. Photographs and general arrangement drawings from 1932 show early aircraft had narrow chord ailerons extending over the outer half-span and maintaining the straight wing trailing edge.Later drawings show shorter and broader surfaces with curved trailing edges protruding beyond that of the wing. Abbott-Baynes advertisements from mid-1933 also show this modification. The one surviving Scud 2, the Slingsby built G-ALOT, has these ailerons.

After a long career at Dunstable this aircraft,became part of the Shuttleworth Collection in December 2009. After restoration and a preliminary flight trial the following Spring it flew successfully on 4 September 2010.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on July 20, 2020, 10:54:14 PM
ABC Robin

The ABC Robin was a single-seat light aircraft from 1929.

It was a high-wing, single-seat monoplane of conventional taildragger configuration.It was the first lightplane to be equipped with a fully enclosed cockpit in Britain. It was designed at the request of T. A. Dennis specifically to use the firm's 30–40 h.p. Scorpion engine. Construction was primarily of wood,the wings were hinged at their inner rear corners to the top of the fuselage and supported by tubular struts in 'Vee' formation to the lower longerons of the fuselage.
The tail was also wood-framed and both wings and tail were covered with doped fabric. The Robin, registered G-AAID, was built by ABC Motors Limited at Walton-on-Thames in 1929. The first flight was at Brooklands in June,it was modified later in the year with the windscreen moved back to allow access to the fuel filler caps from the outside, and with an enlarged fin and rudder. The sole Robin built was scrapped at Brooklands in 1932.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on July 21, 2020, 04:27:16 PM
ANEC I and II

The ANEC I and ANEC II were 1920s single-engine ultralight aircraft designed and built by Air Navigation and Engineering Company Limited at Addlestone Surrey.

The ANEC I and II, designed by W.S Shackleton, were amongst the earliest ultralight aircraft; they were very small, wooden, strut braced high-wing monoplanes.
The first ANEC I, G-EBHR, first flew at Brooklands on 21 August 1923. It was the first aircraft with an inverted engine, a 696 cc 16 hp Blackburne Tomtit, to fly in the UK.
Two aircraft were built in the UK, and one in Australia by George Beohm, who later went on to design the other aircraft.  E. W. Beckman, the owner, intended to enter it in the Low-Powered Aeroplane Competition held at Richmond in December 1924, but it was not completed until the following year. The first of the two built in the United Kingdom in 1923, G-EBHR, was exported to Australia in late 1924.

The ANEC II was an enlarged version of the ANEC I built for the 1924 Lympne light aircraft trials competition.As permitted by revised competition rules, it was a two-seater and its more powerful 1,100 cc Anzani inverted V twin-cylinder had the greatest capacity allowed. The wing area was increased to accommodate the extra weight by a span extension. It was also 5ft longer than the mk I Engine problems kept it from flying in the competition and out of the Grosvenor Trophy race.Just one example was completed.

In 1927 a new owner refitted it with a 32 hp Bristol Cherub III flat twin engine, a larger rudder, and a more conventional undercarriage with larger wheels mounted on a cross axle.In 1931 yet another new owner fitted a heavier 30 hp ABC Scorpion engine, another flat twin and, to keep the weight down,and reworked it as a single seater. It was in this condition when it was acquired by Richard Shuttleworth in about 1937.It is currently airworthy and can be seen at Shuttleworth.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on July 22, 2020, 05:54:25 PM
ANEC III

The ANEC III was a 1920s six-seat passenger and mail carrier aircraft.

Just three ANEC III aircraft were built,sub-contracted to ANEC from an Australian company Handasyde The new design was an unequal-span biplane with a 380 hp Rolls Royce Eagle IX engine. The pilot sat in the open above the mail compartment, with space for six passengers or cargo inside the fuselage.
The first aircraft flew at Brooklands on 23 March 1926 with the Australian registration G-AUEZ. All three aircraft were crated and shipped to Australia and were operated by Larkin's operating subsidiary Australian Aerial Services. The aircraft were named Diamond Bird, Satin Bird and Love Bird.

Later two aircraft were rebuilt as 11-seaters (two pilots plus nine passengers) with a lengthened fuselage and a more powerful 485 hp Armstrong Siddeley Jaguar 14-cylinder engine.
The converted aircraft were known as the Lasco Lascowl. Both aircraft, retained their original names Diamond Bird and Love Bird, and were chartered by an aerial survey expedition led by Australian explorer Donald Mackay. The expedition set off on 23 May 1930 to carry out an aerial survey of central Australia. Both aircraft returned to Melbourne in July 1930 without a mishap, each having flown more than 300 hours.All three aircraft had been scrapped by 1932.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on July 23, 2020, 06:54:07 PM
Airco DH.1

The Airco DH.1 was an early military biplane of typical "Farman" pattern flown by Britain's Royal Flying Corps during World War I.

The DH.1 was of pusher configuration, its pilot and observer sat in two open tandem cockpits in the nose. The observer's cockpit was stepped down below the pilot's and equipped with a machine gun. The wings were of typical fabric-covered, two-bay, unstaggered, unswept, equal span design, while the stabiliser and rudder were carried on the end of two long, open-framework booms.
It was powered by the air-cooled Renault 70 hp V8 engine.

In January 1915 Geoffrey de Havilland piloted the D.H.1 prototype on its first fligh,although the Renault engine left it underpowered, performance was still reasonable. It was ordered into production, with an initial order of 49 being placed. Airco was already occupied with building and designing other aircraft, so DH.1 production was undertaken by Savages Limited of King's Lynn,production was initially very slow, and only five examples of the type had reached the RFC by the end of 1915.

Later production machines were fitted with the 120 hp Beardmore engine, as originally intended, as these had become more plentiful. This version was redesignated the DH.1A.
The DH.1 saw operational service only in the Middle East theatre, where six Beardmore-powered DH.1As arrived in July 1916 and were used by No. 14 Squadron RFC as escorts for their B.E.2 reconnaissance aircraft.The other DH.1s served in training, with 43 aircraft allotted and Home Defence units in the UK receiving an additional 24 aircraft,finally being withdrawn from service in 1918
Around 100 aircraft were built in total.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on July 24, 2020, 08:17:07 PM
Airco DH.9C


The Airco DH.9C was a passenger aircraft from late 1921.

After World War 1 many surplus aircraft were available including Airco DH.9 light bombers, which could be suitable for the emerging air transport business. Stripped DH.9s were used to carry one passenger behind the pilot in the gunner's position, but later versions, designated DH.9B, added a second passenger seat ahead of the pilot. A second seat behind the pilot was added by extending the rear cockpit in the early DH.9C. Later DH.9Cs had this rear position converted to hold two passengers face to face, protected by a faired dorsal canopy or cabin.

The DH.9, DH.9B, and DH.9C had the same wingspan and height and only slight variations in length depending on the fitted powerplant usually around 230 hp. They were two-bay tractor biplanes, with fixed two-wheel main and tail-skid undercarriage. Their main structure were of spruce and ash, wire-braced and fabric-covered.

The first four-seat DH.9C, received its certificate of airworthiness on 13 January 1922.Nineteen aircraft were produced for various operators, 13 in the UK, three in Spain, and three in Australia. The last in service was operated by Northern Air Lines in Barton, Greater Manchester, until 1932.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on July 25, 2020, 04:15:55 PM
Airco DH.16

The Airco DH.16 was a British four-seat commercial biplane of the 1910s.

The DH.16 was a redesigned Airco DH.9A with a wider fuselage,featuring an enclosed cabin for four passengers, plus the pilot in an open cockpit.The prototype first flew in March 1919 at Hendon Aerodrome. Nine aircraft were built, all but one being delivered to Aircraft Transport & Travel Limited (AT&T). They used the first aircraft for pleasure flying, then on 25 August 1919 it began a London-to-Paris service. One aircraft was sold to the River Plate Aviation Company in Argentina, to operate a service between Buenos Aires and Montevideo.

The first six aircraft were powered by a 320 hp Rolls Royce Eagle inline piston engine; the last three aircraft were fitted with the more powerful 450 hp Napier Lion engine.
AT&T operated the London -to-Paris service, plus a Croydon Airport-to-Amsterdam service on behalf of KLM. In December 1920, AT&T closed down, and the surviving seven aircraft were stored. Two were later used for newspaper delivery flights, and the other five were scrapped. On 10 January 1923, one of the newspaper delivery aircraft crashed, and DH.16s were withdrawn and scrapped.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on July 25, 2020, 04:35:52 PM
Airspeed Ferry

The Airspeed AS.4 Ferry was a 1930s British three-engined ten-seat biplane airliner.

The Ferry was an unusual configuration biplane with a third engine mounted in the upper wing to give the pilot a better view. Not all three engines were the same, the lower engines were 120 hp de Havilland Gipsy IIs, and the upper wing had an inverted 120 hp de Havilland Gipsy III. The lower wing was mounted at the top of the fuselage to give passengers an unobstructed view of the ground.

The first aircraft flew on 10 April 1932 from Sherburn-in-Elmet Airfield, followed soon after by the second aircraft.The outbreak of World War II caused the first aircraft (G-ABSI) to be pressed into service with the Royal Air Force in 1940, as AV968, and served until November 1940.The second aircraft was sold in India to Himalaya Air Transport and Survey Company Limited in 1934 as VT-AFO.It was destroyed by vandals in a hangar fire in 1936.

The third (G-ACBT) and fourth (G-ACFB) aircraft were built for the Midland and Scottish Air Ferries Ltd and used on services from Renfrew to Campbeltown, Belfast and Speke. The firm closed in 1934 and the aircraft were put up for sale. G-ACBT was not sold and was dismantled in 1941. G-ACFB returned to England,later it was pressed into service with the Royal Air Force in 1941 and became an instructional airframe.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on July 27, 2020, 01:36:07 AM
Airspeed Courier

The Airspeed AS.5 Courier was a six-seat single-engined light aircraft that saw some use as an airliner.

It first flew on 10 April 1933 and was the first British type with a retractable undercarriage to go into production, with a total of 16 built.The Courier was a wooden low-winged cabin monoplane;he prototype was powered by a 240 hp Armstrong Siddeley Lynx engine.A production run of 15 Couriers followed during 1933/34, being used for air-racing, and as a light airliner and for air taxi work.

Owing to its advanced aerodynamics, two were used as research aircraft, one by the RAE and one by Napier's, who used it for development of the Napier Rapier engine.
At the outbreak of World War II the majority of the surviving Couriers were pressed into RAF service, who used them for communications purposes. Only one Courier survived the War, being used for pleasure flights at Southend-on-Sea before being scrapped in December 1947.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on July 27, 2020, 06:29:19 PM
Airspeed Envoy

The Airspeed AS.6 Envoy was a light, twin-engined transport aircraft from the mid-1930`s.

The Envoy was a twin-engined low-wing cabin monoplane of all-wood construction apart from fabric covered control surfaces. It had a rearward retracting main undercarriage with a fixed tailwheel. The aircraft was built in three series, Series I was the initial production seventeen built. Thirteen Series II variants were built with split flaps and the Series III (19-built) was similar but had detailed improvements. Each series of the Envoy was sold with a choice of engines including the Wolseley Aries, Armstrong Siddeley Cheetah V or Armstrong Siddeley Lynx IVC radial.

The prototype, G-ACMT, first flew on 26 June 1934, Tata Air Service of India flew an Airspeed Envoy in a demonstration flight between Bombay and Calcutta on 25 February 1935 as a proving flight of air mail service between the two cities.Orders soon came from the whole Commonwealth. Two aircraft went to the Ansett Airlines in Australia. North Eastern Airways and Olley Air Service in the UK also used the AS.6. In Czechoslovakia, the CSA ordered four AS.6 Envoy JC in 1937.

The Airspeed AS.6 Envoy also entered the Air Forces of different countries. The RAF used a few AS.6 in a military configuration, it was also used in the Air Forces of Spain, Japan, South Africa, Finland and China and some others. Seven machines were ordered for joint use by the South African Air Force and South African Airways, with three being delivered in military form and four delivered to SAA.Each of these seven aircraft could be transformed by a work crew of four within four hours from the transport version into a light bomber or reconnaissance aircraft. In this configuration the crew consisted of four; pilot, navigator, radio operator and gunner.
In total 52 aircraft were built.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on July 27, 2020, 06:40:33 PM
Airspeed Queen Wasp

The Airspeed AS.30 Queen Wasp was a British pilotless target aircraft from the late 1930`s.

The Queen Wasp was built to meet an Air Ministry Spec for a pilotless target aircraft to replace the de Havilland Queen Bee. Two prototypes were ordered in May 1936, one to have a wheeled landing gear for use by the RAF and the other as a floatplane for RN use for air-firing practice at sea. Powered by the 350 hp Armstrong Siddeley Cheetah engine, a total of 65 aircraft were ordered, depending on the success of the flight test programme.

The aircraft was a single-engined biplane constructed of wood with sharply-tapered wings and fabric-covered control surfaces. An enclosed cabin with one seat was provided so the Queen Wasp could be flown manually with the radio control system turned off. The radio control system was complex with a number of backup safety devices to ensure radio and battery operation was uninterrupted.
The landplane first flew on 11 June 1937, and the floatplane on 19 October 1937. The floatplane was successfully catapulted from HMS Pegasus in November 1937.In flight tests, the aircraft was found to be underpowered and water handling difficulties necessitated a redesign of the floats,just 7 aircraft were completed before the project was ended.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on July 28, 2020, 05:38:15 PM
Airspeed Fleet Shadower

The Airspeed AS.39 Fleet Shadower was a long-range patrol aircraft design from the early 1940`s.

The Royal Navy expressed an interest in an aircraft that could shadow enemy fleets at night and called for a slow-flying low-noise aircraft with a long range, capable of operating from an aircraft carrier's flight deck. The required performance was to be a speed of 38 knots at 1,500 ft (460 m) for at least six hours.Five companies showed interest: Percival, Short Brothers, Fairey Aviation, General Aircraft Ltd and Airspeed. General Aircraft and Airspeed were selected to build two prototypes each and Airspeed received a contract on 10 August 1938.

The AS.39 was a high-wing,strut-braced monoplane with wooden wings and tail unit and an all-metal monocoque fuselage. It had a fixed, divided type landing gear and tailwheel. The aircraft had a crew of three: pilot, observer and radio operator. The AS.39 had a unique crew configuration with the observer positioned in the nose with clear-vision windows on three sides and the pilot's compartment raised to allow passage to the radio operator's compartment. Four small 130 hp Pobjoy Niagara V air-cooled radial engines were mounted on the wings. This maximized propwash over the wing giving extra lift at low speed. The wings could be folded for storage.

Of two prototypes started, just one was finished and flown, first flying on 17 October 1940, the flight was delayed due to problems with the engines which had caused vibrations. The prototype had stability problems and poor stall handling not helped by the under-powered engines. Airspeed were asked to re-engine the aircraft with two Armstrong Whitworth Cheetah XI radials and add rear-facing machine guns. The second aircraft was not finished when on 17 February 1941 the Navy cancelled the Shadower program, along with the AS.39,the company were requested to scrap both aircraft. The competing G.A.L.38 flew for a few months before it was cancelled and scrapped in March 1942. The requirement for such aircraft had been made obsolete due to the introduction of radar on long-range patrol aircraft.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on July 30, 2020, 03:30:36 PM
Airspeed Ambassador

The Airspeed AS.57 Ambassador is a British twin piston-engined airliner from the late 1940`s.

The Ambassador originated in 1943 as a requirement identified for a twin-engined short-to-medium-haul replacement of the Douglas DC-3. Airspeed Ltd. was asked to prepare an unpressurised design in the 14.5-ton gross weight class, using two Bristol Hercules radial engines.
After the end of the WWII , the design had grown substantially.The Ambassador would be pressurised, have more powerful Bristol Centaurus radials, and two prototypes were ordered.
The revised design offered seating for 47 passengers and, had a tricycle undercarriage.With three low tailfins and a long pointed nose, it shared something of the character of the larger transcontinental Lockheed Constellation.

Eventually three prototypes were built, the first registered G-AGUA was first flown on 10 July 1947. The second, G-AKRD, was used by the Bristol Aeroplane Company from 1953 for flight-testing the Bristol Proteus 705 turbine engine. From March 1958 it was used by Rolls-Royce for test flying the Dart and Tyne turboprops. The third prototype and first Ambassador 2 G-ALFR was used for BEA proving trials and from 1955 in the development trials of the Napier Eland turbine engine.

British European Airways (BEA) placed an order for 20 aircraft in September 1948, and operated them between 1952 and 1958, calling them their "Elizabethan Class" in honour of the newly crowned Queen.Flagship of the fleet was G-ALZN, named "RMA Elizabethan". The first "Elizabethan" scheduled flight was from Heathrow to Paris Le Bourget on 13 March 1952 and the type later also served other key UK routes. By December 1955 the "Elizabethan Class" had reached 2,230 flying hours annually, per aircraft, the highest in BEA's fleet. However, the last Elizabethan scheduled service for BEA was operated in August 1958, and the type was replaced by the Vickers Viscount.

Further sales were not achieved, after disposal by BEA, the type helped to establish the scheduled and charter flight operations of Dan-Air, an important airline in the development of package holidays. The type was also used in the UK by Autair and BKS Air Transport. Second-hand Ambassadors were flown for short periods by Butler Air Transport (Australia), Globe Air (Switzerland) and in Norway.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on August 01, 2020, 02:33:20 AM
Armstrong Whitworth F.K.10

The Armstrong Whitworth F.K.10 was a two-seat quadruplane fighter aircraft built during the First World War.

The F.K.10 was designed in 1916 by Frederick Koolhoven,chose the unusual quadruplane layout, also used by Pemberton-Billing (later known as Supermarine) for the P.B.29E and Supermarine Nighthawk anti-Zeppelin aircraft.
The first prototype, the F.K.9 was built and first flew in the summer of 1916, powered by a 110 hp Clerget 9Z rotary engine. It had a shallow fuselage, with the wings joined by plank-like struts,similar to those used by the Sopwith Triplane. After evaluation at the Central Flying School in late 1916, a production order for 50 was placed by the RFC for a modified version, the F.K.10.

The production F.K.10 had a redesigned,deeper fuselage, and tail, but retained the wing planform of the F.K.9. The F.K.10 showed inferior performance to the Sopwith 1½ Strutter, which was already in service as a successful two-seat fighter, and only five were built of the RFC order, with a further three built for the RNAS. They were not used operationally and the design was not developed further.The F.K.10 had an uprated 130hp engine but only 8 of the aircraft ordered were completed.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on August 01, 2020, 03:55:27 PM
Armstrong Whitworth Ara

The Armstrong Whitworth Ara was a single-seat biplane fighter aircraft from WWI.

In early 1918, the British Air Ministry requested designs for a single-seat fighter to replace the Sopwith Snipe. The specified engine was the ABC Dragonfly, a new radial engine which had been ordered into production based on promised performance before any testing had been carried out. To meet this specification, Armstrong Whitworth's chief designer, Fred Murphy, produced the Armstrong Whitworth Ara, three prototypes being ordered.

The Ara was a two-bay biplane. It had a square fuselage, the engine was covered in a pointed cowling, with the cylinder heads exposed. The upper wing was low to give the pilot a better upwards view.
The 320 hp Dragonfly engine proved to have hopeless reliability. Two of the three prototypes were completed, the first flying in mid-1919. The Ara was abandoned towards the end of the year when Armstrong Whitworth closed down its aircraft department.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on August 01, 2020, 04:05:38 PM
Armstrong Whitworth Wolf

The Armstrong Whitworth Wolf was a two-seat reconnaissance aircraft from 1923.

The Wolf was a two-bay biplane of unusual design, with the fuselage mounted between the two sets of wings. No production order was placed, and the three machines built served their days at the Royal Aircraft Establishment at Farnborough as experimental testbeds.

Alongside the RAF's order in 1923, two were built for the RAF Reserve Flying School at Whitley, and a final, sixth aircraft in 1929. As trainers, they proved popular with pilots, although less so with ground crews for whom the rigging and undercarriage were difficult to maintain.
The aircraft were powered by a 350 hp Armstrong Siddeley Jaguar III 14-cylinder two-row air-cooled radial engine, which gave a max speed of 110 mph and a cruise of 95 mph.All Wolves were retired from service in 1931 and all but the most recently built were scrapped.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on August 02, 2020, 02:44:21 PM
Armstrong Whitworth Argosy

The Armstrong Whitworth Argosy was a three-engine biplane airliner from 1926.

The Armstrong Whitworth A.W.154 Argosy emerged from a declaration by Imperial Airways that all its aircraft would be multi-engine designs, on the grounds of safety.They were intended to replace the single-engine de Havilland aircraft that Imperial Airways had inherited. The first example flew in March 1926, following an initial order for three Argosies from Imperial Airways. An improved Mk. II version was introduced in 1929. The Mk1 was powered by three 385 hp Armstrong Siddeley Jaguar IIIA radial piston engines.The MkII had three 420 hp Armstrong Siddeley Jaguar IVA radial piston engines. Seven aircraft were completed in the short production run.

The Argosy was initially used on European routes (later operating on services to South Africa), with the fleet named after cities. The first revenue flight was from London to Paris on 16 July 1926. Argosies implemented the world's first named air service, the luxury 'Silver Wing' service from London to Paris,using Argosy City of Birmingham (G-EBLO). Two seats were removed and replaced with a small bar, and a steward. In April 1931 Edward, Prince of Wales and his brother Prince George flew home from Paris–Le Bourget Airport in City of Glasgow (G-EBLF).

On 28 March 1933,the City of Liverpool caught fire over Belgium, causing a crash in which all three crew and twelve passengers were killed.Argosies continued in service with Imperial Airways until 1935, with the last example, City of Manchester (G-AACJ), being used for pleasure flights by United Airways Ltd of Stanley Park Aerodrome (Blackpool), which later was merged into British Airways Ltd. It continued in use with British Airways until December 1936.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on August 02, 2020, 03:03:39 PM
Armstrong Whitworth Atalanta

The Armstrong Whitworth AW.15 Atalanta was a four-engine airliner built in the early 1930`s.

The AW.15 Atalanta was designed to meet a Imperial Airways requirement for a four-engined airliner for its African routes.The specification called for an aircraft that could carry nine passengers, three crew and a load of freight for 400 miles, cruising at 115 mph.The prototype, G-ABPI, was named Atalanta and first flown on 6 June 1932.

The Atalanta was a high-wing monoplane with four 340 hp Armstrong Siddeley Serval III ten-cylinder (two rows of 5 cylinders) radial engines. Its construction included steel, plywood and fabric; the undercarriage was fixed but was streamlined to minimize drag.The aircraft had some minor design flaws and any teething problems were quickly overcome. The prototype was flown to Croydon for acceptance by Imperial Airways, and on 26 September 1932, it flew a commercial service from Croydon to Brussels and Cologne.

The Atalanta could carry up to 17 passengers but Imperial Airways limited the seating to nine for on the Indian route and 11 on the African route.
Imperial Airways ordered eight aircraft which had all been delivered by 1933. The first service was flown from Croydon to Brussels and then Cologne on 26 September 1932. The prototype G-ABPI left Croydon Airport on 5 January 1933 on a proving flight to Cape Town, South Africa. Three other aircraft joined it in South Africa to fly the service between Cape Town and Kisumu, although they proved to be unsuitable.Imperial withdrew the Atalanta from its African routes in 1937.

Three aircraft were lost before WW II and the remaining five aircraft were taken over by BOAC. In March 1941, they were impressed into use by the Royal Air Force in India.In December 1941, they were handed over to the Indian Air Force for use on coastal reconnaissance duties, armed with a single .303 in (7.7 mm) machine gun operated by the navigator. The last patrol was flown on 30 August 1942 and the two survivors were transferred to transport duties where they continued in use until June 1944.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on August 03, 2020, 05:51:46 PM
Armstrong Whitworth A.W.16

The Armstrong Whitworth A.W.16 (or A.W.XVI) was a British single-engine biplane fighter aircraft from 1930.

It was a single bay biplane with wings of unequal span braced with struts, and bore a close resemblance to the A.W.XIV Starling Mk I, though with a less Siskin-like, humped fuselage. The undercarriage was fixed, undivided and spatted. The 420 hp Armstrong Siddeley Panther radial engine, earlier known as the Jaguar Major was enclosed by a Townend ring.

Problems with the Panther engine delayed the first prototype aircraft,which first flew in March 1930, and the competing Hawker Nimrod was purchased before the AW.16 could be delivered for evaluation. When it was evaluated, it showed inferior performance to the Nimrod, and had poor handling on an exposed carrier deck.

A second prototype was fitted with a more reliable 525 hp Panther IIA engine for submission for an order from the RAF. By this time the A.W.16 was almost obselete, and was quickly discarded from consideration. A number of production aircraft were built with 17 ordered by the Kwangsi Air Force in China.
These aircraft were produced late in 1931,and were delivered via Hong Kong. While initially serving in the air force of the local Warlords, the A.W.16s were (along with the rest of the Kwangsi Air Force) incorporated in the main Chinese Nationalist Air Force in 1937.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on August 04, 2020, 06:17:38 PM
Armstrong Whitworth Ensign


The Armstrong Whitworth Ensign was a four-engine airliner built during the late 1930s.

Work started on the A.W.27 Ensign in 1934 after receipt of a specification from Imperial Airways for a monoplane airliner with four Armstrong Siddeley Tiger engines.
The first aircraft was ordered in September, with delivery expected in 1936. Eleven more were ordered in May 1935.An order for a further two aircraft in December 1936 brought the total to 14.

The Ensign was a high-wing monoplane of light alloy construction and an oval, semi-monocoque fuselage with a conventional tailplane.It had retractable landing gear and a castoring tail wheel. The main landing gear was hydraulically operated and retracted into the inner engine nacelles. The cockpit had side-by-side seating for two pilots ; there was also accommodation for a radio operator. The fuselage was divided into separate cabins, either four cabins with accommodation for 40 passengers or three cabins with room for 27 by day or 20 at night with sleeping accommodation.

Production of their Whitley heavy bomber for the RAF was a priority, and work on the Ensign proceeded slowly Several changes were requested by Imperial, slowing production further. As a result, the Ensign's maiden flight did not take place until 24 January 1938.Imperial Airways named the prototype "Ensign" and as such the "Ensign Class" was applied to the whole fleet. The aircraft were fitted out for either Empire routes (eight aircraft) or European routes (four aircraft). The former carried 27 passengers in three cabins or 20 sleeping; the latter 40 passengers across three cabins and a four-person "coupe" aft of the third cabin.

11 aircraft were in service at the outbreak of World War II, with a twelfth following soon after. All were withdrawn in October 1939; they were to be camouflaged before flying a new route from Heston Aerodrome to Le Bourget Airport, Paris. The aircraft remained in service after formation of BOAC that November, but instead of being taken up for military service, remained civilian under direction of National Air Communications.

The aircraft were found to be lacking in performance for their wartime role, it was decided to fit the remaining eight aircraft with Wright Cyclone G.102A engines.

The final two aircraft that had been ordered by Imperial in 1936, were equipped with more powerful 1100 hp Wright Cyclone geared radial engines and completed as A.W.27A Ensign Mk IIs.The new engines significantly improved performance and allowed the Ensign to be used in hot climates and at high altitude. At the same time, other modifications were incorporated.

From 1944, towards the end of their service, the Ensigns were used between Cairo and Calcutta. When taken out of use for their Certificate of Airworthiness overhauls, the camouflage dope, which, in combination with the heat, had been rotting the fabric surfaces, was removed and thereafter the Ensigns were in a "natural" finish.
After the war ended the aircraft returned to the UK, all were finally scrapped in 1947.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on August 05, 2020, 07:32:23 PM
Armstrong Whitworth Scimitar

The Armstrong Whitworth A.W.35 Scimitar was a British single-engine biplane fighter aircraft from the mid-1930`s.

The A.W.35 Scimitar was a development of the Armstrong Whitworth A.W.16 fighter, powered by an Armstrong Siddeley Panther 735 hp engine, with a lowered nose decking and an enlarged fin and rudder. The first prototype was a modification of the second A.W.16, and first flew in this form on 29 April 1935. A second prototype was constructed by converting another A.W.16.

Four Scimitars were ordered for the Norwegian Army Air Service, and an agreement signed for licence production. After testing in late 1935, the four Scimitars were delivered to Norway in 1936.
The licence was cancelled later that year when it was found that the aircraft was unsuitable for operation on skis without further design changes. The Scimitars remained in use in the training role at the outbreak of the WW2. When the Germans invaded in 1940 the Scimitars were all undergoing maintenance and could not be made operational in time.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on August 06, 2020, 06:46:56 PM
Armstrong Whitworth A.W.52


The Armstrong Whitworth A.W.52 was a flying wing aircraft design of the late 1940s for research into a proposed flying wing jet airliner.

AW Aircraft proposed a jet-powered six or four-engine flying wing airliner design, using a laminar flow wing, during World War II It had to be a large aircraft in order to provide passenger head-room within the wing. The low-speed characteristics of the design were tested on a wooden glider known as the A.W.52G; the glider was designed to be roughly half the size of the powered A.W.52, which in turn would be about half the size of the airliner.
Construction of the AW.52G began in March 1943, with the glider making its maiden flight, towed by an AW Whitley bomber. In 1944, Armstrong Whitworth received a contract that would allow them to produce two A.W.52 prototypes for evaluation, nominally as mail carrying aircraft.

The A.W.52 was intended for high speed and was an all-metal turbojet-powered aircraft, with a retractable undercarriage; aerodynamically it had much in common with the glider. Both aircraft were moderately-swept flying wings with a centre section having a straight trailing edge. The wing tips carried small end-plate fin and rudders, which operated differentially, with a greater angle on the outer one. Roll and pitch were controlled with elevons that extended inward from the wing tips over of the outer, swept part of the trailing edge. The elevons moved together as elevators and differentially as ailerons.

The crew sat in tandem in a nacelle, the pilot was just forward of the wing leading edge, providing a better view than in the glider. The pressurised cockpit was slightly off-set to port. The engines were mounted in the wing centre section, close to the centre line and so not disturbing the upper wing surface.
The first prototype flew on 13 November 1947 powered by two Rolls-Royce Nene engines of 5,000 lbf thrust each. This was followed by the second prototype on 1 September 1948 with the lower-powered 3500 lbf Rolls Royce Derwent. Trials were disappointing: laminar flow could not be maintained, so maximum speeds, though respectable, were less than expected. Take-off and landing runs were longer than for a conventional aircraft due to angles of attack.

On 30 May 1949, while diving the first prototype at over 300 mph test pilot J. Lancaster encountered a pitch oscillation believed to be caused by elevon flutter which rapidly increased to incapacitating levels.Lancaster ejected from the aircraft using its Martin-Baker Mk.1 ejection seat, becoming the first British pilot to use the system in a "live" emergency.It was fortunate that he was alone in the aircraft as the second crew member was not provided with an ejection seat.

Surprisingly the aircraft, stopped fluttering and glided down to land itself in open country with relatively little damage. Following this incident, and in view of the disappointing results obtained, no further development of the flying-wing formula was undertaken by Armstrong Whitworth, who concentrated on the A.W. 55 propeller-turbine airliner. The second A.W. 52 was handed over to the RAE at Farnborough, where it was used for experimental flying until it was finally disposed of in June 1954.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on August 07, 2020, 06:27:27 PM
Armstrong Whitworth Apollo.


The Armstrong Whitworth AW.55 Apollo was a 1940s four-engine turboprop airliner.

The AW.55 Apollo,was a low-wing monoplane with retractable tricycle landing gear which folded into the wings. It had a conventional tail unit with a mid-placed cantilever horizontal tailplane. It had a pressurised fuselage with seating for 26-31 passengers. It was powered by 4 x Armstrong Siddeley Mamba ASM.2 which were expected to produce 1,270 shp plus 307 lbf static thrust for the production aircraft. When the prototype Apollo was ready to fly the engine could only produce 800 shp. Two prototypes - one completely fitted out - and a static test fuselage were ordered by the Ministry of Supply and construction started in 1948. The prototype (serial VX220) first flew at Baginton, Coventry on 10 April 1949.

The aircraft was unstable and underpowered,after nine hours of test flying it was grounded to try to solve some of the many problems.Test flying resumed in August 1949 but the aircraft had further engine problems. Changes were made to the design of the tail unit including fitting a dorsal fin and increasing the fin area to improve stability and control.
Further engine problems stopped the trial and test flights. The company started a selling campaign to European airlines, but the continual engine difficulties caused the decision in June 1952 to abandon development of the aircraft entirely.

The two prototypes had been paid for by the Ministry of Supply and the prototype aircraft entered service at the Aeroplane & Armament Experimental Establishment at Boscombe Down in September 1952. The second aircraft (serial VX224) followed in September 1953 and was later used by the Empire Test Pilot's School during 1954 for multi-engine pilot training. The prototype was broken up in 1955 and the second aircraft was passed to the Structures Department at RAE Farnborough. The aircraft fuselage was used at Farnborough for water tank pressure testing until it was scrapped in the 1970s.