Northern Ireland Aviation Enthusiast's Forum

Military Aviation => Historical Military Aircraft => Topic started by: Angry Turnip on January 14, 2019, 08:25:14 PM

Title: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on January 14, 2019, 08:25:14 PM
As a new feature I am going to do a short daily profile of British historic military or civil aircraft,that are perhaps slightly less well known than others from the same stable.

Avro Lincoln.

The Avro Lincoln,or Avro Type 694,a British four-engined heavy bomber,which first flew on 9 June 1944.The first Lincoln variants were initially known as the Lancaster IV and V,but were renamed Lincoln I and II.It was the last piston-engined bomber operated by the RAF.

WWII ended before the Lincoln went into action,but production of the type proceeded and was adopted in quantity,the RAF and the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) operated the Lincoln during the Malayan Emergency.Lincolns also saw some use in civil aviation,often being operated as aerial test beds for aero-engine research.

The Lincolns of Bomber Command were phased out from the mid-1950s and had been completely replaced by jet bombers by 1963.The last in RAF service were five operated by No. 151 Squadron,Signals Command,at RAF Watton,which were retired on 12 March 1963.

Other aircraft were also derived from the Lincoln.A dedicated maritime patrol aircraft,designated as the Avro Shackleton,was developed for the RAF and the South African Air Force.Avro decided to develop a commercial airliner,known as the Tudor,which dipped extensively into the parts bin of the Lincoln.

View of Avro Lincoln credit to Skytamer Images
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on January 15, 2019, 07:30:44 PM
Armstrong Whitworth A.W.41 Albemarle.

The Armstrong Whitworth A.W.41 Albemarle was a British twin-engine transport,that entered service during the WWII.Designed as a medium bomber,it was used for transport duties,paratroop transport,and glider towing.RAF Albemarle squadrons participated in D-Day,and the assault on Arnhem during Operation Market Garden.

It was powered by 2 Bristol Hercules XI radial engines of 1590 hp each,giving it a top speed of 265 mph.The aircraft was always expected to be of use as a contingency and to be less than ideal,despite this a batch of 200 was ordered in Oct 1938.The first Albemarle (P1360) first flew on 20 March 1940 at Hamble Aerodrome.

Plans for using it as a bomber were dropped due to delays in reaching service,it was not an improvement over current medium bomber types.The Soviet Air Force placed a contract for delivery of 200 Albemarles in October 1942.In May 1943,the Soviets suspended deliveries and cancelled them in favour of Douglas C-47`s.

The first RAF operational flight was on 9 February 1943,by a 296 Squadron Albemarle which dropped leaflets over Lisieux in Normandy.RAF Albemarles took part in many British airborne operations,including Sicily,D-Day and Arnhem,towing various glider types such as the Horsa etc.
The RAF Heavy Glider Conversion Unit,replaced the Albemarles with Handley Page Halifaxes in February 1946 and the type was retired from operational units.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: smudge on January 15, 2019, 07:38:14 PM
For a while there was a painting of an Albemarle in the Clubhouse at EGAD!  In the narrow corridor from the apron-side door into the lounge.

Will have to check for it next time I'm down.

That has reminded me to find if there was any connection between the type and Newtownards, none comes to mind.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on January 16, 2019, 06:57:48 PM
Bristol Type 163 Buckingham

The Bristol Type 163 Buckingham,was a twin engine medium bomber for the RAF.It was built in small numbers,and was used mainly for transport and liaison duties.By the time the design entered production, requirements had changed,the Buckingham was not considered suitable for daytime use over Europe.In January 1944 it was decided that all Buckinghams would be sent overseas to replace Vickers Wellingtons.

Once the Buckingham's handling problems were revealed,it was soon realised that the type was of little use.As a result,it was cancelled in August 1944.A batch of 119 were built,while uses for the aircraft were sought,a conversion to a communications aircraft was devised.54 had been built as bombers,the remainder were converted for high-speed courier duties with RAF Transport Command as it had a useful 300mph top speed.

65 Buckingham bombers were unfinished on the production line,they ended up being rebuilt as the Buckmaster,a trainer for the similar Brigand.The Buckmaster continued to serve as a trainer until its eventual retirement in the mid-1950s.Powerplant: 2 × Bristol Centaurus VII air-cooled radial engine of 2,520 hp each.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on January 17, 2019, 08:07:48 PM
Boulton Paul Balliol

The Boulton Paul Balliol,and Sea Balliol were military advanced trainers,for the RAF and the FAA.Designed to replace the North American Harvard,it used the Rolls-Royce Merlin 35 1245hp engine.The second prototype,powered by the intended Armstrong Siddeley Mamba turboprop,first flew on 17 May 1948,the world's first single-engined turboprop aircraft to fly.The Merlin powered Balliol,designated Balliol T.2,first flew on 10 July 1948.

Due to the change in air-training policy,the Balliol was only delivered to one Flying Training School,No.7 at RAF Cottesmore,replacing their Harvards.They later served at the RAF College,Cranwell until replaced there by the de Havilland Vampire T.Mk 11 in 1956.The Balliol also saw limited squadron service from 1953 with No. 288 Squadron RAF based at RAF Middle Wallop,until the squadron was disbanded in September 1957.12 Mk.2s went to the Royal Ceylon Air Force,7 from cancelled RAF contracts,and five from RAF stocks.

Sea Balliol T21 WL732 former Royal Navy and A&AEE aircraft is on display at the RAF Museum Cosford.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on January 18, 2019, 07:46:39 PM
BAC TSR-2

The British Aircraft Corporation TSR-2 was a twinjet strike and reconnaissance aircraft for the RAF.The TSR-2 was designed to penetrate a well-defended forward battle area at low altitudes and very high speeds.Also to provide high-altitude,high-speed stand-off,side-looking radar and photographic imagery and signals intelligence,and aerial reconnaissance.TSR-2 was the victim of ever-rising costs and inter-service squabbling over Britain's future defence needs,which led to the controversial decision to scrap the programme in 1965.

The most advanced aviation technology of the period was incorporated in order to make it the highest-performing aircraft in the world in its projected missions.The USA put tremendous pressure on the UK government to order an adapted version of the General Dynamics F-111,a decision that itself was later rescinded as costs and development times increased.The replacements included the Blackburn Buccaneer and McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom II,both of which had previously been considered and rejected early in the TSR-2 procurement process.

Only one of the three airframes flew,and flight tests revealed vibration problems,and issues with the landing gear,but these niggles were soon addressed.Over a period of six months, a total of 24 test flights were conducted.The basic flying qualities of the aircraft which,according to the test pilots involved,were outstanding.Speeds of Mach 1.12 and sustained low-level flights down to 200 ft (above the Pennines) were achieved.The last test flight took place on 31 March 1965.
At two Cabinet meetings held on 1 April 1965,it was decided to cancel the TSR-2 on the grounds of projected cost,and instead to obtain an option agreement to acquire up to 110 F-111 aircraft with no immediate commitment to buy.

The TSR-2 tooling,jigs and many of the part completed aircraft were all scrapped at Brooklands within six months of the cancellation.Two airframes eventually survived: the complete XR220 at the RAF Museum,Cosford and XR222 much less complete at Duxford.The only airframe ever to fly XR219,along with the completed XR221 and part completed XR223 were taken to Shoeburyness and used as targets to test the vulnerability of a modern airframe and systems to gunfire and shrapnel.

The apparent haste with which the project was scrapped has been the source of much argument and bitterness since. The TSR-2, nonetheless, remains a lingering "what if?" of British aviation.
Aeronautical engineer Sir Sydney Camm (designer of the Hawker Hurricane) said of the TSR-2: "All modern aircraft have four dimensions: span, length, height and politics. TSR-2 simply got the first three right."
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: smudge on January 18, 2019, 11:06:24 PM
Many years ago when I visited Brooklands parts of the jigs and formers were still lying in the long grass. Such a sad story.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on January 19, 2019, 04:51:24 PM
I have a video (remember them?) called TSR2 The Untold Story,it features great footage of the test flights.
One in particular when it is being tailed by a BAC Lightening,the TSR2 fires up one engine on reheat (afterburner) only,as there was a problem with the other,but it leaves the Lightening for dead.
Even with both of it`s Avons on full burn it could barely keep up-impressive stuff.

It`s on You Tube....https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=edClNWhKFEU
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on January 19, 2019, 05:15:46 PM
de Havilland Flamingo

The de Havilland DH.95 Flamingo was a twin-engined high-wing monoplane airliner first flown on 22 December 1938.During the WWII some were used by the RAF as a transport and for general communications duties.
A product of chief designer R.E.Bishop,it was the first all-metal stressed-skin aircraft built by de Havilland;control surfaces were fabric covered.It was powered by two 890 hp Bristol Perseus XIIIC air-cooled radial engines driving three-bladed D.H hydromatic variable-pitch propellers.

Two pilots were seated side by side with a radio operator behind them in the cockpit,the cabin accommodating up to 17 passengers.It had a retractable undercarriage,slotted flaps,and was considered a promising sales prospect for the company,capable of competing with the American Douglas DC-3 and Lockheed Model 10 Electra.The first prototype flew on 22 December 1938,with an initial production run of twenty aircraft proposed.
A single military transport variant was built as the DH.95 Hertfordshire.It had oval cabin windows instead of rectangular ones,and seating for 22 troops.

Following the success of the first test flights,Jersey Airways ordered three 17-seat aircraft,and this was followed by orders from the Egyptian government and the Air Ministry.The Air Ministry aircraft were to be used by the Air Council and the King's Flight. The King's Flight aircraft was to be used in the event of the royal family having to leave the country but in the end it was passed to the RAF.

BOAC ordered eight aircraft to be powered by the Perseus XVI and originally intended as ten-seaters.BOAC were later allotted the aircraft ordered by the Egyptian Government.The BOAC Flamingoes were not popular,with a lack of spares,the airline decided to withdraw the type.RAF aircraft were withdrawn from use during the war and were slowly scrapped to provide spares for the remaining aircraft.
British Air Transport restored the original former Admiralty aircraft which flew again on 27 May 1952,based at Redhill Aerodrome,which was closed in 1954 and the last flying Flamingo was dismantled and scrapped.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on January 20, 2019, 09:14:07 PM
de Havilland Hornet

The de Havilland DH.103 Hornet was a twin-piston engined fighter aircraft.It was earmarked to conduct long range fighter operations in the Pacific theatre against Japan, but the war ended before the Hornet reached operational squadron status.
It bore a family resemblance to the larger Mosquito,but was an entirely fresh design,albeit one that drew extensively upon experiences from,the construction techniques used in the Mosquito.
The Hornet was powered by a pair of highly developed Rolls-Royce Merlin engines,producing 2,070 hp each,which drove four-bladed propellers.Main armament was four short-barrelled 20 mm Hispano V cannons,other munitions typically used included various rockets and bombs.

It was unusual for a British design in having propellers that rotated in opposite directions;the two engine crankshafts rotated in the same direction but the Merlin 131 added an idler gear to reverse its propeller's rotation (to clockwise, viewed from the front).This cancelled the torque effect of two propellers turning in the same direction that had affected earlier designs.On production Hornets the conventionally rotating Merlin 130 was on the port wing with the Merlin 131 on the starboard.

In mid-1946,the Hornet entered squadron service with 64 Squadron,based at RAF Horsham St Faith.Operationally,the Hornet F.I lasted only a short time before being superseded by the improved F.3 version,which flew at the Farnborough Air Show in June 1946.In 1951,considerable numbers of Hornets were redeployed from Fighter Command to the squadrons of the Far East Air Force (FEAF),and participated in combat operations during the Malayan Emergency.It proved to be very reliable; 45 Sqn Hornets, based in Singapore, achieved a total of 4,500 operational sorties over five years, more than any other squadron in the FEAF.

On 21 May 1955,the last operational Hornet sortie was flown;by mid-1956,all Hornets had been recorded as having been withdrawn from operational service.No complete examples of the Hornet remain in existence today.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on January 21, 2019, 07:44:44 PM
English Electric Kingston

The English Electric P.5 Kingston was a twin-engined biplane flying boat.When the English Electric Company was formed in 1918 from several companies,the Phoenix Dynamo Manufacturing Company brought with it the two prototype Phoenix P.5 Cork`s.After a redesign the Cork reappeared as the English Electric P.5 Kingston.
The first attempt at flight 12 May 1924 ended abruptly at the point of take off,the crew were thrown from the aircraft,which began to sink,but it was re-floated and repaired.

The second prototype`s attempt was onn 25 May 1925,changes had been made including four bladed props,just after becoming airborne the engines left their mountings and the wing structure failed causing cracks in the hull.The second Kingston I N9710 first flew on 13 November 1925 at Lytham and was flown to RAF Calshot for service trials along with the third flying-boat N9711.A fourth aircraft re-emerged as N9712 with a new duralumin hull and became the sole Kingston II.Test flights revealed it`s performance was not up to scratch,the metal hull was used for tests at Farnborough.

The last aircraft to be built, N9713,had a completely redesigned hull,but this reverted to wooden construction,and was known as the Kingston III.It was intended to produce a metal-hulled variant of the Kingston III but the day the Kingston III left Lytham for Felixstowe in 1926 the company closed its aircraft department,until the late 1930`s.
With War in Europe looming,English Electric was instructed by the Air Ministry to construct a "shadow factory" at Samlesbury Aerodrome in Lancashire to build Handley Page Hampden bombers.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on January 22, 2019, 07:39:53 PM
Fairey Gordon

The Fairey Gordon was a two crew biplane light bomber and utility aircraft.Powerplant was 1 × Armstrong Siddeley PantherIIa radial engine of 525 hp.Armament was one fixed, forward-firing .303-inch Vickers machine gun,and a .303-inch Lewis Gun in the rear cockpit,plus 500 pounds (230 kg) of bombs.
The prototype was first flown on 3 March 1931.178 new-built aircraft were made for the RAF,a handful of earlier Fairey IIIFs being converted on the production line.
154 Mark Is were built,before production switched to the Mark II which had a larger fin and rudder;only 24 of these were completed before production switched to the Swordfish.

It had mostly been retired from RAF and Royal Navy FAA service prior to the Second World War,but a few squadrons still operated them in Egypt.Six of these aircraft were transferred to the Egyptian Air Force.
49 Gordons were dispatched to the Royal New Zealand Air Force in April 1939,41 entering brief service as pilot trainers.The aircraft were worn out and showing signs of their service in the Middle East.The last of these – and the last intact Gordon anywhere – was struck from RNZAF service in 1943.

On 12 April 1940 two trainee pilots Walter Raphael (pilot) and Wilfred Everist (passenger) of 1 Service Flying Training School were flying NZ629 from Wigram on a flight over the Southern Alps,it entered a spin then recovered,only to crash into trees where it became entangled.
In 1976 it was relocated – still largely suspended from trees.It is the only known survivor of a Gordon Mark I,and is under long term restoration in New Zealand.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: smudge on January 22, 2019, 11:24:49 PM

In 1976 it was relocated – still largely suspended from trees.


Gordon Bennett, what a tale!
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on January 23, 2019, 09:01:10 PM
Gloster Gauntlet

The Gloster Gauntlet was a single-seat biplane fighter of the RAF,designed and built by in the 1930s.It was the last RAF fighter to have an open cockpit and the penultimate biplane fighter in service.A total of 204 Mk IIs were produced in the UK,this new model used a revised construction method based on that used by Hawker following it`s takeover of Gloster,it was much easier to build and repair than Gloster's welded structure.Powerplant was 1 × Bristol Mercury VI S2 9-cylinder radial engine,645 hp giving a useful top speed of 230mph.Armament was a pair of 0.303 in Vickers machine guns.

The Gauntlet Mk II entered service with 56 Squadron and 111 Squadron in May 1936,at the height of its career,it equipped 14 Squadrons of RAF Fighter Command.In the late 1930`s they were passed on to freshly formed units as their first equipment to allow them to gain training before receiving more modern fighters.A flight of Gauntlets remaining in service with No.3 Sqn RAAF in the Middle East when Italy declared war in 1940.These were briefly used for ground-attack operations against the Italians before being retired from operations.

Seventeen Gauntlets IIs were licence-produced in Denmark,while 25 ex-RAF machines were supplied by South Africa as support to Finland in 1940 as a result of the Winter War.Although obsolete,they were used as advanced trainers by the Finns.
The only airworthy Mk II in the world, GT-400,is registered in Finland,where it spends its summers in Kymi Airfield Aviation Museum near Kotka.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on January 24, 2019, 08:32:20 PM
Handley Page H.P.54 Harrow

The Handley Page H.P.54 Harrow was a heavy bomber of the 1930s,operated by the RAF,being used for most of the Second World War as a transport.It was a twin-engine,high-wing monoplane with a fixed undercarriage.Powerplant was 2 × Bristol Pegasus XX nine-cylinder radial engine,of 925 hp each.
On 14 August 1936,months before the first Harrow flew,the Ministry put in an order for 100 aircraft,the first Harrow flew on 10 October 1936 from Radlett.

The nose and dorsal turrets were armed with a single Lewis gun,while the tail turret carried two Lewis guns,(later replaced by Vickers K machine guns).A bombload of up to 3,000 lb (1,400 kg) could be carried under the cabin floor,with the aircraft being able to carry a single 2,000 lb (910 kg) bomb.
The first Harrow was delivered to No. 214 Squadron RAF on 13 January 1937,all 100 were delivered by the end of the year,with five bomber squadrons of the RAF being equipped.

It was phased out as a frontline bomber by the end of 1939 but continued to be used as a transport.At the height of the German night Blitz against Britain in the winter of 1940–1941.Six Harrows equipped No. 420 Flight RAF which used lone Harrows to tow Long Aerial Mines (LAM) into the path of enemy bombers.The LAM had an explosive charge on the end of a long cable.
Three Harrows were operated by Flight Refuelling Limited,and refuelled Short Empire Flying Boats on transatlantic services,two from Gander,Newfoundland and one based in Foynes Ireland.The last five Harrows were retired by the RAF 25th May 1945.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on January 25, 2019, 07:25:21 PM
Hawker Henley

The Hawker Henley was a two-seat target tug derived from the Hawker Hurricane,that was operated by the RAF during World War II.It was originally intended to be a light bomber that could also be deployed in a close-support role as a dive-bomber,but changes in requirements changed it`s role.
The Hawker design team chose to focus on developing an aircraft similar in size to the Hurricane fighter.There would be economies of scale if some assemblies were common to both aircraft.They shared identical outer wing panels and tailplane jigs,and both were equipped with the Rolls-Royce Merlin engine,as it offered the best power-weight ratio as well as a minimal frontal area.

It`s first flight was 10th March 1937 powered by a Merlin "F" engine,at Brooklands.Further test flights confirmed the excellence of its performance.It could reach a top speed of 300 mph.However the Air Ministry had by this point decided that it no longer required a light bomber,thus it was relegated to target-towing duty.Production was subcontracted to Gloster Aircraft and 200 were ordered.

Unfortunately,it was soon discovered that unless the aircraft were restricted to an unrealistically low towing speed of 220 mph,the rate of engine failures was unacceptably high,attributed to a cooling system matched to the Henley's original missions,but inadequate when towing a target at high engine speed but low airspeed.
They were relegated to towing larger drogue targets with anti-aircraft co-operation units,proving themselves even less well-suited to this role;the number of engine failures increased and there were difficulties releasing drogue targets.By mid-1942 the Henley had largely been withdrawn from service.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on January 26, 2019, 07:39:58 PM
Miles Monarch

The Miles M.17 Monarch was a light,touring aeroplane of the 1930s.It was a single-engine,three-seat,cabin monoplane with a fixed,tailwheel undercarriage.The Monarch was a development of their earlier Whitney Straight,with an enlarged fuselage,allowing a third seat in part of what had been the luggage space.

It first flew 20th Feb 1938,eleven aircraft were built between 1938 and 1939,six of these to British customers,the rest going to export.
Powerplant was a De Havilland Gipsy Major I four-cylinder air-cooled inline piston engine,of 130 hp.

On the outbreak of war,five of the British-registered machines were impressed by the Air Ministry; one machine belonging to Rolls-Royce acquired camouflage paint but remained in its owner's service.All but one of these survived the war,though a Dutch-registered aeroplane (PH-ATP) was destroyed in a German raid on Schiphol on 10 May 1940.The remaining Monarchs led uneventful but useful careers;a number survived into the Sixties.G-AFJU is displayed at the National Museum of Flight at RAF East Fortune near East Linton, Scotland.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on January 27, 2019, 02:14:47 PM
Nieuport Nighthawk

The Nieuport & General Aircraft Co. Ltd.was formed on 16 November 1916 to produce French Nieuport aircraft under licence.During 1917,the company started to design its own aircraft,( hiring Henry Folland as chief designer ),the second of which was the Nieuport Nighthawk,a single seat biplane fighter for the RAF and the RNFAA.
It was to be powered by the new ABC Dragonfly,a radial engine under development which was meant to deliver 340 hp while weighing only 600 lb.

An initial order for 150 Nighthawks was placed in August 1918,well before prototypes or flight-ready engines were available,the first prototype,F-2909 flew in Spring 1919.
By this time,it was clear that the Dragonfly had serious problems,being prone to extreme overheating,when the engine could be persuaded to work,the Nighthawk showed excellent performance.
In September 1919,it was finally recognised that the Dragonfly was unsalvagable and the engine programme was cancelled.

Seventy Nighthawks were completed by Nieuport and the Gloucestershire Aircraft Company,with a further 54 airframes without engines being completed.
In a vain attempt to work out the problems with the Dragonfly engine,four Nighthawks were retained by the R.A.E. with experiments carried out in 1920–21.
Nieuport & General closed down in August 1920,and the rights to the Nighthawk were purchased by the Gloster Aircraft Company,who also hired Folland as chief designer.
Gloster proceeded to produce a number of derivatives of the Nighthawk,using stocks of components acquired by the company from the cancelled production run,calling them the Gloster Mars.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on January 28, 2019, 06:43:32 PM
Saunders-Roe A.36 Lerwick

The Saunders-Roe A.36 Lerwick was a British flying boat built by Saunders-Roe Limited (Saro).An Air Ministry Specification was for a medium-range flying boat for anti-submarine,convoy escort and reconnaissance duties to replace the Royal Air Force's biplane flying boats.
The Lerwick was of all-metal construction,with a conventional flying boat hull,and two stabilising floats carried under the wings.It was powered by two Bristol Hercules radial engines and initially had twin fins and rudders.For defence,it was equipped with three powered gun turrets,it could also carry various bombs,and depth charges.

It first flew on 31 October 1938, after numerous delays during design and construction.It was immediately found to be unstable in the air,and on the water and not suited to "hands off" flying.This was a major problem in an aircraft designed for long-range patrols.Numerous adjustments,failed to remedy its poor handling characteristics,which included a vicious stall.In mid-1939,four were allocated to 240 Squadron but by October the squadron had stopped flying them.
The Lerwick programme was cancelled on 24 October but restarted just a week later,as with the start of the World War II,aircraft were urgently required.

April 1941,209 Squadron began receiving the Catalina.The last of a total of 21 Lerwicks was delivered in May,but the type was withdrawn from front-line service in the same month.Most of the remaining Lerwicks were transferred to Invergordon;three were sent to 240 Squadron for service trials at Helensburgh.
In mid-1942,the Lerwicks were briefly returned to service,for operational training with 422 Squadron and 423 Squadron of the Royal Canadian Air Force,based at Lough Erne. By the end of 1942 the type had been declared obsolete and by early 1943 the survivors had been scrapped.
Of the 21 aircraft built,10 were lost to accidents,and one for an unknown reason.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on January 29, 2019, 08:46:03 PM
Sopwith Snipe

The Sopwith 7F.1 Snipe was a single-seat biplane fighter of the RAF during WW I.It came into squadron service a few weeks before the end of the conflict,in late 1918.
The Snipe was not a fast aircraft by the standards of its time,but its excellent climb and manoeuvrability made it a good match for contemporary German fighters.The first prototype Snipe,powered by a Bentley AR.1 rotary engine was completed in October 1917.The 2nd with a new,more powerful Bentley BR.2 engine,which gave 230 hp,flew late November 1917--It was the last rotary to be used by the RAF.

It`s fixed armament consisted of two 0.303 in Vickers machine guns on the cowling,and it was also able to carry up to four 25 lb bombs for ground attack work,identical to the Camel's armament.The Snipe began production in 1918,with more than 4,500 being ordered,but the run ended in 1919,with just under 500 being built,the rest being cancelled due to the end of the war.There was only one variant,the Snipe I,although two aircraft were re-engined with a 320 hp ABC Dragonfly radial engine and these entered production as the Sopwith Dragon.

The first squadron to equip with the new fighter was No. 43,based at Fienvillers in France,replacing its Camels with 15 Snipes on 30 August 1918.
It flew its first operational patrols on 24 September 1918,it also saw service with No. 4 Squadron Australian Flying Corps (AFC) from October 1918.
By the end of 1919,only a single squadron,No 80 was equipped with the Snipe.It took part in the Allied intervention on the side of the White Russians during the Russian Civil War against the Bolsheviks,twelve being used by the RAF mission in north Russia.Most had been retired from service by the early 1920`s.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on January 30, 2019, 07:30:06 PM
Supermarine Southampton

The Supermarine Southampton was a 1920s biplane flying boat,one of the most successful flying boats of the interwar period.It was a twin-engine biplane,with the tractor engines mounted between the wings.The Mk I had both its hull and its wings manufactured from wood,but the Mk II had a hull with a single thickness of metal (duralumin) (the Mk I had a double wooden bottom).This change gave a weight saving of 900 lb (409 kg) allowing for an increase in range of approximately 200 miles.

The first flight of a production aircraft was made on 10 March 1925,and delivery to the RAF started in mid-1925,with No. 480 (Coastal Reconnaissance) Flight at RAF Calshot.The aircraft had three positions for machine guns,one in the nose and two staggered in the rear fuselage.The type quickly became famous for long-distance formation flights,the most notable was a 27,000 mile expedition in 1927 and 1928,carried out by four Southamptons of the Far East Flight,setting out from Felixstowe via the Mediterranean and India to Singapore.
 
Southamptons were sold to a number of other countries,eight new aircraft were sold to Argentina,with Turkey purchasing six and Australia buying two ex-RAF Mk 1 aircraft.
Japan also purchased a single example,which was later converted into an 18-passenger cabin airliner.One RAF aircraft was loaned to Imperial Airways,with British Civil Registration G-AASH,for three months from December 1929.83 Southamptons were constructed,over a ten year period.
The restored wooden fuselage of Supermarine Southampton 1 N9899 is on display at the Royal Air Force Museum in Hendon.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on January 31, 2019, 04:43:00 PM
Supermarine Spiteful

The Supermarine Spiteful was a Rolls-Royce Griffon-engined fighter,designed as a successor to the Spitfire.It featured an entirely new wing design,intended to improve its safe operations at higher speeds.It allowed the landing gear to be re-arranged to a modern inward-retracting design,also a larger vertical tail was added to improve the marginal stability of Spitfires with the Griffon engine.
It first flew 30th June 1944,and was ready for production as the war was ending,but was passed over in favour of jet-powered designs.Of the original order for 150 Spitefuls, only 19 aircraft were completed.

The main problem of the Spitfire's wing was the aeroelasticity,at high speeds the light structure behind the strong leading edge torsion box would flex,changing the airflow and limiting the maximum safe diving speed to 480 mph.To be able to fly higher and faster,a radically new wing would be needed.At high speeds compressibility had become a major problem with the increasingly powerful fighters,and the new wing went some way to addressing the issue.To improve the pilot's view over the nose,the 2375 hp RR Griffon 69 engines were mounted tilted downwards slightly.

There was some uncertainty over whether jet aircraft would be able to operate from the Royal Navy's aircraft carriers so it was decided to develop a naval version of the Spiteful,subsequently named Seafang.
The Seafang featured folding wingtips,a "sting"-type arrester hook and a Griffon 89 or 90 engine,driving two new Rotol three-bladed contra-rotating propellers.The first one produced was a converted Spiteful XV (RB520) but with the successful operation of the de Havilland Sea Vampire from the carrier HMS Ocean in 1945,the need for the Seafang also disappeared.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on February 01, 2019, 06:52:21 PM
Supermarine Attacker

The Supermarine Attacker was a single-seat naval jet fighter built for the Royal Navy's Fleet Air Arm (FAA).It has the distinction of being the first jet fighter to enter operational service with the FAA.Like most other first-generation jet fighters,it had a short service life due to the rapid development of increasingly advanced aircraft.
It used the laminar flow straight-wings of the Supermarine Spiteful,meant to replace the Spitfire.The Attacker project was intended to provide an interim fighter for the RAF while another aircraft,the Gloster E.1/44 also using the Nene engine,was developed.An order for 24 pre-production aircraft,six for the RAF and the remaining 18 for the Fleet Air Arm was placed on 7 July 1945.

The RAF rejected both designs (Spiteful and Attacker) since they offered no great performance advantage over the contemporary Gloster Meteor and the de Havilland Vampire,the RAF's first two operational jet aircraft.The prototype Attacker,TS409 land version was first flown on 27 July 1946,by test pilot Jeffrey Quill.The tail-down attitude meant that when operating from grass airfields the jet exhaust would create a long furrow in the ground,and made it more difficult to land on aircraft carriers.

The first navalised prototype,Type 398 TS413 flew on 17 June 1947 flown by test pilot Mike Lithgow.Orders for the FAA were placed in November 1949,and the first production aircraft to fly was the F.1 variant in 1950,entering service with the FAA in August 1951.The first squadron being 800 Naval Air Squadron; the F.1's armament consisted of four 20 mm Hispano cannons,with 125 rounds per gun.It was powered by a single Rolls-Royce Nene Mk. 101 turbojet engine.

The Attacker had a brief career with the FAA,not seeing any action during its time with the FAA and being taken out of first-line service in 1954.It remained in service with the Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve (RNVR) for a little while longer,being taken out of service in early 1957.The Attacker was replaced in the front line squadrons by the later and more capable Hawker Sea Hawk and de Havilland Sea Venom.182 were built,the Pakistan Air Force aquired 36,and operated them until the late 1950`s.
Attacker F.1 Serial number WA473 is on display at the Fleet Air Arm Museum in Somerset,UK.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: smudge on February 02, 2019, 09:10:16 AM
182 were built,the Pakistan Air Force aquired 36,and operated them until the late 1950`s.

I remember reading that the Attacker was very unpopular in Pakistan, whether due to its own faults or being their first jet with its learning curve.  There was a letter campaign by "Mothers of the Air Force" to have them grounded which culminated with the Chief of the Air Force saddling-up and flying a demo in one to prove that they were 'safe'.

I haven't the foggiest notion where I read that.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on February 02, 2019, 04:53:14 PM
Vickers Vixen


The Vickers Vixen was a general-purpose biplane of the 1920s.It was a single-bay biplane with a steel tube fuselage and wooden wings,powered by a 450 hp Napier Lion engine.
The first prototype the Type 71 Vixen I,civil registration G-EBEC,flew in February 1923.It was tested at Martlesham Heath and showed good performance,prompting modification to a day bomber role as the Type 87 Vixen II,which was fitted with a ventral radiator.The Vixen I and II formed the basis of the Venture army co-operation aircraft for the Royal Air Force and the Valparaiso for export purposes.

Next came the Vixen IV,which was intended for use as a night fighter,it showed improved performance over the Lion-powered versions,but it was not successful.It was later modified with the enlarged wings of the Vixen III as a general-purpose aircraft (the Type 124 Vixen VI) for evaluation as a private venture.

The Military Aviation Service of Chile placed an initial order for twelve Vixen Vs in May 1925,this being increased to 18 in July.Prone to engine problems owing to the problems with the special fuel (⅔ petrol to ⅓ benzol) required for the high-compression Lion V engine,and requiring frequent re-rigging owing to the use of wooden wings in the high temperature of Northern Chile,the Vixen Vs,operated by the Grupo Mixto de Aviación N° 3.were popular in Chilean service.
Vixens participated in bombing raids against mutinying ships of the Chilean Navy during the Sailors' mutiny of September 1931.
After rejection by the RAF,the Vixen VI,piloted by the Test pilot Joseph Summers and Colonel Charles Russell of the Irish Air Corps,carried the first Irish Air Mail, between Galway and London.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on February 03, 2019, 05:40:33 PM
Vickers Vildebeest

The Vickers Vildebeest,and the similar Vickers Vincent were two very large two/three-seat single-engined biplanes.The prototype was,an all-metal fuselage aircraft with single-bay unstaggered fabric-covered wings and tail.First flown in April 1928 as the Vickers Type 132,powered by a Bristol Jupiter VIII radial engine,later changed to the Bristol Pegasus II-M3 air-cooled radial,of 635hp.An initial production order was placed in 1931 for nine aircraft,with the first production machines flying in September 1932.

The RAF ordered 150 to serve as light bombers/torpedo bombers,and in army cooperation roles.In 1931 Vickers designed as a private venture a general purpose version of the Vildebeest to replace the RAF's Westland Wapitis and Fairey IIIFs,supporting the Army in the Middle East.
Named the Vickers Vincent:differences from the Vildebeest were minimal,principally removal of torpedo equipment,provision for an auxiliary fuel tank,and other minor changes.The Vincent was unveiled to the general public for the first time at the 1935 RAF flying display at Hendon,but deliveries had already been made to No.8 Sqn at Aden in late 1934.Between 1934 and 1936,197 Vincents were built for or converted from Vildebeests for the RAF.

The Vildebeest was purchased in moderately large numbers by the RAF from 1931,mainly based in Scotland and Singapore.By 1937,it equipped six squadrons in Iraq,Aden,Kenya,Sudan,and Egypt.At the outbreak of the Second World War,101 Vildebeests were still in service with the RAF.The two British-based squadrons flew coastal patrol and convoy escort missions until 1940,when their Vildebeests were replaced by the Bristol Beaufort.The two Singapore-based squadrons were still waiting for their Beauforts when Japan invaded Malaya in December 1941,and the obsolete biplanes had to be deployed against the Japanese attackers.

The Vildebeest also served in Spain,with the Spanish Republican forces,and 12 Vildebeests were purchased by the Royal New Zealand Air Force in 1935 for coastal defence duties,with a further 27 acquired from RAF stocks in 1940–41.A Vildebeest/Vincent composite airframe is being restored by the Royal New Zealand Air Force Museum at Wigram.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on February 06, 2019, 11:13:38 AM
Vickers Warwick

The Vickers Warwick was a multi-purpose twin-engined military aircraft developed and operated during WWII used mainly by the RAF,but also used by some Polish Sqds and the RAAF,as well as a small number of civil versions used by BOAC.
It was intended to serve as a larger counterpart to the Wellington bomber;the two aircraft shared similar construction and design.Unlike the smaller Wellington, development of the Warwick was protracted by a lack of suitable high-powered engines with which to power the type.First flight was on 13 August 1939,delays to its intended powerplant,the Napier Sabre,led to alternatives being explored in the form of the Bristol Centaurus and Pratt & Whitney R-2800 Double Wasp radial.

Due to the powerplant delays,it was no longer viable as a heavy bomber,and was placed into operational use by the RAF in various other capacities,such as under RAF Transport Command,in addition to its adoption by RAF Coastal Command as an air-sea rescue and maritime reconnaissance platform.During mid-1943,a single Warwick Mk I was converted to become the Warwick Mk II prototype;the main difference was the fitting of Centaurus IV engines.
A total of 219 Warwick Mk I aircraft were constructed,the last 95 of these with 2,000 horsepower R-2800-47 engines.Early testing showed the Warwick to be under-powered and with severe handling problems,especially when flown on a single engine.The version of Double Wasp fitted to early models proved extremely unreliable with many in-flight failures; later versions fitted with the Centaurus engine had better performance but the handling problems were never solved.

From 1943,Warwicks were loaded with the 1,700 lb (770 kg) Mk IA airborne lifeboat,and used for air-sea rescue.It was laden with supplies and powered by two 4 hp motors,it was aimed with a bombsight near to ditched aircrew,and dropped by parachute into the sea from an altitude of about 700 ft.
Warwicks were credited with rescuing crews from Halifaxes,Lancasters,Wellingtons and B-17`s,and during Operation Market Garden,and from Hamilcar gliders,all of which ditched in the English Channel or North Sea.
In total 846 aircraft in different versions were completed.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on February 07, 2019, 11:20:50 AM
Vickers Vanguard/Merchantman

The Vickers Vanguard was a British short/medium-range turboprop airliner introduced in 1959,a follow-up to its highly successful Viscount design,but with considerably more internal space.It was largely ignored by the market,only 44 were built,ordered by Trans-Canada Air Lines (TCA) and British European Airways (BEA).In the early 1970s most were converted to freighters,those from BEA becoming the Merchantman.These freighters remained in service for many years,with the last one not retiring until 1996.

The main difference between the Viscount and Vanguard was the fuselage.The revised larger upper portion gave a roomier interior,with increased cargo capacity below the floor.
Rolls-Royce delivered its new Tyne design with a nominal 4,000 hp,allowing a higher service ceiling and cruising speed.The Vanguard was one of the fastest turboprops ever flown,production aircraft had 4 × Rolls-Royce Tyne RTy.11 Mk 512 turboprops producing 5,545 hp each,so the Vanguard was certainly overpowered.

It entered service with BEA and TCA in late 1960,and soon took over many of BEA's busier European and UK trunk routes.Initial seating was 18 first-class at the rear and 108 tourist,but this was changed to 139 all-tourist,in which configuration,the Vanguard had very low operating costs per seat/mile.The remaining BEA fleet passed to British Airways on 1 April 1974 and the last BA passenger flight with the type was on 16 June 1974.TCA used their`s with two flights from Toronto and Montreal via intermediate stops to Vancouver.The fleet was also used on services from Toronto and Montreal to New York and Nassau.

BEA operated nine Vanguards modified to the V953C "Merchantman" all-cargo layout from 1969,a large forward cargo door was incorporated.The Merchantmen continued in service with BA until late 1979 when the remaining five were sold.Air Bridge Carriers purchased several,and operated them until 1992,when it changed its name to Hunting Cargo Airlines.Hunting Cargo operated its last V953C flight on 30 September 1996 and donated the aircraft,registered G-APEP,to Brooklands Museum on 17 October 1996.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on February 08, 2019, 09:28:43 PM
Westland Walrus

The Westland Walrus was a British spotter/reconnaissance biplane,developed from the Airco DH.9A.The initial attempt was carried out by Armstrong Whitworth Aircraft,adding provision for an observer and removing the stagger from the wings.Westland further modified the aircraft to produce the Walrus,with a 450 hp Napier Lion II engine replacing the Liberty of the DH.9A.

The Walrus was a single-engined,two-bay biplane,fitted with an extra cockpit for the observer/radio operator behind the gunner's cockpit.The observer also had a prone position for observing in a ventral pannier.The undercarriage was jettisonable and the aircraft was fitted with floatation bags for safe ditching,together with arresting gear to aid landing on aircraft carriers.

The prototype`s first flight was in early 1921,it proved to have poor flying characteristics,described by Westland's test pilot Stuart Keep as "a vicious beast.".However,a further 35 were ordered for the RAF and RN.Despite the extensive navalisation,for carrier borne deployment,the Walrus never operated from carriers.
Production aircraft began to be delivered to No. 3 Sqn RAF,at RAF Leuchars in Fife in 1921.No.3 Sqn was split up to form independent Fleet Spotter Flights in 1923.
It continued in service in the Fleet spotting role until it was replaced by the Avro Bison and Blackburn Blackburn in late 1925.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on February 16, 2019, 01:26:50 AM
Westland Whirlwind (fighter)

The Westland Whirlwind was a twin-engine heavy fighter,the first single-seat,twin-engine,cannon-armed fighter of the RAF.It first flew 11th Oct 1938,and was one of the fastest combat aircraft in the world,and with four Hispano-Suiza HS.404 20mm autocannon in its nose,the most heavily armed.Problems with its Rolls-Royce Peregrine engines badly delayed the project,and only 116 Whirlwinds were built.During WW II,just three RAF squadrons were equipped with the type,despite its success as a fighter and ground attack aircraft,it was withdrawn from service in 1943.

The airframe was built mainly of stressed-skin duraluminium,with the exception of the rear-fuselage,which used a magnesium alloy stressed skin.The pilot sat high under one of the world's first full bubble canopies,and with the low and forward location of the wing,visibility was good (except for directly over the nose).
Hopes were so high for the design that it remained "top secret" for much of its development.The Whirlwind was quite small,only slightly larger than the Hurricane but smaller in terms of frontal area.The landing gear was fully retractable and the entire aircraft was very "clean" with few openings or protuberances.Radiators were in the leading edge on the inner wings rather than below the engines.

The Whirlwind was most often used in ground-attack missions over France,attacking German airfields,marshalling yards,and railway traffic.It was also successful in hunting and destroying German E-boats which operated in the English Channel.At lower altitudes,it could hold its own against the Bf 109.
After retirement in December 1943,all but one of the surviving Whirlwinds were sent to 18 Maintenance Unit at Dumfries,where they were scrapped.P7048 was retained by Westland and was granted a civil certificate of airworthiness on 10 October 1946,with the registration G-AGOI.It was used as a company hack for a short time before being withdrawn in 1947 and scrapped.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on February 16, 2019, 01:48:52 PM
Westland Wyvern

The Wyvern began as a Westland project for a naval strike fighter,with the engine located behind the pilot,driving a propeller in the nose via a shaft that passed under the cockpit floor.The prototype W.34;the Wyvern TF.1,first flew at Boscombe Down on 16 December 1946 with Westland's test pilot Harald Penrose at the controls.
From prototype number three onwards,the aircraft were navalised and carried their intended armament of four Hispano 20 mm cannon in the wings,and have the ability to carry a torpedo under the fuselage or a selection of bombs and rockets under the wings.

Powerplant was 1 × Armstrong Siddeley Python turboprop engine of 3,560 hp driving 4-bladed Rotol contra-rotating,13 ft props.The first Python-powered TF.2 flew on 22 March 1949 and this aircraft introduced the ejection seat to the type.The Python engine responded poorly to minor throttle adjustments,so control was by running the engine at a constant speed and varying the pitch of the propellers.The aircraft was declared ready for service in 1952.

The Wyvern S.4 entered service with 813 Naval Air Squadron in May 1953,it had not yet obtained clearance for carrier operations,this was issued in April 1954.They were in service with the Fleet Air Arm from 1954 to 1958.Wyverns equipped 813 Squadron,827 Squadron,830 Squadron and 831 Squadron of the Fleet Air Arm.
The Wyvern soon showed a worrying habit for flameout on catapult launch;due to the high G forces resulting in fuel starvation.A number of aircraft were lost off HMS Albion's bows and Lt. B. D. Macfarlane made history on 13 October 1954 when he successfully ejected from under water after his aircraft had ditched on launch and had been cut in two by the carrier.
All Wyverns were withdrawn from service by 1958: while in service and testing there were 68 accidents,39 were lost and there were 13 fatalities;including two RAF pilots and one United States Navy pilot.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on February 17, 2019, 07:58:18 PM
Westland 30

The Westland 30 was a medium helicopter based on the Westland Lynx.Westland had studied a larger version of the Lynx for civil use,originally named "WG-30 Super Lynx" before being changed to "Westland 30".It shared transmission,rotor blade and other components with the Lynx,but had a new airframe.The fuselage is a conventionally built structure of aluminium while composites are used for the tail boom.The prototype WG30 made its first flight on 10 April 1979,and made an appearance at the Paris Air Show the same year.

As a civilian carrier,fitted with airstair or sliding doors it could carry up to 22 passengers with a baggage compartment at the rear of the fuselage.As a military aircraft it could carry 14 troops with equipment, 17 without or six stretchers and medical attendants.

The first of three Westland 30-100s was delivered to British Airways Helicopters on 6 January 1982,to support gas rigs in the southern sector of the North Sea.Omniflight Helicopter Services operated the type on behalf of Pan American World Airways,linking JFK Airport with Pan Am's heliport in central Manhattan.Services ended on 1 February 1988,and the helicopters were returned to Westland;most ending up at The Helicopter Museum in Weston-super-Mare.
Chief operator of the type was Pawan Hans of India.The UK government agreed with India to supply 21 Westland 30s for oil exploration duties using a British grant of 65 million pounds.It was soon found that they were ill-suited to Indian conditions,and after two fatal accidents,the fleet was grounded in 1991.The aircraft are believed to remain in storage in the UK and India.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on February 18, 2019, 10:02:10 PM
I think that`s most of the major UK types dealt with.I will move on to USA types,should be a few to keep me busy.

Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on February 18, 2019, 10:19:53 PM
American Eagle A-101

The American A-1 and A-101 were US-built light 2/3-seat biplanes of the 1920s.The American Eagle A-1 was designed in late 1925 as a training aircraft to replace the WW I biplanes of various types then in use by the Porterfield Flying School.
The prototype A-1 first flew on 9 April 1926.Modifications made to the design in 1927,including ailerons on the lower wings,led to the A-101 designation.
The 90 h.p.Curtiss OX-5 engine was initially fitted,but the upgraded 100 h.p.Curtiss OX-6 was fitted to later production A-101s.
A total of approximately 300 A-1/A-101 aircraft had been completed by 1929.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on February 19, 2019, 09:06:25 PM
Bell P-59 Airacomet

The Bell P-59 Airacomet was a twin jet-engined fighter aircraft, the first produced in the United States.Major General Henry H.Arnold became aware of the UK's jet program when he attended a demonstration of the Gloster E.28/39 in April 1941.He requested,and was given the plans for the aircraft's powerplant,the Power Jets W.1.
An example of the engine,the Whittle W.1X turbojet,was flown to the U.S in October 1941 along with drawings for the more powerful W.2B/23 and a small team of Power Jets engineers.On 4 September,the U.S. company General Electric was given a contract to produce an American version of the engine,which subsequently became the General Electric I-A.

The aircraft first flew during high-speed taxiing tests on 1 Oct 1942 with Bell test pilot Robert Stanley at the controls,although the first official flight was made by Col Laurence Craigie the next day.Tests on the three XP-59As revealed several problems including poor engine response and reliability,poor lateral stability,and general performance that was below expectations.

The 13 service test YP-59As had a more powerful engine than their predecessor,the General Electric J31,but the improvement in performance was negligible.One of these aircraft,the third YP-59A was supplied to the RAF (receiving serial RG362/G),in exchange for the first production Gloster Meteor I, EE210/G.British pilots found that the aircraft compared very unfavorably with the jets that they were already flying.
Bell eventually completed 50 production Airacomets,20 P-59As and 30 P-59BsEach was armed with one 37 mm M4 cannon and 44 rounds of ammunition and three .50 cal (12.7 mm) machine guns with 200 rounds per gun.By 1950, all examples of the Airacomet were no longer airworthy.Disposal of the aircraft included use as static displays,instructional aids in military training,and as static targets.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on February 20, 2019, 09:57:46 PM
Brewster SB2A Buccaneer

The Brewster SB2A Buccaneer was a single-engined mid-wing monoplane scout/bomber built for the RAF and USN between 1942 and 1944.It was also supplied to the USAAF and USMC.
It`s design was heavily based on the earlier Brewster SBA scout-bomber,sharing the single-engined,mid-winged monoplane layout,but was larger and had a more powerful engine.Power was a single Wright R-2600 engine which drove a three-bladed prop.It was armed with two forward-firing 0.50 inch calibre machine guns in the fuselage and two 0.30 machine guns in each wing.It was also intended to have an enclosed gun turret.The aircraft could carry up to 1,000 pounds (450 kg) of bombs in an internal bomb bay.

Serious problems within Brewster also caused major delays.The company was badly run,and its workforce frequently took strike action.After Brewster missed deadlines to deliver aircraft to the US Navy,it was taken over by the Navy in April 1942.Production continued to be slow,and many of the completed SB2As suffered from defects.
Deliveries of Brewster Bermudas to the RAF commenced in July 1942.They judged that the type was unsuitable for combat,and most of the Bermudas delivered to them were converted to target tugs.Five were transferred to the Fleet Air Arm of the Royal Navy for assessment – four as dive bombers and one as a target towing tug.

Due to the poor performance of the SB2A,many of the completed aircraft were scrapped by the RAF and US Navy without having been flown operationally.
The US Navy cancelled its remaining order of the type in 1943.A total of 771 SB2As were eventually completed.
Many historians regard the SB2A as one of the worst aircraft of WWII.The National Naval Aviation Museum's website notes that "overweight, underpowered, and lacking maneuverability,the Brewster SB2A Buccaneer was a classic failure".
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on February 21, 2019, 04:24:56 PM
Champion Lancer

The Champion 402 Lancer is a twin-engine tandem seat trainer based on the tricycle gear Champion 7FC Tri-Traveler,but powered by two wing-mounted Continental O-200-A engines.
The Lancer was the least expensive American-built twin engine airplane.Other design goals included simplicity,ease of maintenance,low operating costs,and the ability to operate from rough or unimproved strips.The high wing and high engine position give good propeller clearance.Built with metal tube construction and fiberglass covering and has fixed landing gear and propellers.

It first flew in 1961 and production began in 1963,it was designed specifically for flight schools seeking an inexpensive way to train students for a multi-engine rating.
The front seat was equipped with a control yoke,while the rear-seat pilot had a centre stick.Both seats were equipped with engine controls mounted overhead,with solo flight being performed from the front.Braking was controlled with a lever on the right-hand side of the front-seat instrument panel;differential braking was not possible, and no brake controls were provided for the rear-seat pilot.

Single engine performance was poor as was visibility due to the engine nacelles,particularly for the rear-seat pilot,and for both pilots during banked turns.Engine noise in the cockpit was a problem.The sidewall-mounted elevator trim lever looks very similar to the throttle lever of the single-engine Aeronca Champion which creates a risk that an experienced Champion pilot may confuse the two. In most respects, the Lancer's flight performance is equal or slightly inferior to that of the popular Cessna 150,an airplane that uses a single O-200 engine rather than two.

Some flight schools initially viewed the Lancer's marginal single-engine performance favorably,as students trained in a Lancer found other twin-engine types comparatively easy to fly.However,sales were very limited;production began in 1963 and ended later in the same year with only 25 to 36 aircraft built.As of November 2018,the highest serial number of any 402 Lancer in the FAA aircraft registry is 25.

Photo from Abpic.co.uk
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on February 22, 2019, 04:05:02 PM
Columbia XJL

The Columbia XJL is a large single-engined amphibious aircraft designed by Grumman Aircraft but built by the Columbia Aircraft Corp.It was intended to replace the Grumman J2F Duck but the type did not reach production status.
The final 330 examples of the Duck were built in 1941/42 under sub-contract by the Columbia Aircraft Corp,retaining the J2F-6 designation.
It had a crew of six and capacity for 6 passengers,powerplant was 1 × Wright R-1820-56,of 1,350 hp

Grumman completed a major re-design of the aircraft for the USN as a Wright R-1820-56 powered monoplane amphibian.
The new design was turned over to the Columbia Aircraft Corporation for development and construction so that Grumman could focus on the production of fighter aircraft for the USN.

The aircraft resembled the J2F Duck,except for its monoplane layout,and has been referred to as a "single-winged Duck" dispite being an new design.The USN ordered three XJL-1 experimental aircraft from Columbia.
Two,assigned USN BuAer Nos 31399 and 31400,were delivered to the USNs test establishment Maryland for evaluation in 1946.The two aircraft tested were found to have repeated structural failures of various components and testing was abandoned on 21 September 1948.
The aircraft were deleted from the USN inventory in February 1949.No further orders were placed for production of the JL design. 
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on February 23, 2019, 08:03:37 PM
Consolidated PB2Y Coronado

The PB2Y Coronado is a large flying boat patrol bomber used by the US Navy during World War II in bombing, antisubmarine, and transport roles.
The USN began planning for the next generation of patrol bombers,after deliveries of the PBY Catalina had begun in 1935.Orders for two prototypes,the XPB2Y-1 and the Sikorsky XPBS-1,were placed in 1936 and the prototype Coronado first flew in December 1937.

The design was finalized as the PB2Y-2,with a large cantilever wing,twin tail with very marked dihedral,and four Pratt & Whitney R-1830 radial engines.The inner engines were fitted with four-bladed reversible pitch propellers;outer engines had standard three-bladed feathering props,later marks had engines replaced with single-stage R-1830-92`s.

Coronados served in combat in the Pacific with the USN,in both bombing and antisubmarine roles,but many served as transport and hospital aircraft.RAF Coastal Command had hoped to use the Coronado as a maritime patrol bomber,but it`s range was unsuitable,consequently the Coronados supplied to the RAF were outfitted purely as transports, serving with RAF Transport Command.The 10 aircraft were used for transatlantic flights.
They served as a major component in the Naval Air Transport Service (NATS) during World War II in the Pacific theater,again range limited them to transport service in the American naval air fleet.

By the end of World War II,the Coronado was outmoded as both a bomber and a transport,and virtually all of them were quickly scrapped by the summer of 1946.
Only one known example remains,at the National Naval Aviation Museum at Naval Air Station Pensacola,Florida.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on February 24, 2019, 05:00:05 PM
Consolidated TBY Sea Wolf

The Consolidated TBY Sea Wolf was a USN torpedo bomber of WWII and a competitor and contemporary to the Grumman TBF Avenger.
The original design was not by Consolidated Aircraft,but rather by Vought,the first prototype flew two weeks after Pearl Harbor.It`s performance was deemed superior to the Avenger so the Navy placed an order for 1,000 examples.Powerplant was 1 × Pratt & Whitney R-2800-6 Double Wasp radial engine of 2,000 hp.
The aircraft was armed with 4 x.50inch machine guns and a single 0.30inch machine gun,also it could carry 2000lb of bombs,or one torpedo.

The prototype was damaged in a rough arrested landing trial,and when repaired a month later was again damaged in a collision with a training aircraft.
Due to flight test delays Vought had become heavily overcommitted to other contracts,especially for the F4U Corsair fighter,and had no production capacity. 
It was arranged that Consolidated-Vultee would produce the aircraft (as the TBY),but had to wait until the new production facility in Allentown,Pennsylvania,was complete, which took until late 1943.
 
The production TBYs were radar-equipped,with a radome under the right-hand wing.The first aircraft flew on 20 August 1944.By this time though,the Avenger equipped every torpedo squadron in the Navy,and there was no longer a requirement for the Sea Wolf.
Orders were cancelled after production started,and the 180 built were used for training.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on February 25, 2019, 07:00:08 PM
Convair XC-99

The Convair XC-99 was a prototype heavy cargo aircraft built by Convair for the USAF,developed from the Convair B-36 Peacemaker bomber,and shared the wings and some other structures with it.
It was the largest piston-engined land-based transport aircraft ever built,first flight was on 24 November 1947 in San Diego,after extensive testing it was delivered to the Air Force on 26 May 1949.
The capacity of the XC-99 was 45,000 kg of cargo or 400 fully equipped soldiers on its double cargo decks.A cargo lift was installed for easier loading.The engines face rearward in a pusher configuration like the B-36.

The Convair Model 37 was a large civil passenger design derived from the XC-99 but was never built.It was to be of similar proportions to the XC-99; 182 ft 6 in length,
230 ft wingspan,and a high-capacity,double-deck fuselage.The projected passenger load was to be 204,and the effective range of 4,200 miles.
Fifteen aircraft were ordered by Pan American Airways for transatlantic service.However,fuel and oil consumption of the six 3,500 hp Wasp Major radials meant that the design was not economically viable.The hoped-for turboprop powerplants did not materialize fast enough,and a low number of orders were not sufficient to initiate production.

The US Air Force determined that it had no need for such a large,long-range transport at that time,and no more were ordered.
The sole XC-99 served until 1957,including much use during the Korean War.It made twice weekly trips from Kelly AFB to the aircraft depot at McClellan Air Force Base,California,transporting supplies and parts for the B-36 bomber,returning by way of other bases or depots making pick-ups and deliveries along the way.
During its operational life,the XC-99 logged over 7,400 hours total time,and transported more than 60 million pounds (27,000 metric tons) of cargo.

The aircraft made its last flight on 19 March 1957, landing at Kelly Air Force Base, where it would remain for the next 47 years.It was subsequently transported in the summer of 2012 to Davis-Monthan AFB and is stored in Area 20 of the 309 AMARG complex,the so-called "Boneyard",pending financial resources sufficient to restore the aircraft and return it to NMUSAF for display.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on February 26, 2019, 05:51:15 PM
Convair R3Y Tradewind

The Convair R3Y Tradewind was an American 1950s turboprop-powered flying boat.The USN had requested Convair in 1945 to design a large flying boat using new technology developed during WW II,especially the laminar flow wing and developing turboprop technology.Their response was the Model 117.The Navy ordered two prototypes on 27 May 1946, designated XP5Y-1, the first aircraft first flew on 18 April 1950 at San Diego.The Navy decided not to proceed with the patrol boat version,instead directing that the design should be developed into a passenger and cargo aircraft.

It was designated the R3Y-1 Tradewind and first flew on 25 February 1954.Major changes were the removal of all armament and of the tailplane dihederal,the addition of a 10 ft port-side access hatch,and redesigned engine nacelles to accept improved T40-A-10 engines.Cabin soundproofing and airconditioning were added for pressurised accommodation for 103 passengers or 24 tons of cargo.As a medevac aircraft,92 stretcher cases could be carried.

A total of eleven aircraft were built.The first two prototypes built were in P5Y configuration armed with 8,000 lb of munitions (bombs, mines, depth charges, torpedoes) and five pairs of 20 mm cannon in fore and aft side emplacements and a tail turret.The next five were built as R3Y-1 aircraft,intended for troop transport and inflight refuelling tanker service.The final six were built as the R3Y-2 variant with a lifting nose and high cockpit (similar in concept to the C-5 Galaxy's nose and cockpit) for heavier transport and landing-ship duties.

The R3Y set a transcontinental seaplane record of 403 mph in 1954 by utilizing the speed of high-altitude jetstream winds,this record still stands.
After service trials the aircraft were delivered to US Navy transport squadron VR-2 on 31 March 1956. Problems with the engine/propeller combination led to the ending of Tradewind operations and the unit was disbanded on 16 April 1958.

The six R3Y-2s were converted into four-point in-flight tankers using the probe-and-drogue method.In September 1956 one example was the first aircraft to successfully refuel four others simultaneously in flight in 1956, refuelling four Grumman F9F Cougars.The program was halted after thirteen aircraft were built,the reason being the unreliability of the Allison T-40 turboprops.The crash of one of the two XP5Y-1 aircraft was judged due to catastrophic engine failure;when little progress was being made with the engine problems,All the P5Y and R3Y aircraft were grounded in 1958 and subsequently broken up.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on February 27, 2019, 10:25:46 PM
Convair 990 Coronado

The Convair 990 Coronado was an American narrow-body four-engined jet airliner,a stretched version of their earlier Convair 880 produced in response to a request from American Airlines.They wanted a larger passenger capacity than the 880,which was the smallest of the first-generation U.S. jet airliners and the 990 began flight testing January 24, 1961.One change from the 880 was the large anti-shock bodies on the upper trailing edge of the wings to increase the critical Mach and reduce transonic drag.The inboard shock bodies,which were larger,were also used for additional fuel tankage.

The 990 was lengthened by 10 ft (3.0 m),which increased the number of passengers from between 88 and 110 in the 880 to between 96 and 121 in the 990,still fewer passengers than the contemporary Boeing 707 (110 to 189) or Douglas DC-8 (105 to 173),although the 990 was 25–35 mph faster than either in cruise.The engines were also changed to the uprated General Electric CJ-805-23s,which were unique in that they used a fan stage at the rear of the engines,compared to the fan stage at the front of the engine found on the Pratt & Whitney JT3D that powered the 990's competitors.The engine was a simplified,non afterburning civil version of the J79,like most versions of the J79,the CJ805 and CJ805-23 were smoky, although secondary operator Spantax eventually had their 990 aircraft refitted with smokeless combustion chambers in the 1970s. 

The 990 did not meet the specifications promised,and American Airlines reduced their order as a result.The 990A was developed by adding fairings to the engine nacelles, among other changes.Despite the modifications the aircraft never lived up to its promise of coast-to-coast nonstop capability from JFK to LAX.AA began to dispose of their 990As in 1967.
The Convair 990A is still the fastest non-supersonic commercial transport to have ever been produced.During May 1961, one of the pre-production 990 prototype aircraft set a record of .97 Mach in level flight at an altitude of 22,500 ft.,equivalent to a true airspeed of 675 mph.This was before the various aerodynamic drag-reduction changes were applied to the later 990A,as such,it would have been capable of speeds slightly in excess of 700 mph.

Swissair bought eight 990As beginning in 1962,operating them on long-distance routes to South America, West Africa, the Middle and Far East, as well as on European routes with heavy traffic. Their fleet was withdrawn from service in 1975. Scandinavian Airlines also operated Coronados on their long-haul schedules to Tokyo and other destinations in the Far East.

The failure of airlines to broadly accept the Convair 880 and 990 led Convair's parent company,General Dynamics,to suffer what at the time was one of the largest corporate losses in history.Convair exited the jet airliner business,although they later profitably built fuselages for the McDonnell Douglas DC-10, KC-10 and MD-11.
When the major airlines retired their Convair 990s,they found a second life on charter airlines.Spantax of Spain had a large fleet until the mid-1980s and so did Denver Ports of Call.In 1967,Alaska Airlines purchased Convair 990 PP-VJE from Varig,and operated it as N987AS in scheduled airline service until 1975.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on February 28, 2019, 06:04:35 PM
Culver Model V

The Culver Model V was a two-seat cabin monoplane designed and built by the Culver Aircraft Company.It was based on the pre-World War II Cadet and using the wartime experience with radio-controlled aircraft the company designed a two-seat cabin monoplane.It had a low-set cantilever wing with the outer panels having a pronounced dihedral,it also featured a tricycle retractable landing gear and an enclosed cabin with side by side seating for two.

It was unique in that it had a system called Simpli-Fly Control where the aircraft was automatically trimmed for takeoff,landing and cruise.It operated by turning a small metal wheel between the two seats and lining up two arrows with the correct mode of flying the aircraft.Interconnecting controls then adjusted the trim according to the arrow settings.Only a limited production run of 350 Model Vs was achieved before the company went bankrupt.

In 1956 the Superior Aircraft Company bought the assets of Culver and put the Model V back into production as the Superior Satellite.The main difference was the use of a 95 hp Continental engine which increased the cruise speed to 130 mph.Only a prototype and five production aircraft were built.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on March 01, 2019, 03:39:06 PM
Curtiss F11C Goshawk

The Curtiss F11C Goshawk was a 1930s USN biplane fighter aircraft that saw limited success but was part of a long line of Curtiss Hawk airplanes.
The USN wanted an improved derivative of the Model 34C,F6C as the F11C.It contained major changes that included the 600 hp Wright R-1510-98 radial engine,single-leg cantilever main landing-gear units,metal covered control surfaces,and two .30 in machine guns supplemented by a hardpoint under the fuselage for a 474 lb bomb,or a fuel tank.

After tweeks and changes,the XF11C-2 came to be regarded as the prototype for the F11C-2,of which 28 examples were ordered as dual-role fighter-bombers in October 1932.
From March 1934,the aircraft were revised with a semi-enclosed cockpit and a number of other modifications before they received the revised designation BFC-2 in recognition of their fighter-bomber or,as the Navy would have it,bomber-fighter role.
The last aircraft in the XF11C-2 contract was converted to the prototype XF11C-3,featuring a more powerful R-1820-80 engine and manual operated retractable landing gear.
 
The only U.S. Navy units to operate the F11C-2 were the Navy's famous "High Hat Squadron",VF-1B aboard the carrier Saratoga,and VB-6 briefly assigned to Enterprise.In March 1934,when the aircraft were redesignated BFC-2,the "High Hat Squadron" was renumbered VB-2B,and then VB-3B,and retained its BFC-2s until February 1938.

The F11C-2 Goshawk was produced in two export versions as the Hawk I and Hawk II fighters.Both versions carried the same armament as the production F11C-2.
Only the Hawk II was exported in quantity with Turkey,the first customer taking delivery of 19 on August 30,1932.
Colombia placed an order at the end of October 1932,receiving an initial batch of four twin float-equipped Hawk IIs,the first of a total of 26 float fighters delivered by the end of July 1934.
They used Hawk II and F11C-2 based in floats in the Colombia-Peru War in 1932-1933.

Nine Hawk IIs were supplied to Bolivia,of which three had interchangeable wheel/float undercarriages;four went to Chile,four to Cuba,two to Germany,one to Norway and 12 to Thailand as Hawk IIIs.
The Chinese Nationalist Air Force received 52 F11Cs as Hawk IIs and fought against the Japanese during the Second Sino-Japanese War.
Thai Hawk IIIs saw action during World War II,including against the RAF.On 8 April 1944,a Thai Hawk III was shot down by a No. 211 Squadron RAF Bristol Beaufighter over Lamphun.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on March 03, 2019, 12:31:19 AM
Curtiss SBC Helldiver

The Curtiss SBC Helldiver was a two-seat scout bomber and dive bomber,it was the last military biplane procured by the United States Navy.On 30 June 1932,BuAer signed a contract with Curtiss to design a two-seat monoplane with a parasol wing and a retractable undercarriage.Powered by a 625 hp Wright R-1510-92 fourteen cylinder,two row,air-cooled radial engine driving a two-blade propeller.
This fighter was designated XF12C-1.Most production versions used the Wright R-1820-34 radial engine of 850 hp.
Two crewmen,pilot and radio operator/gunner,were housed in tandem cockpits enclosed by a sliding canopy and the turtledeck behind the rear cockpit could be folded down to allow the gunner to use his machine gun.

In August 1936,the Navy signed a contract for 83 SBC-3s (Curtiss Model 77A) Delivery of the SBC-3s to the fleet began on 17 July 1937 when the first aircraft were issued to Scouting Squadron Five (VS-5) serving in USS Yorktown (CV-5) however,Yorktown was not commissioned until 30 September 1937 and the ship then began sea trials.
On 10 December 1937,VS-5 went aboard Yorktown and served aboard her until replaced by Douglas SBD-3s Dauntlesses in 1940.They were obsolete even before World War II and were kept well away from combat with Axis fighters.

They were also operated by the USMC,the last SBC reported in Marine squadron service was an SBC-4 at American Samoa in service with VMSB-151 on 1 June 1943.The French Navy had ordered 90,50 were to be shipped to Brest from Halifax,there was only room for 44,due to other types being carried.
The two ships sailed from Halifax on 16 June 1940,two days later,Brest fell to the Germans and both ships were ordered to Fort-de-France,Martinique,in the eastern Caribbean Sea.
They arrived on 27 June,the SBC-4s were unloaded and rolled to a field at the Pointe des Sables region and stored in the open.Under tropical climatic conditions,the aircraft stored were slowly rotting and were no longer airworthy and were eventually scrapped.

Those left at RCAF Station Dartmouth were aquired by the RAF designated as "Cleveland Mk. Is" and shipped to England in the aircraft carrier HMS Furious.They were delivered to RAF Little Rissington,and later used by No.24 Squadron at RAF Hendon.These aircraft were never used operationally and became ground trainers.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on March 03, 2019, 01:32:44 PM
Curtiss SO3C Seamew

The Curtiss SO3C Seamew was developed as a replacement for the SOC Seagull as the USN's standard floatplane scout.Curtiss named the SO3C the Seamew but in 1941 the USN began calling it by the old name Seagull,causing some confusion.The Royal Navy kept the Curtiss name,(Seamew),for the SO3Cs that they ordered.
The main design requirements was that the Seamew had to be able to operate both from ocean vessels with a single center float,and from land bases with the float replaced by a wheeled landing gear.

Powerplant was 1 × Ranger XV-770-8 inline air-cooled inverted V12 engine,600 hp,which was an unreliable brute.Inflight stability problems were mostly resolved with the introduction of upturned wingtips and a larger rear tail surface that extended over the rear observer's cockpit.Poor flight performance and a poor maintenance record led to the SO3C being withdrawn from US Navy first line units by 1944.The older biplane SOC was taken from stateside training units and restored to first-line service on many US Navy warships until the end of World War II.

A fixed undercarriage version,was ordered by the Royal Navy Fleet Air Arm under the terms of Lend-Lease.Later versions,known as the Seamew Mk.I,were the SO3-2C variant. 250 Seamews were allocated and some 100 actually delivered.Deliveries to the RN started in January 1944,but it was declared obsolete in September the same year and completely removed from service in 1945.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on March 04, 2019, 05:05:52 PM
Dayton-Wright XPS-1

The Dayton-Wright XPS-1 was an American single-seat fighter interceptor aircraft.It was desgined and built as an United States Army Air Service Pursuit Alert (Special) requirement for an interceptor.
It used many of the advanced features of the earlier Dayton-Wright RB-1 Racer developed for the 1920 Gordon Bennett race.The racer had a pilot cockpit entirely enclosed in the streamlined fuselage.Construction consisted of a wooden semi-monocoque fuselage with the cantilever wing constructed entirely of wood and fitted with leading- and trailing-edge flaps.Powerplant was 1 × Lawrance J-1 radial piston engine of 200 hp

The XPS-1 had a parasol monoplane configuration with wooden flying surfaces whose fuselage was a fabric-covered steel-tube structure.The main feature retained from the RB Racer was its retractable undercarriage.The unusual design was a tailskid undercarriage with the main units designed to retract into the lower fuselage sides.
The landing gear was hand-operated using a chain-and-sprocket system,and could be raised or lowered fairly quickly.

Three aircraft were ordered as the XPS-1, one was used for ground tests while the remainder were slated for flight trials.Test flights began in 1923 but the performance was so poor the United States Army Air Service refused to accept the design.The three examples remained the only type produced for the PS category. 
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on March 05, 2019, 08:00:44 PM
Douglas A-33

The Douglas A-33 (Model 8A-5) was an updated version of the Northrop A-17 for the export market,with a more powerful engine and increased bomb load.The Northrop A-17,was a two-seat,single-engine,monoplane,attack bomber,in British Commonwealth service,A-17s were called Nomads.

The 8A-5 was powered by a 1,200 hp Wright R-1820-87 engine and was fitted with four wing mounted 0.30 in machine guns,two 0.50 in machine guns in pods below the wing and a rear-firing flexibly mounted 0.30 in gun,plus it could carry up to 2,000 lb of bombs.

The Norwegian government ordered 36 8A-5s which not had been delivered before Norway was invaded by the Germans.Completed between October 1940 and January 1941,the aircraft were delivered to a training center in Canada that had been set up for the Norwegian government-in-exile,at Toronto Island Airport,Ontario.
After the loss of two aircraft and a reassessment of the training needs now met by the use of other aircraft,the remaining 34 Model 8A-5Ps were sold to Peru.Later,31 were repossessed by the Army Air Corps at the start of World War II.These aircraft,designated A-33,were used for training,target tug,and utility duties.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on March 06, 2019, 03:32:39 PM
Douglas A2D Skyshark


The Douglas A2D Skyshark is an American turboprop-powered attack aircraft,developed from the highly successful A-1 Skyraider.While it resembled the Skyraider,the A2D was different in many ways.
The 5,100 hp Allison XT-40-A2 had more than double the horsepower of the Skyraider's R-3350.The XT40 installation on the Skyshark used contra-rotating propellers to harness all the available power.Wing root thickness decreased, from 17% to 12%,while both the height of the tail and its area grew.

Engine-development problems delayed the first flight until 26 May 1950,made at Edwards Air Force Base.The first prototype XA2D-1,BuNo 122988,on 19 December 1950,crashed on its 15th flight.Navy test pilot Cdr. Hugh Wood was killed attempting to land,he was unable to check the rate of descent,resulting in a high-impact crash.
Additional instrumentation and an automatic decoupler was added to the second prototype,but by the time it was ready to fly on 3 April 1952,16 months had passed,and with all-jet designs being developed,the A2D program was essentially dead.

By the summer of 1954,the A4 Skyhawk was ready to fly,and time had run out for the troubled A2D program.Due largely to the failure of the T40 program to produce a reliable engine, the Skyshark never entered operational service.
Twelve Skysharks were built, two prototypes and ten preproduction aircraft.Most were scrapped or destroyed in accidents,and only one has survived.
A2D-1 Skyshark, BuNo. 125485,is at the Gillespie Field Annex of the San Diego Air & Space Museum in El Cajon,California.It was restored for static display by Pacific Fighters.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on March 07, 2019, 07:53:48 PM
Douglas B-23 Dragon


The Douglas B-23 Dragon was a twin-engined bomber developed as a successor to the B-18 Bolo.The design incorporated a larger wingspan with a wing design very similar to that of the DC-3,a fully retractable undercarriage,and improved defensive armament.
The B-23 was the first operational American bomber equipped with a glazed tail gun position.The tail gun was a .50 calibre gun,which was fired from the prone position by a gunner using a telescopic sight.
Engines were 2 × Wright R-2600-3 radials,of 1,600 hp,which gave a top speed of 282mph and a cruise speed of 210 mph with a range of 1400 miles.
The first B-23 flew on July 27,1939 with the production series of 38 B-23s manufactured between July 1939 and September 1940.

The 38 B-23s built were never used in combat overseas,although for a brief period they were employed as patrol aircraft stationed on the west coast of the United States.The B-23s were primarily relegated to training duties,although 18 of the type were converted as transports and redesignated UC-67.
With its wartime experience with the type, GE bought and used five of them. Howard Hughes (among others) used converted B-23s as personal aircraft. 
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on March 08, 2019, 10:54:22 AM
Douglas BTD Destroyer

The Douglas BTD Destroyer was a dive/torpedo bomber developed for the United States Navy during World War II.A small number had been delivered before the end of the war, but none saw combat.On 20 June 1941, the USN placed an order with the Douglas Aircraft Company for two prototypes of a new two-seat dive bomber to replace both the Douglas SBD Dauntless and the new Curtiss SB2C Helldiver,designated XSB2D-1.

It was a large single-engined mid-winged monoplane.It had a laminar flow gull-wing,and unusually for a carrier-based aircraft of the time,a tricycle undercarriage.It was fitted with a bomb bay and underwing racks for up to 4,200 lb of bombs,defensive armament consisted of two wing-mounted 20 mm cannon and two remote-controlled turrets, each with two .50 in machine guns.

The prototype first flew on 8 April 1943,demonstrating excellent performance,being much faster and carrying nearly double the bombload of the Helldiver,and orders for 358 SB2D-1s quickly followed.The U.S.N changed its requirements,wanting single-seat carrier-based torpedo/dive bombers without defensive turrets, and Douglas reworked the SB2D by removing them and second crewman position.This allowed more fuel and armor,wing racks could carry not just one but two torpedoes,producing the BTD-1 Destroyer. The orders for SB2Ds were converted to BTD-1s, with the first BTD flying on 5 March 1944.

By the time Japan surrendered in August 1945,only 28 had been delivered,and production was cancelled,none saw combat action.Heinemann and his team were already working on developing the single-seat BT2D that became the Douglas A-1 Skyraider.
 
BTD-1 Destroyer,Bureau Number 4959, is under restoration for display at the Wings of Eagles Discovery Center, Elmira-Corning Regional Airport, Elmira, New York.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on March 09, 2019, 05:22:01 PM
Douglas C-133 Cargomaster


The Douglas C-133 Cargomaster was a 4 engine large turboprop cargo aircraft built between 1956 and 1961 for use with the USAF.It was designed to meet the requirements for the USAF's Logistic Carrier Support System SS402L for a new strategic transport.A featured a high-mounted wing,external blister fairings on each side for the landing gear, and rear and side-loading doors ensured that access to,and the volume of,the large cargo compartment were not compromised by these structures.The cargo compartment (90 ft/27 m in length and 12 ft/3.7 m high) was pressurized, heated, and ventilated.

The first Cargomaster flew on 23 April 1956 and first C-133As were delivered to the Military Air Transport Service (MATS) in August 1957 and began flying MATS air routes throughout the world.Two C-133s established transatlantic speed records for transport aircraft on their first flights to Europe.The fleet of 50 aircraft proved itself invaluable during the Vietnam War.The Cargomaster soldiered on until the Lockheed C-5 Galaxy entered service in the early 1970s.

Several hundred Minuteman and other ICBMs were airlifted to and from their operational bases by C-133s.They also transported Atlas,Saturn and Titan rockets to Cape Canaveral for use as launch boosters in the Gemini,Mercury and Apollo space programs.Of 50 aircraft built,nine were lost in crashes and one was destroyed in a ground fire.
By 1971,shortly before the introduction of the Lockheed C-5 Galaxy,the Cargomaster was obsolete as well as being worn out,and all were withdrawn from service.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: smudge on March 09, 2019, 10:37:14 PM
I remember they determined the cause of some of the crashes being that it vibrated itself to pieces, so the survivors were fitted with big metal reinforcing straps on the rear fuselage.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on March 09, 2019, 11:56:21 PM
That`s quite correct,it was discovered the airframe split at the cargo door.The fix was indeed a band around the airframe to strengthen it,rather like a big jubilee clip.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on March 10, 2019, 05:04:21 PM
Douglas DC-1

The Douglas DC-1 was the first model of the famous American DC (Douglas Commercial) commercial transport aircraft series.Only one example of the DC-1 was built,but the design formed the basis for the DC-2 and DC-3.
Boeing had launched the 247,a twin-engined all-metal monoplane with a retractable undercarriage,but their production capacity was reserved to meet the needs of United Airlines,part of United Aircraft and Transport Corporation which also owned Boeing.TWA needed a similar aircraft to respond to competition from the Boeing 247,five manufactures were invited to submit designs.

Donald Douglas doubted that there would be a market for 100 aircraft,the number of necessary to cover development costs.Nevertheless,he submitted a design consisting of an all-metal,low-wing,twin-engined aircraft seating 12 passengers,a crew of two and a flight attendant.
The aircraft exceeded the specifications of TWA even with only two engines,through the use of controllable pitch propellers.It was insulated against noise,heated,and fully capable of both flying and performing a controlled takeoff or landing on one engine.

Only one aircraft was produced.The prototype made its maiden flight on July 1,1933.During a half-year of testing it performed more than 200 test flights and demonstrated its superiority over the most popular airliners at that time.TWA accepted the aircraft on 15 September 1933 with a few modifications (mainly increasing seating to 14 passengers and adding more powerful engines) and subsequently ordered 20 examples of the developed production model which was named the Douglas DC-2.

The DC-1 was sold to Lord Forbes in the United Kingdom in May 1938, who operated it for a few months before selling it in France in October 1938.Later operated by Iberia Airlines from July 1939 with the name Negron it force-landed at Málaga,in December 1940 and was damaged beyond repair.
 
Almost 200 DC-2`s were built,entering service with TWA in May 1934,and then in 1936 came the DC-3,over 16,000 were produced in various civil and military versions.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on March 11, 2019, 05:59:57 PM
Douglas DT

The Douglas DT torpedo bomber was the Douglas Aircraft Company's first military contract,forging a link between the company and the United States Navy.USN Contract No. 53305 of April 1, 1921 set out the specifications that resulted in the purchase of three DT (D for Douglas, T for torpedo) folding-wing aircraft.
The first flight was in November 1921 and production continued until 1929.

The DT used a welded steel fuselage with aluminum covering the forward and center sections and fabric covering the rear section.Douglas built 46 DT-1 and DT-2 torpedo bombers for the U.S. Navy,Norwegian Navy,and Peruvian Navy.90 aircraft were completed in total,several under license.

It could be fitted either with pontoons or wheeled landing gear and could carry a 1,800 lb torpedo.They operated off the U.S. Navy's first aircraft carrier,USS Langley,from land bases,and from seaplane tenders.Several were flown by the Marine Corps.Powerplant was 1 × Liberty L-12 V-12 water-cooled piston engine,450 hp and it carried a crew of two.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on March 12, 2019, 07:20:13 PM
Douglas DC-5

The Douglas DC-5 was a 16-to-22-seat civilian,twin-engine propeller aircraft,designed to use either Pratt & Whitney R-1690 Hornet or Wright R-1820 Cyclone radial engines.
It was the first airliner to combine shoulder wings and tricycle landing gear,which was innovative for transport airplanes.It provided better ground handling and better ground visibility for the pilots.The fuselage was about two feet above the ground,so loading of passengers and cargo was easier than aircraft with the then-standard conventional landing gear.Prior to the US entry into World War II, one prototype and four production aircraft were built.

The aircraft made its first flight on February 20, 1939 with Carl A. Cover at the controls.This sole prototype (in 1940 configured with just eight seats) became the personal aircraft of William Boeing,who named it Rover.It was later impressed into the US Navy and converted for military use as an R3D-3 variant in February 1942.

The first customer for the DC-5 was KLM,the four aircraft sold to KLM were used in its colonial subsidiaries Surinam and Curaçao,and also in the Dutch East Indies.
A dozen DC-5s were completed.Some were pressed into military service with the USAAF.The Japanese operated one of the captured KLM machines,after repairing it and flying it back to Japan.
The USN ordered seven aircraft;3 were delivered as R3D-1s,the first of which crashed before delivery.The remaining four were R3D-2s for the USMC and were equipped with 1,015 hp R-1820-44 engines,a large cargo hold,and 22 seats for paratroopers.
After World War II,production of the DC-5 was not resumed because of the abundance of surplus C-47 aircraft released into civil service and converted to DC-3s.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on March 13, 2019, 04:41:26 PM
Douglas X-3 Stiletto

The Douglas X-3 Stiletto was a 1950s experimental jet aircraft with a slender fuselage and a long tapered nose.Its primary mission was to investigate the design features of an aircraft suitable for sustained supersonic speeds,it was,however seriously underpowered for this purpose and could not even exceed Mach 1 in level flight.

The goal of the aircraft was ambitious—it was to take off from the ground under its own power,climb to high altitude,maintain a sustained cruise speed of Mach 2,then land under its own power.The aircraft was also to test the feasibility of low-aspect-ratio wings,and the large-scale use of titanium in aircraft structures.
The X-3 featured an unusual slender,streamlined shape having a very long,gently-tapered nose and small trapezoidal wings.The aim was to create the thinnest and most slender shape possible in order to achieve low drag at supersonic speeds.The extended nose was to allow for the provision of test equipment while the semi-buried cockpit and windscreen were designed to alleviate the effects of "thermal thicket" conditions.

The low aspect ratio,unswept wings were designed for high speed and later the Lockheed design team used data from the X-3 tests for the similar F-104 Starfighter wing design.Due to both engine and airframe problems,the partially completed second aircraft was cancelled,and its components were used for spare parts.

The official first flight was made by Bridgeman on 20 October,and lasted about 20 minutes.He made a total of 26 flights (counting the hop) by the end of the Douglas tests in December 1953. These showed that the X-3 was severely under-powered and difficult to control. Its takeoff speed was an unusually high.More seriously,it did not approach its planned top speed.
Its first supersonic flight required that the airplane make a 15° dive to reach Mach 1.1.The X-3's fastest flight,made on 28 July 1953,reached Mach 1.208 in a 30° dive.A plan to re-engine the X-3 with rocket motors was considered but eventually dropped.

For the X-3,the roll test flight was the high point of its history when it had experienced "roll inertia coupling,"in which a manoeuver in one axis will cause an uncommanded manoeuver in one or two others.The aircraft was grounded for nearly a year after the flight,and never again explored its roll stability and control boundaries.It made another ten flights between 20 September 1955 and the last on 23 May 1956,then it was subsequently retired to the U.S. Air Force Museum.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on March 14, 2019, 01:32:06 PM
Fairchild 71

The Fairchild 71 was a high-wing monoplane passenger and cargo aircraft,for both military and civilian use as a rugged bush plane.It was a progressive development of the Fairchild FC-2W2 light transport.
Its first upgrade was the FC-2,whose several improvements included slightly swept-back wings; wingspan increased to 50 feet; engine power nearly doubled; and interior changes to improve passenger comfort.The FC-2 first flew in 1926.Powerplant: 1 × Pratt & Whitney Wasp B/C 9-cylinder radial piston of 420 hp,which gave it a cruising speed of 106mph.

The FC-2W was a further development,later known as the Model 71 was built in the USA between 1928 and 1930.In 1929 Fairchild formed a company in Canada (Fairchild Aircraft Limited) at Longueuil, Quebec in 1929 to support the Canadian operators of Fairchild aircraft. The Canadian company also set up a factory production line for the Model 71, developing a variant for the Canadian military.
The Canadian-built aircraft differed from the US version in that all the passenger-comfort features were removed, and the craft were built specifically for aerial photography.

The USAAS acquired one Model 71 for evaluation,eight more service-test aircraft,designated YF-1 were ordered; all nine were later redesignated C-8.
The RCAF,another major military operator,evaluated the Fairchild 71 in mid-June 1930.Thirty four RCAF FC-71s were operated from 1930 to 1946.Along with the earlier FC-2 series, the RCAF FC-71 was utilized primarily in the aerial photographic survey role as well as northern transport.

Most of the Model 71 production ended up in the hands of bush plane operators in Canada and the United States. Civilian operators likewise found the 71 a rugged, reliable and highly useful utility transport, well suited for northern and remote operations. 
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on March 15, 2019, 03:23:37 PM
Fairchild 45


The Fairchild Model 45 was a 1930s American five-seat cabin monoplane.It first flew on 31 May 1935 and it was a low-wing cantilever monoplane with a conventional cantilever tail unit and a retractable tailwheel landing gear.It was powered by a 225 hp Jacobs L-4 radial and had a luxury five-seat interior as standard.Flight testing showed that the aircraft performed well,although it was described as sedate.

Company predictions were that the Model 45 would have only limited market appeal in that form,therefore only the prototype was built.Fairchild then upgraded the prototype with a larger engine,the 320 hp Wright R-760 radial,for evaluation.In this configuration it was designated the Model 45-A and was placed in production,with about 16 units being completed.

One aircraft was bought as an executive transport by the USN as the JK-1.After the United States entered the Second World War,two aircraft were impressed into service with the USAAF as the UC-88.

Greg Herrick requested drawings of a Fairchild 45 tail section for an ongoing restoration project in 1997.The request was refused,claiming the design was a trade secret.
He then submitted a FOIA request,and a lawsuit followed that was debated in the US Supreme Court.This led to the "Herrick amendment" added to the FAA Air Transportation Modernization and Safety Improvement Act of 2012,releasing the ATC type certificate information for 1,257 aircraft first certified in 1927 through the beginning of WW II in 1939.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on March 16, 2019, 11:42:32 PM
Fairchild XC-120 Packplane

The Fairchild XC-120 Packplane was an experimental transport aircraft,developed from the company's C-119 Flying Boxcar,and was unique in the unconventional use of removable cargo pods that were attached below the fuselage,instead of possessing an internal cargo compartment.

The XC-120 Packplane began as a C-119B fuselage (48-330, c/n 10312) which was cut off at a point just below the flight deck.The wings were angled upwards between the engines and the fuselage,raising the fuselage by several feet and giving the plane an inverted gull wing appearance.Smaller diameter "twinned" wheels were installed forward of each of the main landing gear struts to serve as nosewheels,while the main struts were extended backwards.

All four landing gear units,in matching "nose" and "main" sets,could be raised and lowered in a scissorlike fashion to lower the aircraft and facilitate the removal of a planned variety of wheeled pods which would be attached below the fuselage for the transport of cargo.The goal was to allow cargo to be preloaded into the pods;it was claimed that such an arrangement would speed up loading and unloading cargo.

Powerplant was 2 × Pratt & Whitney R-4360 Wasp Major radials of 3,250 hp,the first flight was 11th august 1950,and production aircraft were to be designated C-128.
Only one XC-120 was built,though the aircraft was tested extensively and made several airshow appearances in the early 1950s,the project went no further.
It was tested by the Air Proving Ground Command at Eglin Air Force Base, Florida, in 1951,before the project was abandoned in 1952.The prototype was eventually scrapped.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=07PDAzxwA2M
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on March 17, 2019, 05:07:06 PM
Fairchild T-46

The Fairchild T-46 (nicknamed the "Eaglet") was a light jet trainer aircraft of the 1980s.The USAF launched its Next Generation Trainer (NGT) program to replace the Cessna T-37 Tweet primary trainer in 1981.
Fairchild-Republic submitted a shoulder-winged monoplane with a twin tail,powered by two Garrett F109 turbofans and with pilot and instructor sitting side by side.Part of the idea was an expectation of increasing levels of general aviation traffic.A pressurized trainer would permit training at higher altitude,leading to fewer restrictions on the new pilots.

A flyable 62% scale version known as the Model 73 NGT,this first flew on 10 September 1981.A major requirement was for the aircraft to be able to go into a spin,and to have easy recovery,this was demonstrated using the Model 73 NTG.
Fairchild's design,to be designated T-46, was announced winner of the NGT competition on 2 July 1982,with the USAF placing an order for two prototypes and options for 54 production aircraft.It was planned to build 650 T-46s for the USAF by the early 1990`s.

The aircraft first flew on 15 October 1985,six months later than originally programmed date of 15 April.Costs had increased significantly during the development process, with the predicted unit cost doubling from $1.5 million in 1982 to $3 million in February 1985.Testing did not reveal any major problems, but Secretary of the Air Force cancelled procurement of the T-46,while allowing limited development to continue.Attempts were made in Congress to reinstate the program,which resulted in the FY 1987 budget being delayed,an amendment was passed to the 1987 Appropriations Bill to forbid any spending on the T-46 until further evaluation of the T-46 against the T-37 and other trainers took place.

The project was cancelled a little more than a year later,for reasons that largely remain controversial.The T-46 was the last project of the Fairchild Republic Corporation,and after the program termination Fairchild had no more income.Without any new contracts and the NGT program cancelled,the company closed the Republic factory in Farmingdale,New York,bringing 60 years of Fairchild aircraft manufacturing to an end.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on March 18, 2019, 05:01:03 PM
Globe Swift

The Globe Swift,also known as the Globe/Temco Swift,is a light,two-seat sport monoplane from the post-WW II period.The Swift was designed by R.S."Pop"Johnson in 1940,the design was financially secured by John Kennedy,president of the Globe Medicine Company,to be built by his new Globe Aircraft Company,but WW II interrupted their plans.

The 85 hp GC-1A Swift advertised as the "All Metal Swift" re-designed by K.H."Bud" Knox,received its type certificate on 7 May 1946.Two prototypes were built but the design remained much the same as the type that entered production.Globe built about 408 GC-1As.
Later it received a more powerful engine of 125 hp making it the GC-1B.Globe,together with TEMCO,built 833 GC-1Bs in six months,however Globe was outpacing sales of the Swift,and did not have enough orders to sell all of the aircraft being built.As a result Globe was forced into insolvency.

TEMCO obtain the type certificate,tooling,aircraft,and parts to enable them to continue production in late 1947 in the hope that reviving production would enable TEMCO to recover their loss.
TEMCO went on to build 260 more aircraft before shutting Swift production down permanently in 1951.

The type certificate for the Swift was obtained by Universal Aircraft Industries (later Univair) along with all production tooling.Spare parts continued to be built until 1979 when the Swift Museum Foundation under the leadership of President Charlie Nelson purchased the Type Certificate,parts and tooling
 
The most unusual variant of the series became a separate design,the TEMCO TE-1/T-35 Buckaroo which was built in a short-run first as a contender for a USAF trainer aircraft contract,later transferred to foreign service as a military trainer.Several of these trainers have since returned to the civil market.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: smudge on March 18, 2019, 09:26:23 PM
Now I didn't know that the Buckaroo derived from the Swift!  Likewise the winning T-34 was based on the bigger Bonanza.

TEMCO had another go at a US Navy requirement with the TT-1 Pinto jet trainer, again the Navy took a handful and trained some pilots on it but chose the T-2 Buckeye instead.

Of course as part of LTV they later made the grade with the F-8
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on March 19, 2019, 06:07:57 PM
Gee Bee Model Z

The Granville Gee Bee Model Z was an American racing aircraft of the 1930s,the first of the Super Sportster aircraft built by Granville Brothers Aircraft of Springfield, Massachusetts,with the sole intent of winning the Thompson Trophy,which it did in 1931.However,it soon suffered a fatal crash during a world speed record attempt,starting the reputation of the Gee Bee aircraft as killers.

The Granville Brothers decided in July 1931 to build an aircraft to compete in that years Thompson Trophy competition at the National Air Races in Cleveland, Ohio.They hoped that a victory in the race would lead to additional orders for their line of sporting aircraft.
The Gee Bee (for "Granville Brothers") Model Z,was named City of Springfield.It was a small,stumpy airplane,basically the smallest possible airframe constructed around the most powerful available engine,a supercharged Pratt & Whitney R-985 "Wasp Junior" radial engine,producing 535 hp.

It first flew 22nd Aug 1931 and quickly proved to be tricky to fly,but fulfilled every expectation with regards to its speed.Flown by pilot Lowell Bayles,it attained the speed of 267.342 mph at the National Air Races during the Shell Speed Dash qualifying on September 1.It went on to win the Goodyear Trophy race,run over a course of 50 miles,the next day at an average speed of 205mph.On the September 5,Bob Hall,flew it to victory in the General Tire and Rubber Trophy race,then won again the next day in a free-for-all event.
In the Thompson Trophy Race on September 7,Bayles won with an average speed of 236.24 mph,winning over competitors including Jimmy Doolittle amongst others.

The Gee Bee Z was then re-engined with a larger,750-hp Wasp Senior radial,in preparation for an attempt at a world speed record for landplanes at Wayne County Airport in Detroit.Unofficially clocked at 314 mph on a trial run,beating the previous record of 278 mph by attaining 281.75 mph on December 1, 1931,but the margin was too small for the record to be officially registered.A further record attempt on December 5, 1931,ended in tragedy,the aircraft suffered a wing failure and rolled into the ground, killing Bayles.Tests of a reproduction aircraft have shown that the Gee Bee Z was susceptible to aerodynamic flutter at high speed.

Film of the crash of the Gee Bee Z has become some of the most well known footage from the era of air racing. The crash also helped to establish the reputation of Gee Bee racing aircraft as killers.The Super Sportster design would be refined into the Gee Bee Model R for the 1932 air race season.

Two reproductions of the Gee Bee Z have been constructed.One,a faithful reproduction of the original aircraft,was constructed by Jeff Eicher and Kevin Kimball of Mount Dora, Florida, and is housed in the Fantasy of Flight museum in Lakeland, Florida.The other was a movie prop for the Walt Disney feature film The Rocketeer.
The Granville Brothers built only 24 aircraft and only two original aircraft are known to exist.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on March 20, 2019, 05:54:09 PM
Grumman AF Guardian

The original design concept for what would become the Guardian,the XTB2F of 1944,was a twin-engine aircraft with a 3,600lb weapons load and a range of 3,700 miles,but it was considered to be too large for practical use from an Essex-class aircraft carrier,and was cancelled in 1945.

The XTB3F-1S carried a crew of two seated side-by-side and an armament of two 20 mm cannon and 4,000 lb of bombs,torpedoes and/or rockets,and made its first flight on 19 December 1945.Then on 24th Dec 1945,the Navy changed the role of the aircraft from torpedo-bomber to anti-submarine warfare.The required equipment could not be fitted into a single aircraft,so two variants would be produced, one as a hunter and another as a killer.

The hunter aircraft would not carry any armament,but instead two extra crew members and a ventral radome for APS-20 radar and ECM.This aircraft,the XTB3F-1S first flew in November 1948.The "killer" deleted the cannon of the torpedo bomber,but retained the bomb bay,added a third crewmember,a searchlight,and short-range radar,and as the XTB3F-2S first flew in January 1949.Powerplant was a single Pratt & Whitney R-2800-48W "Double Wasp" radial of 2,400 hp.

Redesignated as AF-2W and AF-2S,they entered fleet service on 27 September 1950 with three aircraft delivered to VS-24,with full service introduction shortly after with VS-25. A total of 193 AF-2S Guardians were built.In 1952,the AF-3S (hunter) was introduced,fitting a magnetic anomaly detector (MAD) for the detection of submerged submarines; 40 of this variant were built.The last Guardian was delivered to the Navy in March 1953,with a total of 389 built.

The Guardian saw service in the maritime patrol role during the Korean War,however it proved unpopular with pilots,underpowered and heavy on the controls;the aircraft suffered from a very high accident rate.Just after the Korean War ended,it began to be replaced by the Grumman S2F Tracker,the U.S. Navy first purpose-built ASW airplane to combine the hunter and killer roles in a single airframe.The Guardian remained in service with the US Naval Air Reserve until 1957.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on March 21, 2019, 04:33:18 PM
Grumman G-65 Tadpole / Colonial Skimmer

The Grumman G-65 Tadpole was an American prototype light amphibian.It was a two/three-seat shoulder-wing cantilever monoplane with retractable tricycle landing gear.It was powered by a 125hp Continental C125 engine above the rear fuselage driving a pusher propeller.

It first flew on 7 December 1944.Although not developed by Grumman,one of the design team,David Thurston,later developed the design into a family of amphibians including the Colonial Skimmer and Lake Buccaneer.

In 1946 David Thurston established the Colonial Aircraft Corporation at Sanford Maine to build his design for a small amphibian flying boat,the Skimmer.
The design was an all-metal shoulder-wing cantilever monoplane with a single-step hull and stabilizing floats fitted under each wing.A retractable tricycle landing gear allowed land operation.
The 115hp Avco Lycoming engine with a pusher propeller was pylon-mounted above and aft of the enclosed cockpit.
The cabin had side-by-side seating for a pilot and passenger with room behind for another passenger.

The prototype XC-1 Skimmer first flew on July 17 1948,powered by a 115 hp Lycoming O-235 engine,but was later re-engined with a 125 hp Lycoming O-290.
24 examples of the C-1 Skimmer were built and these were followed by 18 examples of the higher powered four-seat variant known as the C-2 Skimmer IV,which through a succession of companies became the Lake Buccaneer.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on March 22, 2019, 08:26:21 PM
Grumman XF5F Skyrocket

The Grumman XF5F Skyrocket was a prototype twin-engined shipboard fighter interceptor.In 1938 Grumman presented a proposal to the USN for a twin engine carrier based fighter with an unusual configuration.The design was was for a lightweight fighter powered by two 1,200 hp Wright R-1820 engines,with propellers geared to rotate in opposite directions to cancel out the effects of each engine's torque, promising high-speed,and climb rate.The XF5F Skyrocket was a low wing monoplane with a short fuselage that began aft of the wing's leading edge with a twin tail assembly that featured a pronounced dihedral to the horizontal stabilizer.The main landing gear and tail wheel were fully retractable.

The aircraft flew for the first time on 1 April 1940.Modifications were made to the prototype including reduction in the height of the cockpit canopy,revising the armament installation to four 0.5 in machine guns in place of cannon,a redesign of the engine nacelles,adding spinners to the propellers,and extending the fuselage forward of the wing.These changes were completed on 15 July 1941.

Later that year,USN Bureau pilots tested the XF5F-1 in a fly-off against the top allied fighters,analysis of all the data definitely favored the F5F,with the Spitfire in a distant second.
However the difficulty of building the twin-engine fighter had ruled out the Skyrocket,and that the Bureau had settled on the Wildcat for mass production.
Additional changes were needed after further flight tests that were not completed until 15 January 1942.Meantime Grumman began work on a more advanced twin-engine shipboard fighter,and further testing with the XF5F-1 supported the development of the newer design.
The prototype continued to be used in various tests,until it was struck from the list of active aircraft after it made a belly landing on 11 December 1944.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on March 23, 2019, 06:20:31 PM
Grumman XF10F Jaguar


The Grumman XF10F Jaguar was a prototype swing-wing fighter aircraft for the USN in the early 1950s.Although it never entered service,its research pointed the way toward the later General Dynamics F-111 and Grumman's own F-14 Tomcat.

The Navy's interest in the variable-geometry wing was based on concerns that the ever-increasing weight of its jet fighters was making aircraft carrier operations unduely hazardous,as existing aircraft already had marginal carrier performance.The requirement for high-speed performance demanded swept wing layouts that did not lend themselves to good takeoff characteristics,thus the prospect of combining the two in a single aircraft was enticing.

The XF10F featured a T-tail,with the horizontal stabilator,a small pivoting center body with a delta servo control at the nose and a larger rear delta main wing,mounted atop the vertical fin.The single  Westinghouse XJ40-WE-8 turbojet engine was fed by cheek intakes.The high,shoulder-mounted wing could be moved to two positions: a 13.5° sweep for takeoff and landing and a 42.5° sweep for high-speed flight.The XF10F-1 was not armed, but production aircraft would likely have had four 20 mm cannon and pylons for bombs and rockets,much like other contemporary Navy fighters.

It`s configuration presented many of the same handling problems as the earlier Bell X-5 experimental aircraft,with some vicious spin characteristics.Development was hampered by its use of the chronically unreliable turbojet engine,which,as on other aircraft of this period,made the Jaguar dangerously underpowered.
Test pilot Corwin "Corky" Meyer,the only pilot to fly the Jaguar,described it as entertaining to fly "because there was so much wrong with it.
The Navy was not encouraged by the results,and the rapid development of larger carriers with angled flight decks and steam-driven catapults made the swing-wing configuration unnecessary.

The prototype XF10F-1 first flew on 19 May 1952.It was used for some 32 test flights throughout the year,but in April 1953,the Navy canceled the program,and with it,the 112 production aircraft that had been ordered.The sole flying aircraft and the uncompleted second prototype were shipped to Naval Air Material Center in Philadelphia for barricade testing, and the static test aircraft was later used as a gunnery target.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on March 24, 2019, 05:05:58 PM
General Dynamics–Grumman F-111B

I know some of you may be thinking "F-111,that`s a very well known aircraft",but this version was a different beast,so it`s worthy of inclusion.

The General Dynamics/Grumman F-111B was a long-range carrier-based interceptor aircraft that was planned to be a follow-on to the F-4 Phantom II for the US Navy.
It was designed in parallel with the F-111 "Aardvark", which was adopted by the USAF as a strike aircraft,but the F-111B suffered development issues and changing Navy requirements for an aircraft with maneuverability for dogfighting.
The F-111B was not ordered into production and the prototypes were used for testing before being retired.It would be replaced by the smaller and lighter Grumman F-14 Tomcat, which carried over the engines,AWG-9/Phoenix weapons system,and similar swing-wing configuration.

The F-111B was part of the 1960s TFX program.The USAF's TAC was largely concerned with the fighter-bomber to be a follow-on to the F-105 Thunderchief.
Meanwhile,the USN sought a long-range,high-endurance interceptor to defend its aircraft carrier battle groups,they wanted an aircraft with a more powerful radar, and longer range missiles than the F-4 Phantom II to intercept both enemy bombers and missiles.
In June 1961,Secretary McNamara ordered the go ahead on TFX despite Air Force and the Navy efforts to keep their programs separate.The USAF wanted a tandem seat aircraft for low level penetration, while the Navy wanted a shorter, high altitude interceptor with side by side seating.Differences in required performance also became an issue.
General Dynamics' proposal was selected from 6 manufacurers in November 1962 due to its greater commonality between Air Force and Navy TFX versions.

The nose was 8.5 feet shorter due to its need to fit on existing carrier elevator decks,and had 3.5 feet longer wingspan to improve on-station endurance time.
General Dynamics teamed with Grumman for assembly and test of the aircraft.Grumman would build the F-111A's aft fuselage and the landing gear.The first test F-111A was powered by YTF30-P-1 turbofans and used a set of ejector seats,since the escape capsule was not yet available.It first flew on 21 December 1964.The first F-111B was also equipped with ejector seats and first flew on 18 May 1965.

Excessive weight plagued the F-111B throughout its development.The prototypes were far over the requirement weight.Design efforts reduced airframe weight but were offset by the addition of the escape capsule.The additional weight made the aircraft underpowered.
With the F-111B program in distress, Grumman began studying improvements and alternatives.In 1966,the Navy awarded Grumman a contract to begin studying advanced fighter designs.Grumman narrowed down these designs to its Model 303 design.With this the F-111B's end appeared near by mid-1967.By May 1968 both Armed Services committees of Congress voted not to fund production and in July 1968 the DoD ordered work stopped on F-111B.A total of seven were delivered by February 1969.

The replacement was the Grumman F-14 Tomcat,which derived from Grumman's initial Model 303 design,reused the TF30 engines from the F-111B,though the Navy planned on replacing them with an improved engine later.Although lighter than the F-111B,it was still the largest and heaviest U.S. fighter to takeoff and land from an aircraft carrier.

Flight tests on the continued at NAS Point Mugu,California and NAWS China Lake,California even after the program had been terminated.
The F-111B's last flight was with 151792 from California to New Jersey in mid-1971.The seven aircraft flew 1,748 hours over 1,173 flights.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on March 25, 2019, 06:51:28 PM
Harlow PC-5

Max Harlow was an aeronautical engineer and instructor at the Pasadena Junior College.Under his tutelage,the aircraft designated PJC-1 was designed and built as a class project.
It was destroyed in a spin test,but the PJC students then built a modified design,and incorporated a slightly larger vertical stabilizer.
This became the PJC-2 model,certified by the FAA on 20 May 1938.It was one of the first,airplanes designed and built in the U.S. with a stressed-skin semi-monocoque structure—a revolutionary design feature for the time. Harlow saw the potential and formed the Harlow Aircraft Company to build PJC-2 aircraft at Alhambra Airport.

Next they designed a version of the PJC-2 as a tandem two-seat training aircraft.The PC-5 had a revised fuselage with dual controls.The aircraft first flew in July 1939 but it failed to interest the USAAC.
Howard Hughes' business partner, J.B. Alexander,backed the project and had flown in early examples of the aircraft.

Harlow licensed the manufacturing rights to the PC-5 to Cub Aircraft of Canada during the wartime buildup.Only five aircraft had been built when the company was taken over by the Intercontinent Corporation.
Components for 50 aircraft were supplied to the Indian company Hindustan Aeronautics, who were to assemble the aircraft for use by the Indian Air Force as the PC-5A. The first PC-5A flew in August 1941,but it is not known how many were assembled and flown.
Powerplant was 1 × Warner Super Scarab 165-D 7-cylinder radial piston engine,of165 hp giving a max speed of around 150 mph.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on March 26, 2019, 04:51:10 PM
Howard Aircraft Corporation DGA-11

Howard Aircraft Corporation was a small United States aircraft manufacturer in the 1930s and 1940s. The factory was initially on the south side of Chicago Municipal Airport.
During World War II a second plant was opened at DuPage Airport west of Chicago.

One of the aircraft produced by the company was the DGA-11,powered by a nine-cylinder 450 hp Pratt & Whitney R-985 Wasp Junior radial engine,was purportedly the fastest four-seat civil aircraft of the late 1930s,able to achieve a top speed of about 200 mph.
A favorite of the high society and Hollywood circles,the DGA-11 cost about $16,500 in 1938 — expensive for the time,a slower and less costly version,the DGA-12,used a 300 hp Jacobs engine.

Production of the Howard Aircraft Corporation from 1936 to 1939 totaled about 30 aircraft.In 1939,Howard increased production and developed the 5-place DGA-15,building about 40 of the four/five-seater aircraft,powered by one of three different engines.Founder,Ben Howard,left the company at this time to join Douglas Aircraft Company as test pilot.

The onset of WW II signaled the end of the civil Howard aircraft line.The USN procured about 525 modified DGA-15s for use as the GH-2 Nightingale air ambulance,the GH-1 and GH-3 utility transport,and the NH-1 instrument trainer aircraft.
Exceptionally roomy and high-powered,the modified DGA-15 was known for being difficult to land and unforgiving—earning the unwanted nickname of “Ensign Eliminator.”The U.S. Army Air Corps also acquired a variety of prewar Howard aircraft as utility aircraft.

Stockholders elected not to produce civilian aircraft after the war,then sold the aviation assets,and used the proceeds to buy an electric-motor manufacturing company in Racine, Wisconsin,and named it Howard Industries.

Photo from abpics.co.uk
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on March 27, 2019, 10:30:14 PM
International F-18 Air Coach

The International F-18 Air Coach was a 1920s American biplane transport that was designed and manufactured by the International Aircraft Corporation in Long Beach, California.Perhaps better known for their F-17 Sportsman model.

Only six F-18's were ever built.One these aircraft,Miss Hollydale,flew in the 1927 Dole Air Race between Northern California and Hawaii.The F-18 had a cabin for four passengers and an open cockpit with side-by-side seating for a pilot and a fifth passenger.

Powerplant was 1 × Wright J-5 nine-cylinder air-cooled radial piston engine,of 220 hp giving a modest top speed of 120mph or 95 mph cruise.
The company stopped manufacturing F-18's by 1928 and sold its rights to the aircraft in 1931.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on March 28, 2019, 05:58:50 PM
Interstate Cadet

The Interstate Cadet was a two-seat tandem,high wing,single-engine monoplane light aircraft,similar looking to the Piper J-3 Cub and it`s variants.
The original version,the S1 prototype,was powered by the 50 hp Continental A50 engine,but was soon upgraded to the Continental A65 engine and redesignated as the S1-A-65F.
This was a popular and common engine used in many small American two-seat aircraft of the time.

During World War Two the S1-B1 version with a 90hp Franklin engine was produced,known in the US military under the L-6A Grasshopper designation.
An Interstate Cadet,flown by aviator Cornelia Fort and an unknown student,was one of the first aircraft to be attacked by IJNAS Japanese naval planes en route to the Pearl Harbor attack on December 7,1941.The aircraft was restored in 2012 and is still flying as N37266.

In 1945 the rights to the aircraft were sold to Harlow Aircraft Company,which in turn resold the tooling and parts to the Call Aircraft Company of Wyoming in 1946 for $5000. Callair rebuilt a number of S-1, S-1A and L-6s, some with engine upgrades,for local ranchers and bush pilots as well as two examples of their own serial numbered CallAir S-1A-90C before production ended.

One of the main reasons it did not sell well was,that it cost almost three times the amount of the comparable Piper J-3 Cub.However,a closer look at the two aircraft reveals that the Cadet was faster,stronger and could be operated in a more rugged environment with its Oleo strut/Compression spring suspension system.
Popular upgrades for this airframe included larger engines(75/85/90/100 hp), better brakes, and a different tailwheel system.

In the late 1960s the type certs and tooling were bought by the newly formed Arctic Aircraft Company who transformed the S-1B1 into a bush plane by upgrading structural elements of the fuselage,landing gear and wings.
This aircraft was designated the S-1B2, was used a Lycoming O-320 160 HP engine and a McCauley propeller for increased performance and was certified in 1975 as the Arctic Tern.
The new Type certification also covered installing the same engine in otherwise standard Interstate Cadets.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: smudge on March 29, 2019, 09:15:10 AM
I'm enjoying this series!

A few comments on recent items:

- Howard Industries is still going, they are now based in Mississippi.  Back in the 1950s they had a brand of electric motor called the Cyclohm which is a smudge-approved pun.

- Although maligned for being too heavy the Seapig was only three tonnes heavier than an F-14 and could launch with less wind over deck, and with more fuel.  And could land with plenty of fuel and all six Phoenix missiles.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on March 29, 2019, 06:15:07 PM
Thank you for your comments-good to know that this is of interest.

Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on March 29, 2019, 07:02:21 PM
Interstate TDR

The Interstate TDR was an early unmanned combat aerial vehicle — referred to at the time as an "assault drone" — developed during the WWWII for use by the United States Navy.
It was capable of being armed with bombs or torpedoes.
Due to the limitations of the technology of the time,development of the project was given a low priority,but by the early 1940s the radar altimeter and television made the project more feasible,and following trials using converted manned aircraft,the first operational test of a drone against a naval target was conducted in April 1942.

Interstate Aircraft received a contract from the Navy for two prototype and 100 production aircraft to a simplified and improved design,to be designated TDR-1.
Control of the aircraft would be conducted from either a control aircraft,usually a Grumman TBF Avenger,with the operator viewing a tv screen showing the view from a camera mounted aboard the drone along with the radar altimeter's readout,or via a pilot on board the TDR-1 for test flights.

It was powered by two Lycoming O-435 piston engines of 220 hp each,it had a remarkably simple steel-tube/moulded wooden skin design,making little use of strategic materials so as not to impede production of higher priority aircraft.

In 1944,under the control of the Special Air Task Force,the TDR-1 was deployed to the South Pacific for operations against the Japanese.
Aircraft equipped a single mixed squadron (Special Air Task Group 1) along with TBM Avenger control aircraft,and the first operational mission took place on September 27,conducting bombing operations against Japanese shipping.
Despite success,the assault drone program had already been canceled after the production of 189 TDR-1 aircraft,due to a combination of continued technical problems,and the fact that more conventional weaponry was proving adequate.
The final mission was flown on October 27,with 50 drones having been expended on operations,31 aircraft successfully striking their targets,without loss to the pilots of STAG-1.Following the war,some TDR-1s were converted for operation as private sportsplanes.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on March 30, 2019, 04:53:35 PM
Javelin Wichawk

The Javelin Wichawk is a sporting biplane designed in the early 1970s and marketed in plan form for amateur construction.
It is a conventional design with staggered single-bay wings of equal span braced with N-struts and having fixed,tailwheel undercarriage.
Powerplant usually 1 × Lycoming O-360 of 180 hp,giving a max speed of 140mph,with a cruise of around 110mph.

The pilot and a single passenger sit in side-by-side configuration in an open cockpit,but the plans include options for the aircraft to be built in two- or three-seat tandem configuration instead.The fuselage and empennage are of welded steel tube construction,with the wings built with wooden spars and aluminium alloy ribs,all covered in doped aircraft fabric.
In January 2014 nine examples were registered in the USA with the FAA,but a total of 18 had been registered at one time.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on March 31, 2019, 05:19:56 PM
Kellett KD-1 / XO-60

The Kellett KD-1 was a 1930s American autogyro built by the Kellett Autogiro Company,using the experience gained in building Cierva autogyros under licence.
It developed the KD-1 which was similar to the contemporary Cierva C.30.It had two open cockpits,a fixed tailwheel landing gear and was powered by a 225 hp Jacobs L-4 radial engine.
It had the distinction of being the first practical rotary-wing aircraft used by the United States Army and inaugurated the first scheduled air-mail service using a rotary-wing aircraft.

After testing of the prototype a commercial variant designated the KD-1A was put into production.It had a three-bladed rotor with folding blades and a number of minor detail improvements.A KD-1B which was a KD-1A with an enclosed cockpit for the pilot was operated by Eastern Airlines and inaugurated the first scheduled rotary-wing air-mail service on 6 July 1939.

In 1935 the US Army bought a KD-1 for evaluation and designated it the YG-1,then a second aircraft followed which had additional radio equipment and was designated the YG-1A; these two aircraft were followed by a batch of seven designated YG-1B.In 1942 seven more were bought for use in the observation role as the XO-60.Six XO-60s were re-engined with 300 hp Jacobs R-915-3s and re-designated YO-60.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on April 01, 2019, 09:07:12 PM
Kellett XR-10

The Kellett XR-10 was a military transport helicopter developed in the 1940s that only flew in prototype form.It was designed in response to a USAAF Instruction issued for the development of a helicopter to transport passengers,cargo,or wounded personnel within an enclosed fuselage.Kellet was already developing in the XR-8,with twin intermeshing rotors,and was accepted by the Air Force on 16 October over proposals by Sikorsky, Bell, and Platt-LePage.

The XR-10 resembled a scaled-up XR-8,although its twin engines were carried in nacelles at the fuselage sides,driving the rotors via long driveshafts and the aircraft was skinned entirely in metal.The first of two prototypes flew on 24 April 1947.Powerplant was 2 × Continental R-975-15,of 425 hp

During test-flights,the same problem that had been encountered with the XR-8's rotor system emerged when blades from the two rotors collided in flight.With fixes in place, flight testing continued,but on 3 October 1949,the first prototype crashed due to a control system failure which killed Kellett's chief test pilot.
The project was abandoned shortly after,and a 16-seat civil variant design,the KH-2,never left the drawing board. 
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: smudge on April 02, 2019, 07:10:36 AM
Kellett KD-1 / XO-60

The Kellett KD-1 was a 1930s American autogyro built by the Kellett Autogiro Company,using the experience gained in building Cierva autogyros under licence.

One was delivered to the Japanese army and reverse-engineered by Kayaba as the Ka-1.  A couple of hundred were built and as well as observation they flew off a carrier for coastal anti-submarine patrols with depth charges, that's the only armed use of a gyro I can think of outside a Bond film!

The KD-1 / Ka-1 could hover by holding the nose high and applying full power.

Afer the war Kayaba had another go at gyros by hacking-up a Cessna 170:
http://www.aviastar.org/helicopters_eng/kayaba_heliplane.php
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on April 02, 2019, 10:53:34 PM
Kinner Envoy

The Kinner C-7 Envoy was a 1930s four-seat cabin monoplane built by Kinner Airplane & Motor Corporation.The Envoy was a four-seat version of the Kinner Sportwing.It had low wings fitted with wire bracing from fuselage points just below the cabin windows.The fixed tailwheel undercarriage was fitted with streamlined spats.The low-set tailplane was braced by wires from the middle of the fin.All very 1930`s chic.

Four civil examples were completed from 1934,when the aircraft had it`s first flight.These were fitted with a 300 h.p. Kinner C-7 engines and were sold to civil pilot owners.These were followed in 1936 by three aircraft for the United States Navy for use in communications work and designated XRK-1.The USN machines served until the early years of World War II.The Imperial Japanese Navy evaluated a single example as the LXK.
When delivered the USN examples were fitted with a 340 h.p. Kinner R-1044-2 engine,one example used for VIP transport was later fitted with a 400 h.p. Pratt & Whitney R-985-38 radial engine.
The C-7 was the last of Kinner's production models.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on April 03, 2019, 07:37:17 PM
LTV XC-142

The Ling-Temco-Vought (LTV) XC-142 was a tiltwing experimental aircraft designed to investigate the operational suitability of vertical/short takeoff and landing (V/STOL) transports.In 1959 the United States Army,Navy and Air Force began work on the development of a prototype V/STOL aircraft that could augment helicopters in transport-type missions.Vought responded with a proposal combining engineering from their own design arm,their proposal won the design contest,and a contract for five prototypes was signed in early 1962.

During the prototype development the Navy decided to exit the program,they were concerned that the strong propeller downwash would make it difficult to operate.
The first prototype made its first conventional flight on 29 September 1964,first hover on 29 December 1964,and first transition on 11 January 1965.The first XC-142A was delivered to the Air Force test team in July 1965.During the test program,a total of 420 hours were flown in 488 flights.
The five XC-142As were flown by 39 different military and civilian pilots.Tests included carrier operations,simulated rescues,paratroop drops,and cargo extraction.

The basic design was fairly typical for a cargo aircraft,consisting of a large boxy fuselage with a tilted rear area featuring a loading ramp.It had a wingspan of 67 ft (20 m) and was 58 ft (18 m) long overall.The boxy cockpit accomedated the crew of two pilots and a loadmaster.The wing was high-mounted and the tail surfaces were a "semi-T-tail" to keep the rear area clear during loading.Tricycle landing gear were used,with the main legs retracting into blisters on the fuselage sides.In normal parked configuration it would appear to be a conventional cargo plane.

For V/STOL operations,the aircraft "converted" by tilting its wing to the vertical.Roll control during hover was provided by differential clutching of the propellers, while yaw used the ailerons,which were in the airflow.For pitch control the aircraft featured a separate tail rotor,oriented horizontally to lift the tail,as opposed to the more conventional anti-torque rotors on helicopters that are mounted vertically.

When on the ground,the tail rotor folded against the tail to avoid being damaged during loading.The wing could be rotated to 100 degrees,past vertical,in order to hover in a tailwind.The C-142 was powered by four General Electric T64 turboshaft engines cross-linked on a common driveshaft,which eliminated engine-out asymmetric thrust problems during V/STOL operations, to drive four 15.5-foot (4.7 m) Hamilton Standard fiberglass propellers,giving the aircraft excellent all-around performance which included a maximum speed of over 400 mph,making it one of the fastest VTOL transport aircraft of the era.

After reviewing the C-142B proposal,the tri-services management team could not develop a requirement for a V/STOL transport.XC-142A testing ended,and the remaining flying copy was turned over to NASA for research testing from May 1966 to May 1970.
In service it would carry 32 equipped troops or 8,000 pounds of cargo.A civilian version,the Downtowner,was also proposed.This was designed to carry 40–50 passengers at a cruise speed of 290 mph using only two of its engines.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: smudge on April 04, 2019, 02:56:39 PM
Kinner Envoy
one example used for VIP transport was later fitted with a 400 h.p. Pratt & Whitney R-985-38 radial engine.

That seems like an hellacious amount of power for a four-seater.  In contrast even a top-line Cessna 182 only has 235hp!

LTV XC-142

Shorts took out a license for European production of the C-142, had it gone ahead with backing from the US forces.  Such a shame that it didn't.  42 years later the Osprey entered service...
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on April 04, 2019, 07:20:35 PM
LTV L450F


The LTV L450F,also known as the L45ØF,was a prototype quiet reconnaissance aircraft,developed by Ling-Temco-Vought in the late 1960s for use in the Vietnam War by the US Military.Under a $1 million USD contract by LTV Electrosystems,the L450F was developed from a Schweizer SGS 2-32 sailplane,modified by Schweizer to LTV's specifications.

The modifications included stronger wing spars,a thicker wing skin,installation of a Pratt & Whitney PT6A turboprop engine driving a three-bladed prop,and main landing gear based on that of the Grumman Ag-Cat agricultural aircraft.An alternative configuration,using a piston engine,was also proposed.
The prototype flew in February 1970,but was destroyed during its third flight,on 23 March that year,the pilot successfully bailed out.

A second prototype was then completed and flown,successfully completing the testing program,and a third prototype was ordered as the unmanned XQM-93 drone.
Four examples of the XQM-93 were contracted for by the USAF,however the Compass Dwell project was subsequently cancelled.

On the 27 March 1972 Donald R.Wilson reached the altitude of 15 456 m (50 708 ft) in horizontal flight flying the remaining L450F,registered N2450F,setting a new Fédération Aéronautique Internationale international record,this record still stood as of 27 March 2012.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on April 05, 2019, 07:13:46 PM
Lockheed Model 18 Lodestar


The Lockheed Model 18 Lodestar is a passenger transport aircraft of the WWII era.Sales of the 10–14 passenger Lockheed Model 14 Super Electra,had proved disappointing,so in order to improve the type's economics,Lockheed decided to stretch the aircraft's fuselage by 5ft 6",allowing an extra two rows of seats to be fitted.
The prototype for the revised airliner,designated Model 18 by Lockheed,was converted from the fourth Model 14,one of a batch which had been returned to the manufacturer by Northwest Airlines.
The modified aircraft first flew in this form on September 21st 1939,another two prototypes being converted from Model 14s,with the first newly built Model 18 flying on February 2, 1940.

The Lodestar received its Type certificate on March 30,1940,allowing it to enter service with the first customer,Mid-Continent Airlines that month.Sales to US domestic customers were relatively slow as most US airlines were already committed to the DC-3,with only 31 Lodestars going to US airlines.Overseas sales were a little better, with 84 aircraft ordered by various airlines.Pratt & Whitney or Wright Cyclone powerplants were installed.

When the United States started to build up its military air strength in 1940–41, many American-operated Lodestars were impressed as the C-56. This was followed by the construction of many new-build Lodestars which were flown by the U.S. Army Air Forces as the C-60 and by the U.S. Navy and U.S. Marine Corps as the R5O. Lend-lease aircraft were used by the RNZAF as transports.
One was purchased in 1942 to serve as Brazilian President Getúlio Vargas' personal aircraft.This aircraft was specially designed for that purpose and had 11 seats.
Many Air Forces operated the type including the RAF,RAAF,RNZAF,SAAF,RCAF,NAF,BAF and several others.

After the war many Lodestars were overhauled and returned to civilian service, mostly as executive transports.A few were even converted to tricycle landing gear. 
Surviving New Zealand NZNAC aircraft were sold back overseas in 1951/52,six more were later imported and converted for aerial topdressing.A single Lodestar served with the Israeli Air Force during the 1948 Arab-Israeli War.A number of skydiving operations in the United States used Lodestars during the 1970s and 1980s. 
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on April 06, 2019, 04:50:14 PM
Lockheed R6V Constitution

The Lockheed R6V Constitution was a large,four propeller-driven,double-decker transport aircraft developed in the 1940s by Lockheed as a long-range,high-capacity transport and airliner for the U.S. Navy and Pan American Airways.Only two of the aircraft were ever built,both prototypes.

The design requirements,initially designated Lockheed Model 89,called for a large transport aircraft to improve upon the Navy's fleet of flying boats.
Pan Am was involved in the study because such an aircraft had potential use as a commercial airliner.This transport would carry 17,500 lb pounds of cargo 5,000 miles at a cruising altitude of 25,000 feet and a speed greater than 250 mph.The aircraft would be fully pressurized and large enough so that most major components could be accessed and possibly repaired in flight.For example,tunnels led through the thick wings to all four engines.

The Constitution design had a "double bubble" fuselage, the cross section of which was a "figure eight".This unorthodox design,originally created in 1937 by Curtiss-Wright's chief aircraft designer and first introduced with the Curtiss C-46 Commando,utilized the structural advantages of a cylinder for cabin pressurization,without the wasted space that would result from a single large cylinder of the same volume.
The original order was for 50 aircraft,but this was drastically cut back to just two aircraft after VJ Day.

The Constitution had operational difficulties which prevented it from meeting its original design objectives.The large airframe needed more power than the four Pratt & Whitney R-4360s could deliver,and the engines had cooling problems.While this could be compensated for by flying with engine cowl flaps partially open,it increased drag and decreased range.
The Navy operated the two Constitutions through the end of the 1940s and into the 1950s. By 1949 the Navy announced that it could no longer afford to operate them, and offered them to airlines on a five-year lease.There was no interest from airlines in using the Constitutions (the airline version was named the Model 189), so the Navy retired both aircraft in 1953.

They went into storage at NAS Litchfield Park,Arizona in 1955.Both aircraft and 13 spare engines were sold for $97,785.Lockheed proposed the Model 389 and Model 489 airliners based on the Constitution, which would have accommodated up to 169 passengers.Neither of these "paper" projects received much interest from civil operators.
The first Constitution was brought to Las Vegas,where it served as an enormous billboard for Alamo Airways,before being scrapped by Howard Hughes when he acquired the property.The second example was scrapped sometime later near Opa-Locka Florida.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on April 07, 2019, 05:12:28 PM
Martin B-10

The Martin B-10 was the first all-metal monoplane bomber to be regularly used by the United States Army Air Corps,entering service in June 1934.Along with its features of closed cockpits,rotating gun turrets retractable landing gear,internal bomb bay,and full engine cowlings,which would become the standard for bomber designs worldwide for decades.It made all existing bombers completely obsolete.In 1932,Martin received the Collier Trophy for designing the XB-10.

Following the success of the XB-10,a number of changes were made,including reduction to a three-man crew,addition of canopies for all crew positions,and an upgrade to 675 hp engines.The Army ordered 48 of these on 17 January 1933.The first 14 aircraft were designated YB-10 and delivered to Wright Field,starting in November 1933, and used in the Army Air Corps Mail Operation.The production model of the XB-10, the YB-10 was very similar to its prototype.

In 1935,the Army ordered an additional 103 aircraft designated B-10B.These had only minor changes from the YB-10.Shipments began in July 1935.B-10Bs served with the 2d Bomb Group at Langley Field,the 9th Bomb Group at Mitchel Field,the 19th Bomb Group at March Field,the 6th Composite Group in the Panama Canal Zone,and the 4th Composite Group in the Philippines.In addition to conventional duties in the bomber role,some modified YB-10s and B-12As were operated for a time on large twin floats for coastal patrol.

With an advanced performance,the Martin company fully expected that export orders for the B-10 would flood in.The U.S. Army owned the rights to the Model 139 design.Once the Army's orders had been filled in 1936,Martin received permission to export Model 139s,and delivered versions to several air forces.Six Model 139Ws were sold to Siam in April 1937,powered by Wright R-1820-G3 Cyclone engines;20 Model 139Ws were sold to Turkey in September 1937,powered by R-1820-G2 engines.

Rapid advances in bomber design in the late 1930s meant that the B-10 was eclipsed by the time the United States entered World War II. The Model 139s in combat in China and South East Asia suffered the same disadvantages as the other early war medium bombers,i.e. not enough armour and guns,while it could not outrun the latest fighters.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on April 08, 2019, 09:25:57 PM
Martin Maryland

The Martin Model 167 was an American-designed medium bomber that first flew in 1939.In response to a USAAC light bomber requirement issued in 1938,the Glenn L. Martin Company produced its Model 167,which was given the official designation XA-22.Martin's design was a twin-engine all-metal monoplane,capable of around 310 mph with a crew of three.The XA-22 was not adopted for operational service in the U.S.,the contract was won by the Douglas DB-7,which became the A-20 Havoc,but Martin received foreign orders,and about 450 of these fast,twin-engined bombers were built.

The prototype Model 167W was powered by twin-row Pratt & Whitney R-1830-37 Twin Wasp engines,which were replaced in French production aircraft by single-row nine-cylinder Wright R-1820 Cyclone engines,the Twin Wasps were then restored for the British Maryland.
All versions of the Model 167 were armed with six machine guns,four fixed guns in the wings,one dorsal gun and one ventral gun.In the prototype,these guns were all 0.30 in Browning machine guns.The dorsal gun was mounted in a fully retractable turret,but he French aircraft used license-built Belgian Fabrique Nationale FN-Brownings,with a lighter semi-retractable dorsal turret.

The most unusual feature of the Model 167 was the very narrow fuselage,the crew of three was carried in two isolated compartments:the bombardier sat in the nose below the pilot and the gunner was in the mid-upper twin-machine gun turret in a separate rear compartment,isolated by a bulkhead.
Due to a U.S. embargo on arms exports after the beginning of WW II,many aircraft were impounded for two months before being shipped to Europe.When the Germans invaded France there were only four bomber squadrons equipped.They were quickly sent to the front lines where they performed well with their adequate speed and excellent maneuverability for an aircraft in this class.Approximately 215 Martin 167s were delivered to France.

32 aircraft had been completed to French specifications and were later converted to British requirements in the UK.Engines were changed to the Pratt and Whitney Twin Wasp and various weapons and instruments were replaced.The last 43 of the order were completed as required by Glenn Martin.All these aircraft received the designation Maryland Mk.I. A further 150 aircraft had been ordered directly by Britain with two-speed superchargers on their Twin Wasps and were designated Maryland Mk.II.

Many of the aircraft were shipped to Egypt and Malta in time for the 1941 fighting there.The RAF used it mainly for photo-recon operations in North and East Africa,being faster than the Blenheim.
A Maryland bomber was the aircraft that photographed the Italian fleet before and after the Battle of Taranto on 11 November 1940.The pilot of that Maryland was Adrian Warburton,who scored his five confirmed kills with the Maryland's forward-firing guns.
Three Maryland Mk.I aircraft were transferred to the Fleet Air Arm and were mainly used for target towing duties.On 22 May 1941,an example of 771 Naval Air Squadron based at Hatston in the Orkney Islands,reported that the German battleship Bismarck had left Bergen,confirming that she was breaking out into the Atlantic.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on April 09, 2019, 07:48:04 PM
Martin MO-1

The Martin MO was an observation monoplane built for the United States Navy.The Navy's Bureau of Aeronautics designed a three-seat observation monoplane to use a cantilever wing,similar to one developed by the Dutch company Fokker.
Production of the aircraft,designated the MO-1,was contracted to the Glenn L. Martin Company with an order for 36 aircraft.The MO-1 was a shoulder-wing cantilever monoplane with a slab-sided fuselage and a fixed tailwheel landing gear.
It had an all-metal structure with a fabric covering,and was powered by a 435hp Curtiss D-12 engine.,and had a crew of three.In 1924 one aircraft was fitted with float landing gear for evaluation.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on April 10, 2019, 07:40:37 PM
Martin P6M SeaMaster

The Martin P6M SeaMaster,was a 1950s strategic bomber flying boat for the United States Navy.A victim of budget cuts and USAF interference,the Navy chose to create a "Seaplane Striking Force",useful for both nuclear and conventional warfare,including reconnaissance and minelaying.
Groups of these planes supported by seaplane tenders or special submarines could be located close to the enemy,and being mobile,they would be hard to neutralize.
Both Convair and Martin submitted proposals,and Martin`s was chosen as more promising.An order for two prototypes was issued which was projected to lead to six pre-production aircraft and a projected twenty-four production aircraft.

The Allison J71-A-4 turbojet was employed,fitted in pairs in overwing pods to keep the spray out of the intakes.Wings swept at 40° were used; they displayed a notable anhedral and were designed with tip tanks that doubled as floats on the water.Many features of Martin's XB-51 bomber prototype were used,including an all-flying "T" tail and a rotating bomb bay—pneumatically sealed against seawater in the P6M.

The first flight of the XP6M-1 came on 14 July 1955,early tests showed that the engines were mounted too close to the fuselage and scorched it when afterburners were used,leading to angling the engines slightly outward in subsequent aircraft.Flight testing was initially successful,but,on 7 December 1955,a control system fault destroyed the first prototype with the loss of all aboard.
The first pre-production YP6M-1 was completed about a year later,testing resuming in January 1958.

The Navy and Martin felt that a new version,the P6M-2,would be a more useful aircraft.The first was rolled out in early 1959.Changes included new,more powerful Pratt & Whitney J75 engines,an aerial refueling probe,improved avionics,and a canopy with better visibility.A buddy refueling drogue kit had also been developed to fit in the bomb bay.Three had been built by summer 1959 and Navy crews were moving them through operational conversion when the program was abruptly canceled in August of that year.
 
Also problems had been identified due to the larger engine nacelles required for the J75s.There were also handling issues on the water,including a tendency for the tip floats to dig in under certain situations,and engine surges.
These were eventually solved,but time had run out just as the first crews were training for its operational debut.Eisenhower's administration was making major defense budget cuts that forced the Navy to make tough choices.

Martin tried unsuccessfully to market the technology in the civilian market,with a version called the SeaMistress but there were no takers,the company soon abandoned the aircraft business entirely to focus on missiles and electronics.The P6M was the final aircraft constructed by the Glenn L. Martin Company.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on April 11, 2019, 07:24:11 PM
Martin 4-0-4

The Martin 4-0-4 was a pressurized passenger airliner,in addition to airline use initially in the United States,it was used by the United States Coast Guard and United States Navy as the RM-1G (later as the VC-3A).
A development of the earlier Martin 2-0-2 it had structural changes to the wings,pressurization and was lengthened slightly to take 40 passengers.Like the earlier 2-0-2, the 4-0-4 was a cantilever monoplane with a standard tail unit.It had an airstair in the lower tail section and retractable tricycle landing gear and was powered by two Pratt & Whitney R-2800-CB16 radial piston engines.

First deliveries in 1951 were made to Eastern Air Lines (EAL),which had ordered 60 and Trans World Airlines (TWA),which had ordered 40.The only other new aircraft from the production line were delivered to the United States Coast Guard which had ordered two as executive transports with the designation RM-1G later changed to RM-1 and then in 1962 to VC-3A.In 1969 they were transferred to the USN and were withdrawn from use by 1970.

TWA operated its 40 4-0-4s under the name "Skyliner" on scheduled services between 1 September 1950 and the last flight on 29 April 1961.EAL operated its 4-0-4s in the eastern USA using the class name "Silver Falcon".The first EAL schedule was flown on 5 January 1952 and retirement came in late 1962.
Later in their airline career,as they became displaced from the EAL and TWA fleets by turbine-powered aircraft,4-0-4s became popular with "second level" operators, Southern Airways operated 25 model 4-0-4s on a network of scheduled services from Atlanta in October 1961,all were ex-Eastern Airlines aircraft.Southern Airways' last 4-0-4 service was flown on 30 April 1978.

A total of 103 aircraft were built at the Glenn L. Martin factory in Baltimore.In February 2008 the last airworthy 4-0-4,an ex TWA aircraft,was ferried to the Planes of Fame Museum in Arizona.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on April 12, 2019, 08:07:54 PM
McDonnell FH Phantom


The McDonnell FH Phantom was a twinjet fighter aircraft designed and first flown during WW II for the US Navy.The Phantom was the first purely jet-powered aircraft to land on an American aircraft carrier and the first jet deployed by the United States Marine Corps.Although with the end of the war,only 62 FH-1s were built,it helped prove the viability of carrier-based jet fighters.

McDonnell was invited by the navy to cooperate in the development of a shipboard jet fighter,using an engine from the turbojets under development by Westinghouse Electric Corporation.Three prototypes were ordered on 30 August 1943 and the designation XFD-1 was assigned.Under the 1922 US Navy aircraft designation system,the letter "D" before the dash designated the aircraft's manufacturer.The Douglas Aircraft Company had previously been assigned this letter,but the USN elected to reassign it to McDonnell because Douglas had not provided any fighters for navy service in years.

The engines were buried in the wing root to keep intake and exhaust ducts short,offering greater aerodynamic efficiency than underwing nacelles,and they were angled slightly outwards to protect the fuselage from the hot exhaust blast.Placement of the engines in the middle of the airframe allowed the cockpit with its bubble-style canopy to be placed ahead of the wing, giving the pilot excellent visibility in all directions.

Folding wings were used to reduce the width of the aircraft in storage configuration.Provisions for four .50-caliber machine guns were made in the nose,while racks for eight 5 in rockets could be fitted under the wings,although these were seldom used in service.Adapting a jet to carrier use was a much greater challenge than producing a land-based fighter because of slower landing and takeoff speeds required on a small carrier deck.The Phantom used split flaps on both the folding and fixed wing sections to enhance low-speed landing performance,but no other high-lift devices were used.Provisions were also made for Rocket Assisted Take Off (RATO) bottles to improve takeoff performance.

When the first XFD-1,serial number 48235,was completed in January 1945,only one Westinghouse 19XB-2B engine was available for installation.Ground runs and taxi tests were conducted with the single engine,and such was the confidence in the aircraft that the first flight on 26 January 1945 was made with only the one turbojet engine.With successful completion of tests,a production contract was awarded on 7 March 1945 for 100 FD-1 aircraft.With the end of the war,the Phantom production contract was reduced to 30 aircraft,but was soon increased back to 60.

Production models used Westinghouse J30-WE-20 engines with 1,600 lbf (7.1 kN) of thrust per engine.Halfway through the production run,the Navy reassigned the designation letter "D" back to Douglas,with the Phantom being redesignated FH-1.

The first Phantoms were delivered to USN fighter squadron VF-17A (later redesignated VF-171) in August 1947;the squadron received a full complement of 24 aircraft on 29 May 1948.The Phantom's service as a frontline fighter would be short-lived due to limited range and light armament – notably,its inability to carry bombs,made it best suited for duty as a point-defence interceptor aircraft.Also,its speed and rate of climb were only slightly better than existing propeller-powered fighters and fell short of other contemporary jets.
Including the two prototypes,a total of 62 Phantoms were finally produced,with the last FH-1 rolling off the assembly line in May 1948.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on April 13, 2019, 12:35:01 PM
McDonnell 119/220

The McDonnell 119/220 was a business jet from the mid-1950s.It was originally designed to compete for the USAF UTX/UCX (Utility-Trainer Experimental/Utility-Cargo Experimental) contract,but it lost out to the Lockheed L-1329 JetStar (C-140 in Air Force service),the McDonnell corporation began efforts to market the type commercially.

It had a configuration that was unique by bizjet standards,with four jet engines mounted in individual pods underneath a low wing;it could accommodate ten passengers in a luxury executive configuration but could carry as many as 26.
McDonnell`s tactic was to draw up a deal with Pan American World Airways that would have involved the airline leasing 170 jets for five years,but when no other airline orders where forth coming.

They renamed the plane the Model 220 and started urgent marketing efforts to sell the aircraft as a business jet,including contacting the 750 largest corporations in the United States.There were no takers,even for the single prototype that had already been constructed.
The McDonnell Corporation used the airplane as a VIP transport for a few years before donating it to the Flight Safety Foundation's research facility in Phoenix, Arizona.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on April 14, 2019, 06:14:08 PM
McDonnell XV-1

In 1951,the USAF/USAA announced a competition to develop a compound helicopter, an aircraft that could take off and land vertically, like a helicopter, but could cruise at higher airspeeds than conventional helicopters.

On 20 June 1951, the Air Force and Army signed a Letter of Intent with McDonnell to award a contract to develop an aircraft based on their design.McDonnell had benefited from previous design work on the Model M-28 and had a complete mockup ready for inspection by the Army and Air Force by November 1951.They were given approval to begin fabrication of what was then designated the XL-25 ("L" for Liaison),later the designation was changed to XH-35. Finally, the aircraft became the first vehicle in the convertiplane series as the XV-1.

McDonnell enlisted Kurt Hohenemser and Friedrich von Doblhoff,the Austrian helicopter designer of the WNF 342,to provide technical direction in developing the tip-jet driven rotor system.After almost 2 years the first aircraft (serial 53-4016) was ready for flight testing by early 1954.
The XV-1 fuselage consisted of a streamlined tube mounted on skid landing gear,with a rear-mounted engine and a pusher propeller.It also had tapered stub wings mounted high on the fuselage.In turn,twin tailbooms and twin vertical surfaces,interconnected by a horizontal stabilizer elevator,were mounted to the wings.A three-bladed main rotor powered by blade tip pressure jets was mounted on top of the fuselage,above the wing roots.

It featured a single Continental-built R-975 radial piston engine that powered twin air compressors,which pumped air via ducts to the main rotor for vertical flight,while the engine drove the two-bladed pusher propeller for horizontal flight.The cockpit consisted of tandem pilot and copilot stations,or the aircraft could accommodate a pilot and three passengers,or a pilot and two stretchers.

As flight testing continued, McDonnell completed the second machine,which was modified from the original XV-1.The second XV-1 also featured two small tail rotors mounted on the outboard side at the end of each tailboom.These were a result of the hover test flights that showed the lack of yaw authority when using rudders only.The original XV-1 would later be modified with the tail rotors.The second XV-1 became the first rotorcraft to exceed 200 mph nearly 45 mph faster than the helicopter speed record at the time.

After three years and nearly 600 hours between the two aircraft,the XV-1 contract was canceled in 1957.Ultimately,it was determined that the XV-1's convertiplane configuration was too complex for the small advantages gained over conventional helicopters.
The Army retained 53-4016,which was transferred to the USAA Museum at Fort Rucker, Alabama.53-4017,the record-setting,second prototype,was donated by the Army to the Smithsonian Institution's National Air and Space Museum, Washington, D.C. in 1964.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on April 15, 2019, 07:06:02 PM
McDonnell Douglas YC-15

The McDonnell Douglas YC-15 was a prototype four-engine short take-off and landing (STOL) tactical transport.In 1968, the USAF started work on a series of prototype proposals,submitted by Bell, Boeing, Fairchild, McDonnell Douglas and the Lockheed/North American Rockwell team.On 10 November 1972,the two top bids (from Boeing and McDonnell Douglas) were selected and the companies were awarded development contracts for two prototypes each.McDonnell Douglas' prototype was designated YC-15.

McDonnell Douglas's design incorporated a non-swept supercritical wing,which dramatically lowers transonic wave drag compared to more conventional shapes,at the same time offering excellent low-speed lift.Most contemporary aircraft used swept wings to lower wave drag,but this led to poor low-speed handling,which made them unsuitable for STOL operations.The design team featured externally blown flaps to increase lift.This system uses double-slotted flaps to direct part of the jet exhaust downwards,while the rest of the exhaust passed through the flap and then followed the downward curve,until the introduction of the turbofan the hot and concentrated exhaust of existing engines made the system difficult to use.

A four engine layout was used,the YC-15 borrowed components from other McDonnell Douglas aircraft,with its nose gear coming from the Douglas DC-8 and the nose section & cockpit being derived from the Douglas DC-10.
Two YC-15s were built,one with a wingspan of 110 feet (72-1876) and one of 132 feet (72-1875).Both were 124 feet long and powered by four Pratt & Whitney JT8D-17 engines, each with 15,500 pounds-force of thrust.
The first flight was on 26 August 1975 and the second prototype followed in December.They were tested for some time at McDonnell Douglas as the Boeing entry was not ready until almost a year later.In November 1976,both designs were transferred to Edwards Air Force Base for head-to-head testing,including lifting heavy loads like tanks and artillery.

The YC-15s completed a 600-hour flight test program in 1977.Then the Air Force asked if it was possible to use a single model of the AMST for both strategic and tactical airlift roles, or alternatively,if it was possible to develop non-STOL derivatives of the AMST for the strategic airlift role.   
Both the YC-14 and YC-15 met or exceeded the AMST specifications under most conditions,however the increasing importance of the strategic vs. tactical mission eventually led to the end of the AMST program in December 1979.
In the end,neither the YC-15 nor the Boeing YC-14 was ordered into production,although the YC-15's basic design would be used to form the successful McDonnell Douglas (later Boeing) C-17 Globemaster III.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on April 16, 2019, 07:24:09 PM
McDonnell Douglas X-36

The McDonnell Douglas (later Boeing) X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft was a stealthy subscale prototype jet designed to fly without the usual tail assembly.
This configuration was designed to reduce weight,drag and radar cross section,and increase range,agility and survivability.

The X-36 was built to 28% scale of a possible fighter aircraft,and was controlled by a pilot in a ground-based virtual cockpit with a view provided by a video camera mounted in the canopy of the aircraft.A canard forward of the wing was used as well as split ailerons and an advanced thrust vectoring nozzle for directional control.The X-36 was unstable in both pitch and yaw axes,so an advanced digital fly-by-wire control system was used.

It`s first flight was 17 May 1997,it made 31 successful research flights.It handled very well,and the program is reported to have met or exceeded all project goals. McDonnell Douglas merged with Boeing in August 1997 while the test program was in progress; the aircraft is sometimes referred to as the Boeing X-36.Despite its potential suitability,and highly successful test program,there have been no reports regarding further development of the X-36 or any derived design as of 2017.

Powerplant was 1 × Williams International F112 turbofan,700 lbf,giving a max speed of around 230mph,and a service ceiling of 20,000ft.
The two protypes are reserved in the USA,one in Ohio,and the other in California.
   
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on April 17, 2019, 08:13:23 PM
Meyers OTW

The Meyers OTW (Out To Win) was a 1930s training biplane designed by Allen Meyers and built by his Meyers Aircraft Company from 1936 to 1944.The OTW was a conventional biplane with tandem seating for two in open cockpits and a fixed tailwheel landing gear.It first flew on 10 May 1936 with a 125hp engine.

The aircraft was produced in two main variants;the OTW-145 powered by a 145 hp Warner Super Scarab,and the OTW-160 powered by a 160 hp Kinner R-5 engine.
The 160hp version had a modest top speed of 120mph and a cruise of just over 100mph.It had a 2-bladed fixed pitch propeller.Just over 100 were built.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on April 18, 2019, 08:52:54 PM
Monocoupe 90

The Monocoupe 90 was a two-seat, light cabin airplane built by Donald A. Luscombe for Monocoupe Aircraft.The Monocoupes were side-by-side two-seat lightplanes of mixed wood and steel-tube basic construction with fabric covering.It was a braced high-wing monoplane with fixed tailskid landing gear,and the rear fuselage lines that were to become one of the signature features of the Monocoupes.

Early models of the aircraft was powered originally by either a 60 hp Anzani engine or the unsuccessful 65 hp Detroit Air Cat radial.In 1930 Monocoupe introduced the Model 90 with refined lines and a fuselage that was slightly longer and wider,marketed as Model 90 and Model 90A versions with a 90 hp Lambert R-266 radial engine.
The final two high performance Monocoupe models developed from the Model 90 were the Model 110 with a 110 hp Warner Scarab,and the Model 125 with a 125-hp Kinner B-5 engine.

The majority of the Monocoupe 90s to be built were sold to and flown by private pilot owners.However they were operated by Free French Forces,later Armée de l'Air as the  Monocoupe 90 AF.
Nineteen delivered early 1943 by sea to Egypt,to be reassembled by RAF MU 109.Main delivery to create a flying school (GE 11) in Syria,opening September 1,1943.The Monocoupe 90 proved too sensitive to be used for basic training and many accidents occurred until the school disbanded January 4, 1944.One aircraft survived the war and remained on the French civil register until written-off in 1962.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on April 19, 2019, 08:46:27 PM
Naval Aircraft Factory N3N

The Naval Aircraft Factory N3N was a tandem-seat,open cockpit,primary training biplane aircraft from the 1930`s.
The N3N was successfully tested as both a conventional airplane and a seaplane,the seaplane used a single float under the fuselage and floats under the outer tips of the lower wing.
The prototype XN3N-1 was powered by a radial Wright designed Wright J-5 engine and had a fixed undercarriage.An intial order for 179 production aircraft was received;towards the end of the first production run the engine was replaced with the Wright R-760-2 Whirlwind radial.

The N.A.F. delivered 997 N3N aircraft beginning in 1935.These included 180 N3N-1s and 816 N3N-3s.Four N3N-3s were delivered to the United States Coast Guard in 1941. Production ended in January 1942 but the type remained in use through the rest of World War II.The N3N was the last biplane in US military service.
The N3N was unique in that it was an aircraft designed and manufactured by an aviation firm wholly owned and operated by the U.S. government (the Navy, in this case) as opposed to private industry.For this purpose,the USN bought the rights and the tooling for the Wright R-760 series engine and produced their own engines.These Navy built engines were installed on Navy built airframes.

Postwar,surviving aircraft were sold on the US civil aircraft market and bought for operation by agricultural aerial spraying firms and private pilot owners.A number are still active in the USA.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on April 20, 2019, 01:17:32 PM
Naval Aircraft Factory SBN

The Naval Aircraft Factory SBN was a three-seat mid-wing monoplane scout bomber/torpedo aircraft designed by the Brewster Aeronautical Corporation,built under license by the Naval Aircraft Factory in Philadelphia.

The USN issued specifications for a scout bomber in 1934 and Brewster won the competition.The Navy ordered one prototype,designated the XSBA-1,on 15 October 1934.
It was a two-seat,single-engine monoplane with retractable landing gear and an internal bomb bay that could accommodate a 500-pound bomb.A crewman in the rear seat was armed with a flexible machine gun.

The prototype XSBA-1 first flew on 15 April 1936,and was delivered to the Navy for testing,fitted with a Wright R-1820-4 Cyclone 770-horsepower engine.
It achieved a top speed of 254 mph with a range of 1,000 miles at cruising speed.Problems were found during testing and the aircraft was given a revised tail and rudder and a more powerful Wright R-1820-22 Cyclone 950-horsepower engine,with which it reached a top speed of 263 mph.At the time, it was believed to be the fastest single-engine bomber in the world.

Brewster was unable to manufacture production models of the XSBA-1,so the Navy acquired a license to produce the aircraft itself at the Naval Aircraft Factory.
In September 1938,the Navy placed an order for 30 aircraft,but due to pressures of work at the NAF,it did not deliver the first aircraft,re-designated the SBN, until November 1940;he remaining aircraft were delivered between June 1941 and March 1942.

They were bsolete before their delivery in 1941,however some of the early production aircraft were used for carrier operations trials with Torpedo Squadron Eight (VT-8) in 1941 and then passed on for use as trainers aboard the aircraft carrier USS Hornet (CV-8).None of the SBNs saw combat.With a lack of spare parts,the aircraft were withdrawn from service from August 1942.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on April 21, 2019, 10:58:57 PM
North American AJ Savage

The North American AJ Savage (later A-2 Savage) was a carrier-based medium bomber built for the United States Navy.At the end of World War II, the USN began a design competition on 13 August 1945 for a carrier-based bomber which could carry a 10,000-pound bomb.Later that year,the Navy decided that it needed to be able to deliver atomic bombs and that the AJ Savage design would be adapted to accommodate the latest Mark 4 nuclear bomb.

The first prototype made its maiden flight two years later on 3 July 1948,The AJ-1 was a three-seat,high-wing monoplane with tricycle landing gear.For carrier operations, the outer wing panels and the tailfin could be manually folded.It was fitted with two 2,300-brake-horsepower Pratt & Whitney R-2800-44W Double Wasp piston engines, mounted in nacelles under each wing with a large turbocharger fitted inside each engine nacelle,and a 4,600-pound-force Allison J33-A-10 turbojet in the rear fuselage. Intended to be used for takeoff and maximum speed near the target,the jet was fed by an air inlet on top of the fuselage that was normally kept closed to reduce drag.

A photo-reconnaissance version of the Savage,initially known as the AJ-1P but later as the AJ-2P,was ordered on 18 August 1950.It had improved R-2800-48 piston engines and the tail was redesigned to add 1 foot of height to the tailfin.The 12° dihedral of the tail stabilizers was eliminated and the rudder enlarged which slightly lengthened the aircraft.Early AJ-2Ps retained the three-man crew,but late-model aircraft added a fourth crewman to the upper cockpit facing aft.

Around 1954, NATC modified the sole surviving XAJ-1 to conduct inflight refueling tests using the probe and drogue configuration.The turbojet engine was removed and the fuel hose and its drogue extended out from the jet's former exhaust opening.Aircraft in service retained the turbojet and had their bomb bay doors modified to accommodate the hose and drogue.They were refueling aircraft during late 1954.

The aircraft was not popular aboard ship as "it was so big and cumbersome that it complicated any other flight operations the ship was required to conduct."One problem was that the wings had to be folded one at a time by a crewman on top of the fuselage with a portable hydraulic pump,a time-consuming process,so that the bomber could be moved out of the way to allow other aircraft to land or take off.

Most of the USN examples had been retired from 1960,but a small number were converted to operate as water bombers in the fire fighting role.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on April 22, 2019, 05:36:13 PM
North American B-45 Tornado

The B-45 began development in 1944,when the U.S. War Department,called for a group of jet bombers grossing between 80,000 lb and 200,000 lb.The proposal from North American Aviation (NA-130) won,and on September 8, 1944,the company began production of three prototypes based on the NA-130.
The B-45 proved a superior design, and on January 2, 1947, a contract for immediate production of B-45As was signed,but not long after the future of the B-45 became increasingly uncertain,and in mid-1948 the U.S. Air Staff began to question its value.Soon afterwards,President Truman's budget restraints reduced Air Force expenditure and B-45 production was reduced to a total of 142 airframes.

Plagued by engine problems along with numerous other minor flaws,the B-45 regained importance when after the US entered the Korean War in 1950,it proved its value both as a bomber and as a reconnaissance aircraft.The progress of weapons technology had led to a great reduction in the weight and size of nuclear weapons in the U.S.inventory, allowing smaller aircraft to carry out nuclear strikes,a mission which had initially been confined to heavy bombers.Suddenly,the small fleet of B-45s had great value again as a nuclear deterrent.

RB-45s of the 323rd Strategic Reconnaissance Squadron began to arrive in Japan supplementing the World War II-era piston-engine RB-29s which had proved to be easy targets for North Korean MiGs.The RB-45s provided valuable intelligence throughout the remainder of the Korean War,despite the limited number of airframes available.RB-45Cs flew many daylight missions until early 1952,when they were switched to night operations after an RB-45 was almost lost to a MiG-15.

By 1954 the RB-45C had been replaced by the RB-47E.The phased-out RB-45Cs then went to the 19th Tactical Reconnaissance Squadron,which operated them until they were withdrawn from operational use in the spring of 1958.By the end of the 1950s,all B-45s had been removed from active service.However,a few continued to act as test aircraft into the early 1970s.

Under Operation Ju-jitsu,in July 1951 four aircraft were leased to Britain from the 91st SRW  to form 'Special Duties Flight, Sculthorpe'.Stripped of all USAF markings and then applied with RAF markings,the four aircraft were attached to a USAF squadron based at RAF Sculthorpe,in eastern England.They were tasked with flying deep-level reconnaissance missions over the Soviet Union to gather electronic and photographic intelligence.The Special Duties Flight conducted missions during the period 1952–54.
Subsequent flights over the Soviet Union were carried out using English Electric Canberras under the codename Project Robin,operating at much higher altitudes of around 54,000 ft.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on April 23, 2019, 07:23:41 PM
North American P-64

The North American P-64 was the designation assigned by the USAAC to the North American Aviation NA-68 fighter,an upgraded variant of the NA-50 developed during the late 1930s.Seven NA-50s were purchased by the Peruvian Air Force,which nicknamed it Torito ("Little Bull").
Six NA-68s ordered by the Royal Thai Air Force were seized before export by the US government in 1941,after the Franco-Thai War and growing ties between Thailand and the Empire of Japan.These aircraft were used by the USAAC as unarmed fighter trainers.

It was developed as a simple single-seat,low-wing,single-engined fighter for export.The design was based on the NA-16/BT-9 basic training aircraft of 1935.The NA-16 evolved into a series of aircraft that were some of the most widely used advanced and basic training aircraft produced by any country,and provided the basic design for a single-engined fighter intended for small countries that needed a simple aircraft with modern capabilities and features.

The NA-50 was powered by an 840 hp Wright R-1820-G3 radial air-cooled engine that gave the NA-50 a top speed of 295 mph at 9,500 feet.It was armed with two .30 in (7.62 mm) M1919 Browning machine guns.The aircraft were manufactured in May 1939.
One of the six intercepted Thailand-bound P-64s which survived being used for training and liaison is now displayed at the EAA AirVenture Museum. This aircraft has been restored to flying condition, with the engine running again in 2013, followed by its first flying appearance at the 2016 EAA AirVenture Oshkosh airshow.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on April 24, 2019, 06:57:24 PM
North American FJ-1 Fury

The North American FJ-1 Fury was the first operational jet aircraft in USN service,and was developed by North American Aviation as the NA-135.Ordered in late 1944 as the XFJ-1 in competition with proposals from Douglas and Vought,the Fury began as a straight-wing,tricycle gear fighter with a single turbojet passing through the fuselage.

The first flight of the prototype XFJ-1 took place on 11 September 1946,with the first of 30 deliveries beginning in October 1947.The FJ-1 made the USN's first operational aircraft carrier landing with a jet fighter at sea on 10 March 1948 aboard USS Boxer,pioneering US jet-powered carrier operations and showing the need for catapult-equipped carriers.The Fury was capable of launching without catapult assistance,but on a crowded flight deck the capability was of limited use.Taking off without a catapult launch limited the FJ-1 to a perilous,slow climb that was considered too risky for normal operations.

No provision for wing-folding had been made as dive brakes mounted in the wings made that option unfeasible.In order to conserve carrier deck space,a "kneeling" nose undercarriage along with a swivelling "jockey wheel" allowed the FJ-1 to be stacked tail-high,close to another FJ-1.
Powerplant was an Allison J35-A-2 turbojet of 4,000 lbf,with armament of 6 × 0.50 in (12.7 mm) M2 Browning machine guns in the nose.The initial order for 100 units was trimmed to only 30 aircraft which were mainly used in testing at NAS North Island, California.

Although VF-51 went to sea on Boxer by May 1949,the FJ-1s were phased out in favor of the new F9F-2 Panther.Ending its service career in U.S. Naval Reserve units, the FJ-1 eventually was retired in 1953.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on April 25, 2019, 07:12:43 PM
North American Navion

The Navion was originally designed at the end of World War II by North American Aviation as the NA-143 (but produced under the NA-145 designation).It was designed for the civilian market but also attracted the interest of the USAAF.
It is a single-engine,unpressurized,retractable gear,four-seat aircraft.It was later built by Ryan Aeronautical Company and the Tubular Steel Corporation (TUSCO).

The Army Air Force ordered 83 of the NA-154 version,designated the L-17A,to be used as a liaison aircraft personnel and cargo carrier,and trainer for the university-based Reserve Officers Training Corps flight training program,35 of which were later converted to L-17C standard by the Schweizer Aircraft Company by fitting them with L-17B model features such as an auxiliary fuel tank.

Ryan Aeronautical Company bought the design in 1948,and built approximately 1,200 examples over the following three years.Ryan designated the aircraft the Navion A with a 205 hp Continental E-185-3 or -9 and,later,the Navion B with 260 hp engines of either the Lycoming GO-435-C2,or optionally the Continental IO-470 engine.The Navion A`s became the basis for the military L-17B.
 
TUSCO took over production of the Navion in the mid-1950s,manufacturing D, E and F models with a variety of enhancements including tip tanks and flush rivets.Navion Rangemaster aircraft were manufactured from 1961 to 1976.Their production followed that of earlier canopy-models.TUSCO also introduced the Navion Rangemaster G model in 1960,which incorporated all previous advancements,replaced the Navion's sliding canopy with a side door,enlarged the cabin,created five separate seats,and standardized use of tiptanks and larger,late-model Continental engines.

The last few Navions were manufactured by Navion Aircraft Company during a short production run ending in 1976 during one of several attempts to restore the airplane to commercial viability.As of 2010,many Navions are still flying and there is an active Navion owners community.On 18 March 2003 Sierra Hotel Aero Inc of South St. Paul, Minnesota purchased the type certificate.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on April 26, 2019, 05:40:07 PM
North American O-47

The North American O-47 is an American observation fixed-wing aircraft monoplane used by the United States Army Air Corps.It had a low-wing configuration,retractable landing gear,and a three-blade propeller.
The O-47 was developed as a replacement for the older biplane types such as the Douglas O-38,however it was larger and heavier than most preceding observation aircraft.It`s crew of three sat in tandem under the long canopy,it also had windows in the belly as the wings presented a problem to downward observation and photography.

Design for the XO-47 prototype originated as the GA-15 with General Aviation in 1934,it was a subsidiary of North American Aviation,it had a 850 hp Wright R-1820-41 engine.
The Air Corps ordered 174 O-47s in 1937 to 1938,roughly half of which were assigned to National Guard units.In 1938, the Army ordered 74 O-47Bs with a redesigned engine cowling for better cooling, an uprated engine,a 1,060 hp Wright R-1820-57 and improved radio equipment.

The O-47 was a heavy aircraft,it lacked manoeuvrability and during WWII single-engined aircraft like the Piper L-4 and Stinson L-5 proved more capable of operating with ground troops,while fighters and twin engine bombers showed greater ability to perform recon and photo duties.The O-47s during World War II,except for those caught at overseas bases by the Japanese attacks,were relegated to secondary duties such as towing targets,coastal patrol,and anti-submarine patrol.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on April 27, 2019, 08:53:29 PM
OT Timm N2T Tutor

The Timm N2T Tutor was a training monoplane built by the Timm Aircraft Corporation,founded by Otto Timm for the United States Navy as the N2T-1.
It was a conventional tandem open-cockpit monoplane trainer first flown on the 22 May 1940.Power was a 160 hp Kinner R-5 radial engine,the N2T was a low-wing cantilever monoplane with a tailwheel landing gear.

It had an unusual feature in that the airframe structure was made from resin,impregnated and molded plywood,creating a composite material stronger and lighter than plywood.This process was patented as the Nuyon process and marketed as the Aeromold process.
The PT-175-K variant was fitted with a Kinner R-53 engine,this was followed by the PT-220-C with a 220 hp Continental W-670-6 engine and larger tail.

It was evaluated by the USN,which ordered 262 aircraft in 1943 as the N2T-1,with only slight changes from the prototypes.The Navy nicknamed it "Tiny Timm.",the entire initial order was delivered in 1943 with no follow-on contract due to the military placing too many orders for Army and Navy trainers.

Although popular and relatively reliable,the N2T-1 was not built for long-term use,especially being made almost entirely of a wood based composite material that proved to be susceptible to decomposing.
N2Ts are preserved in U.S. museums including examples at the National Museum of Naval Aviation at NAS Pensacola, Florida and at the Air Zoo at Kalamazoo Municipal Airport,Michigan.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on April 28, 2019, 05:53:31 PM
Orenco D

The Orenco D was a biplane fighter aircraft,designed by Orenco and built by Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Company.It was the first fighter type of completely indigenous design to enter US military service.

The D prototype was offered to the US Army Air Service at the end of 1918.It was a two-bay biplane of all-wood construction,and fabric covered.It was powered by a 300 hp Hispano-Suiza engine which give it a top speed of around 140mph,it was armed by 2 × .30 in (7.6 mm) machine guns.Intial tests showed the aircraft had excellent handling and performance.

The military ordered 50 production aircraft,but put the production order up for bidding.Curtiss Aircraft entered the lowest bid and built the fighter,modifying it slightly with a wider wingspan and redesigned ailerons.The first Curtiss Orenco D flew on 26 August 1921.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on April 29, 2019, 06:42:36 PM
On Mark Marksman

The On Mark Marksman was a high-speed civil executive aircraft converted from surplus Douglas A-26 Invader airframes.They also produced the On Mark Executive and the On Mark Marketeer.The first conversions mainly involved the removal of military equipment and replacement with fairings and civil avionics, sealing of the bomb bay doors, soundproofing, and additional cabin windows.

In 1957 the company had developed a major modification that replaced the "carry-through" section of the rear wing spar with a circumferential steel "ring spar" that freed the fuselage space for better passenger accommodation and cockpit access.Other major improvements included a broad-chord metal-skinned rudder,Douglas DC-6 wheels and brakes, an APU,autopilot and additional fuel tanks inside the wing and the addition of wingtip tanks.It also had an extended fiberglass nose for baggage (or a radar) which increased the overall length by about 26".

Further development continued into the 1960s into what became the On Mark Marksman.The major difference was the addition of full pressurization.Improvements were also made to the cockpit with the incorporation of Douglas DC-6 flat glass windscreens and cockpit side windows.A replacement fuselage roof structure was added from the new windscreens,tapering back to the original tail section.By 1963, six Marksman conversions had been carried out for civil customers, the final seventh and eighth being a special purpose version with terrain-following radar and a cargo-dropping hatch for low level air-drops,designed by and delivered to CIA-associated companies.(Sssh!)

Between June and October 1967,the first of two aircraft,conducted low level nighttime supply drops to CIA related forces in Laos during the so-called "Secret War". The program was discontinued because the aircraft was too fast for accurate drops even with the special onboard equipment,and looked too much like a type of strike aircraft known to operate in the area.This was cited as often causing forces on the ground to be wary of turning on their marking lamps.The aircraft was damaged on takeoff at Takhli Royal Thai Air Force Base after being transferred to Overseas Aeromarine, Inc.

In the end,both aircraft were handed over to the 1198th Operational Evaluation and Training (OT&E) Squadron at Norton Air Force Base,California,a unit known for alleged participation in agent dropping and other clandestine missions in Southeast Asia eg (Project Heavy Chain).The Squadron evaluated the two Marksman,but apparently found no use for them and scrapped both aircraft,which suffered from a chronic Invader issue of nose gear failure.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: smudge on April 29, 2019, 07:02:01 PM
Oh how I lusted after the Marksman as a Small Smudge...  those huge props and svelte fuselage. 

One oddity I remember was that it could be loaded with full fuel, all five passengers and maximum payload and still be below its structural maximum weight.  Probably unique in aviation history!
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on April 30, 2019, 08:04:25 PM
Paramount Cabinaire

The Paramount Cabinaire was a 1920s designed cabin biplane, designed by Walter J.Carr.The prototype Cabinaire was formed around a welded steel tube Travel Air 2000 fuselage modified for an enclosed cabin.A new center section of wing was added and Travel air wings were reinstalled onto the center sections.The upper wing was modified and mounted several inches above the enclosed cabin.

The biplane aircraft featured a radial engine, and conventional landing gear.The upscale cabin used two individual upholstered wicker seats in the front and a wicker bench seat for passengers. The interior used velor finishing, nickel plating, mohair rugs, mahogany panels and roll-down windows.Each production model differed slightly from each other with choices of engines, and landing gear and aileron improvements.

In 1929, Viola Gentry and Jack Ashcroft attempted an endurance record for flight with aerial refueling in a modified Cabinaire SN#5 named The Answer.The name was chosen in response to the Army aircraft that had completed previous endurance records, the Question Mark.Just a tad sarcastic!
The aircraft had a 55-gallon cabin tank, and 21 gallon wing tanks installed for the attempt.The Answer crew was unable to refuel after the first ten hours of flight due to fog and crashed 28 June 1929, killing Ashcroft.

In 1930, a Cabinaire was entered in the 4814 mile long Ford National Reliability Air Tour, placing 15th out of 18.The same aircraft has been restored and was still flown in 2011.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on May 01, 2019, 07:02:37 PM
Pazmany PL-1/PL-2

The Pazmany PL-1 Laminar and Pazmany PL-2 are US two-seat trainer and personal light aircraft, designed by Ladislao Pazmany to be marketed as a homebuilt aircraft by his company Pazmany Aircraft Corporation.

The PL-1 Laminar was the first design,the prototype first flew on the 23 March 1962.It is a cantilever low-wing monoplane with a fixed tricycle landing gear.It has side-by-side seating for a crew of two and is powered by a 95 hp Continental C-90 piston engine.The Aerospace Industrial Development Corporation (AIDC) acquired plans and built a PL-1 for evaluation with a first flight on 26 October 1968.
AIDC then built 58 aircraft designated the PL-1B for the Republic of China Air Force and fitted with a 150 hp Avco Lycoming O-320 engine.

The PL-2 which had a slight increase in cockpit width and changes to the structure to make it`s construction easier for homebuilders.The PL-2 was evaluated by a number of air forces in south-east Asia. It was built under license in Indonesia as the Lipnur LT-200.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on May 02, 2019, 06:34:17 PM
Piper PA-14 Family Cruiser

The Piper PA-14 Family Cruiser is a small touring aircraft of the late 1940s.
In 1947,the PA-12 design was adapted to a four-seat layout by widening the cabin at the instrument panel and adding slotted flaps.The original high-wing and fixed tailwheel undercarriage layout features remained.The PA-14 prototype made its first flight from the company's Lock Haven Pennsylvania factory on 21 March 1947.
A second PA-14 was completed on 6 February 1948 and the first deliveries were made later that year.Powerplant was a Lycoming O-235-C1 air-cooled flat four, of 115 hp

238 examples were completed,mainly sold to private owner pilots in the United States,but overseas sales included several to France.The aircraft was launched at a time of serious financial difficulty for the company,soon after the release of the Family Cruiser, Piper was placed in receivership, from which it later successfully emerged.
126 examples remained registered in the US in April 2011, of which 81 were based in Alaska and 13 aircraft were registered in Canada.Some were fitted with floats.                 
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on May 03, 2019, 04:36:58 PM
Piper-PA-28R-300 Pillán

The PA-28R-300 Pillán was developed by Piper Aircraft as a two-seat military trainer for assembly in Chile,based on a PA-32R fuselage with a new center-section and stronger wing stressed for aerobatics.The first prototype designated XBT first flew on 6 March 1981 and was followed by a second prototype,designated YBT.

The second prototype first flew on 31 August 1981 and was then delivered to Chile.The prototype XBT was delivered in January 1982 but was written off on 10 March 1982.
Production of kits at Vero Beach commenced with three pre-production kits which were delivered for assembly in Chile,then it produced 120 kits for assembly again in Chile, for the Chilean and Spanish Air Force.
The first production aircraft was delivered by ENAER to the Chilean Air Force Air Academy in August 1985, the Spanish aircraft were assembled in Spain by CASA.

Apart from a small number of turbine powered aircraft, all Pilláns were powered by a 300 hp Textron Lycoming AEIO-540-K1K5 six cylinder horizontally opposed piston engine.
Performance is 192mph max sea level speed,and a cruise of 165mph,in 1985 a turboprop variant was developed by ENAER as the T-35A Aucan.

Spain and Chile are the main operator of the type,but it is also in use with several South American Air Arms, but only in small numbers.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: smudge on May 03, 2019, 10:06:14 PM
Piper-PA-28R-300

The Spanish air force name for the type translates as 'sieve' because it sifts potential pilots from no-hopers.  Always seemed a bit blunt to me!

Ah the word finally came back to me: Tamiz
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on May 04, 2019, 04:21:09 PM
In Mapuche which is spoken in south-central Chile and west central Argentina,it means volcano or ancestral spirit--that would make more sense. :-)
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on May 04, 2019, 04:39:46 PM
Piper PA-35 Pocono

The Piper PA-35 Pocono was a 16/18 seat commuter airliner developed in the late 1960s.
Piper started the design work in 1965 for a twin-engined piston non-pressurized commuter airliner and the prototype first flew on 13 May 1968.It was a low-wing monoplane that was intended to be powered by two 475 hp Lycoming TIO-720-B1A piston engines, but during development the tail area was increased, the fuselage stretched and the engines uprated to 520 hp variants.

Development was stopped in 1969 initially to let the company develop other aircraft, but the halt was also influenced by the lack of a suitable engine and a number of third-level airline operators in the US going out of business.In 1970 the company proposed a four-engined and a turboprop version, but they were not developed.

In 1978 a cooperation program between Piper and WSK Mielec (Poland) was planned.As part of this one fuselage with wings was transported from Florida to Poland and a team of designers was assembled at the R&D Center in Mielec.The program was named M-19,but the program was abandoned when the An-28 program was launched in Mielec and the PA-35 fuselage was moved to the city of Widełka.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on May 05, 2019, 08:01:21 PM
Piper PA-48 Enforcer

The Piper PA-48 Enforcer is a turboprop-powered light close air support aircraft built by Piper in the 1970s. It is a development of the World War II-era North American P-51 Mustang fighter.The concept was originally created and flown as the Cavalier Mustang by David Lindsay, owner of Cavalier Aircraft, in response to the USAF PAVE COIN program, but Cavalier did not have the manufacturing abilities to mass-produce the Enforcer, so the program was sold to Piper by Lindsay in 1970.

Cavalier initially mated a Rolls-Royce Dart 510 turboprop to a Mustang II airframe.This privately funded prototype was also intended for the same CAS/COIN mission that the Mustang II was built for.

In 1971, Piper built two Enforcers by heavily modifying two existing Mustang airframes, fitting them with Lycoming YT55-L-9A turboprop engines along with numerous other significant modifications. One airframe was a single seat (called the PE-1 and FAA registered as N201PE), the other a dual-control aircraft (the PE-2, registered N202PE). Prior to the Pave COIN evaluation, N202PE was lost in a crash off the Florida coast on 12 July 1971 due to flutter caused by a Piper-modified elevator trim tab. Although the Enforcer performed well in the 1971–1972 Pave COIN test flown by USAF pilots, Piper failed to secure a USAF contract.

In 1984, with a $US12 million appropriation from Congress, Piper built two new Enforcers, giving the new prototypes the designation PA-48.These aircraft were evaluated by the USAF, but flown only by Piper test pilots.
By the time the PA-48s were completed, they shared less than 10 percent of their structure with the P-51,and were longer and larger.
The two PA-48s were tested during 1983 and 1984 at Eglin Air Force Base,and Edwards Air Force Base.As in the Pave COIN tests of 1971, the PA-48s were found to perform well in their intended role, but the Air Force again decided not to purchase the aircraft.

Two still exist,in 2014, PA-48 N482PE completed restoration and is on display at the Air Force Flight Test Museum at Edwards Air Force Base.N481PE has been fully restored and is currently in storage at the National Museum of the United States Air Force at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on May 06, 2019, 10:02:06 PM
Piper PA-47 PiperJet

The Piper PA-47 PiperJet was a single-engined very light jet (VLJ) that was intended to be developed and built by Piper,however following a change of ownership at Piper, it was decided to redesign the aircraft into the PiperJet Altaire.

The PiperJet was announced in October 2006,as a competitor to the Eclipse 500 and Cessna Citation Mustang.The aircraft's fuselage was the same cross section as the propeller-driven Piper PA-46 series, with a 4 feet increase in length.It was to be capable of carrying up to 7 passengers and cruise at 360 knots at a maximum altitude of 35,000 feet Maximum range was expected to be 1,300 nautical miles with a full-fuel payload of 800 pounds.Piper selected Williams International to supply its FJ44-3AP turbofan engine for the PiperJet.

Due to the engine being mounted above the center of gravity,addition of power would push the nose down,Piper designers incorporated an automatic pitch trim system to coordinate horizontal stabilizer angle of incidence with power setting.This system was later replaced by a vectored thrust nozzle,developed by Williams International, which resulted in reduced weight and simplified manufacturing processes.
Piper announced that it had received 180 pre-orders.An entry-into-service date of early 2010 was initially anticipated,later changed to 2011-12.In October 2009 the company indicated that it had delayed the delivery of the first customer aircraft to mid-2013 and had informed depositors.

The PiperJet did not enter production and in October 2010 Piper announced it would instead develop an aircraft with a larger circular-section fuselage known as the Piper PiperJet Altaire.The 160 customers who had placed orders for the PiperJet retained their delivery positions with the new aircraft and at the same price. On 24 October 2011, despite the Altaire's development being "on schedule and on budget", the program was indefinitely suspended by Piper due to economic issues, with the company laying off a number of workers who had been assigned to the project.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on May 07, 2019, 06:53:31 PM
Quest Kodiak

The Quest Kodiak is an US utility aircraft featuring a high-wing,unpressurized,a single-engine turboprop with a fixed tricycle landing gear and is suitable for STOL operations from unimproved airfields.
Design began in 1999,it made its maiden flight on October 16, 2004 and was certified on 31 May 2007 before first delivery in January 2008.

The aircraft can accommodate 10 people.It features short-field capability and good useful load,with its STOL performance coming from a fixed, discontinuous leading edge on the outboard wing and the 750 hp Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-34 turboprop engine.Passenger seats are track-mounted and removable, it has access doors for the pilots and the aft clamshell door, with automatic steps, allows cargo loading or eight passengers boarding.The Kodiak's aluminum fuselage can be repaired in the field and offers a 54 in × 57 in (137 cm × 145 cm) cargo door.

In June 2010, Wipaire, Inc. was granted certification allowing Wipline 7000 Amphibious Floats to be installed on Kodiaks.In November of that same year it was also certified for flight into known icing after the installation of a TKS system,which protects exposed surfaces via glycol-based fluids.
The Kodiak is bigger than the DHC-2 Beaver, but smaller than the DHC-3 Otter or Cessna Caravan. It has more power than the older deHavillands and takes off in less space than the Caravan.

The first Kodiak was delivered to launch customer Spirit Air in January 2008.By September 2013, 100 Kodiaks had been built, with the 100th aircraft being delivered to US operator Sunstate Aviation.
The 200th aircraft was delivered in December 2016 for a record yearly production of 36 Kodiaks, while the production facility was extended by 25 percent in September to cope with growing demand.
The 250th was delivered in 2018, as the highest time aircraft surpassed 5,000 hours.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on May 08, 2019, 05:49:37 PM
Rans S-9 Chaos

The Rans S-9 Chaos is a US single-engined, tractor configuration, single-seat, mid-wing monoplane designed by Randy Schlitter in 1986 for aerobatics.
The idea was for an inexpensive aerobatic aircraft that will allow sportsman competition aerobatics to be flown or even advanced aerobatics if inverted fuel and oil systems are installed.The Chaos is also a capable cross country aircraft.

The S-9 features a welded 4130 steel tube cockpit, with a bolted aluminum tube rear fuselage. All fuselage, wing and tail surfaces are covered in dope and fabric. The reported construction time is 500 hours.The basic engine is the Rotax 503 of 50 hp, with the Rotax 582 of 64 hp and the Hirth 3701 of 100 hp available as options.
The S-10 Sakota aerobatic two-seater was later developed from the S-9,there were 215 S-9s built and flown by December 2011.Two are based in the UK.

Pic from abpics
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on May 09, 2019, 06:13:10 PM
Rans S-19 Venterra

The Rans S-19 Venterra is a single-engined,tractor configuration,two-seats in side-by-side config,low-wing monoplane designed by Randy Schlitter as a light-sport aircraft.
The S-19 is an aluminum semi-monocoque design, with stressed skin construction supported with bulkheads, formers and stringers.The fuselage, wing and tail surfaces are covered in sheet aluminum.

It has tricycle landing gear with a fully castering nosewheel and steering via differential main wheel braking.The standard engine is the Rotax 912ULS of 100 hp allowing a cruise speed of 128mph.The Venterra is available as a complete factory-built aircraft and in kit form for amateur construction.

Around 40 have been built so far,mainly US registered,but there is one on the UK register.G-SXIX
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: smudge on May 09, 2019, 06:26:13 PM
Well that's a lot prettier than the Coyote...
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on May 10, 2019, 06:29:22 PM
Rud Aero RA-3

The RA-3 is a single engine two-seat,side-by-side configuration,low wing,tricycle gear of composite construction.The aircraft is built using carbon fiber throughout.
It has a cambered training wing that can be exchanged for a constant chord symmetrical wing for advanced aerobatic training.
The aircraft is designed to operate as an FAR Part 21.24 aircraft, with future modifications to meet American LSA standards.

Powerplant is a Lycoming IO-360 Horizontally opposed piston aircraft engine of 180 hp.Maximum speed is 150mph,with a cruise speed of 135mph.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on May 11, 2019, 05:06:58 PM
Rutan VariViggen

The Rutan VariViggen is a homebuilt aircraft designed by Burt Rutan.The aircraft is a tandem two-seater of primarily wooden construction with a delta wing and a canard foreplane.The prototype was designated Model 27, and the production version was Model 32.

The VariViggen was named after the Swedish fighter,the Saab 37 Viggen.Rutan became interested in aircraft which resisted stalls and spins,and the VariViggen was his first full scale design.After four years of work, the aircraft made its first flight in April, 1972.In order to increase efficiency, the Model 32 (also known as the VariViggen SP) had a slightly longer fuselage, a larger wingspan and winglets.It is powered by a 150 hp Lycoming O-320 aero engine in pusher configuration.

The Rutan Aircraft Factory sold 600 plan sets for the VariViggen to homebuilders,eventually only about 20 of the aircraft were built.Following the crash of one in New Brunswick, Canada in September 2006 due to wing tank fuel contamination,fewer than five are currently still flying.The prototype aircraft, N27VV, was donated to the EAA AirVenture Museum in 1988.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on May 12, 2019, 06:46:13 PM
Rutan Defiant

The Rutan Model 40 Defiant is a four-seat,twin-engine aircraft with the engines in a push-pull configuration.
The prototype Defiant, N78RA, was first flown on 30 June 1978.It had been intended as a proof-of-concept of a very safe light twin design, requiring little trim change and no pilot action in case of engine failure,and with good single engine performance.

In 1979 the Rutan Aircraft Factory announced they would proceed with certification of a Defiant-based light twin.Adequate financing was not secured for this project,and the design was modified for homebuilt construction as the Model 74.

Powerplant is 2 × Lycoming O-320,of 160 hp each,giving a max speed of 210mph.The Defiant is built using fiberglass layup over Styrofoam core shapes in the same manner as the Rutan VariEze. The main gear is fixed, and there are no flaps. The Propellers are fixed-pitch non-feathering.176 sets of plans were purchased before RAF discontinued selling them in 1985.Nineteen are registered with the FAA as of 2005.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on May 13, 2019, 05:40:12 PM
Rutan Model 72 Grizzly

The Rutan Model 72 Grizzly is a tandem-wing STOL research aircraft.
It is a composite-construction aircraft featuring three lifting surfaces:A front wing with approximately half the span of the main wing and a classical cruciform empennage. Front and main wings are connected by a pair of struts with square cross-section which also serve as fuel tanks.Both wings carry flaps on part of their span for STOL.

The Grizzly is intended for use as a bush plane with unique safety and comfort, the four-seater could be used by two persons as a camper for back-country activities with its seats folded to become a 6 ft long bed. A planned amphibian version of the Grizzly was never realized.

The unusual undercarriage has four low-pressure,small-diameter main-wheels,on two cantilever spring struts,with a spring mounted tail-wheel assembly.The four-seat cabin is completely enclosed with a combination of flat, squared and outward-bulged tear-drop shaped windows.It`s first flight was on 22 January 1982 and lasted over two hours.
Powerplant is 1 × Lycoming O-360B 4-cylinder air-cooled horizontally-opposed piston engine,180 hp.
After completion of testing the Grizzly was donated to the EAA AirVenture Museum, Oshkosh in 1997
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on May 14, 2019, 06:40:03 PM
Republic P-43 Lancer

The Republic P-43 Lancer was a single-engine,all-metal,low-wing monoplane fighter,first delivered to the United States Army Air Corps in 1940.
The Seversky Aircraft Company,which in 1939 changed its name to Republic,constructed a range of private venture,one-off variants of its P-35 design,featuring different powerplants and enhancements,from which the P-43 was derived.

The YP-43 prototype was powered by an R-1830-35 14-cylinder air-cooled radial engine with a General Electric B-2 turbo-supercharger generating 1,200 hp and driving a three-blade variable-pitch propeller.Armament consisted of two synchronized .50 in (12.7 mm) machine guns in the cowl and a single .30 in (7.62 mm) machine gun in each wing.

The first of 13 YP-43s was delivered in September 1940, the last in April 1941.Early testing revealed a strong tendency to yaw during takeoff and landing rolls,fixed by redesigning the tailwheel.Although the aircraft exceeded the initial USAAC performance requirements,by 1941 it was clearly obsolete.The USAAC felt the basic P-35/P-43 design had run it`s course for further improvement in performance and shifted its interest to the new promising P-47.

Due to delays with the P-47,it was decided to order 54 P-43s to keep the Republic production lines operating. An additional 125 P-43A-1s were ordered for China through the Lend-Lease program, originally intended to equip the Third American Volunteer Group (AVG). These initially differed in the Air Materiel Command specification from earlier P-43s in being armed with two 0.50 in machine guns in each wing and no fuselage guns, and having basic armor and fuel tank protection.By 1942, a total of 272 P-43s were built, including all its variants, a remarkable number considering the original intention was to not build any.

The Lend-Lease aircraft were delivered to China through Claire Chennault's American Volunteer Group, the Flying Tigers.The P-43 performed poorly in combat in the hands of the Chinese Air Force against Japan due to its great vulnerability;it was replaced by other types in early 1944. 
The aircraft that were not sent to China were modified for photo-reconn duties or training.Eight P-43s (four P-43A-1s and four P-43Ds) were loaned to the Royal Australian Air Force in 1942 and served with No. 1 Photo Reconnaissance Unit.The RAAF flew many long range, high-altitude photo reconnaissance missions before the six survivors were returned to the USAAF in 1943.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on May 15, 2019, 08:47:47 PM
Republic XF-12 Rainbow

The Republic XF-12 Rainbow was a four-engine, all-metal prototype reconnaissance aircraft designed in the 1940`s.
The proposal was for a reconnaissance aircraft which included a requirement for speed (400 mph), ceiling (40,000 ft), and range (4,000 nmi).It`s primary objective was for high-speed overflights of the Japanese homeland and key enemy installations.During World War II, due to the extended range requirements of operating in the Pacific, existing fighters and bombers were being used for missions for which they were never intended. The need existed for an aircraft specifically designed for the photo-reconnaissance mission with adequate speed, range, and altitude capabilities for its missions to be successful.

The XF-12's first flight was made on 4 February 1946.During the flight testing and development period,it demonstrated the capability of operating at 45,000 feet (14,000 m), at a speed of 470 mph (760 km/h), over a range of 4,500 mi (7,200 km), so it met and exceeded the design goals for which it had been designed.
It was powered by four of the new Pratt & Whitney R-4360-31 Wasp Major 28-cyl. four-row air-cooled radial piston engines,of 3,250 hp each.
The original design called for contra-rotating propellers,due to the added complexity and reliability issues,the propellers were never installed.The aircraft used standard four-bladed Curtiss Electric propellers for all flights.

The USAF canceled the entire XF-12 program in late 1948.The primary reason for its demise was the availability of both Boeing B-29 Superfortress and B-50 types to meet the long-range photo-reconnaissance requirement.
Republic had intended to also build an airline version of the aircraft to be known as the RC-2.This variant was supposed to be a "stretched" version of the XF-12, growing in length from 93 ft 9 in to 98 ft 9 in, with the addition of a fuselage "plug" in front of the wing.Also the complex Plexiglas nose section was supposed to be replaced with a solid metal nose,changes to the engines and superchargers were also included in the civil design.

Had the XF-12 Rainbow been available in 1944,it almost inevitably would have been ordered in quantity,and along with its civilian counterpart, the whole postwar structure of aircraft markets might have been altered. As it was, the XF-12 disappeared into oblivion, despite its graceful lines and high performance.
It`s high speed, near-perfect streamlined form, and neatly cowled engines make it a design classic, often unappreciated, and not very well known. The XF-12 was the fastest, four engine pure piston-powered aircraft of its day, and the only one ever to exceed 450 mph in level flight.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on May 16, 2019, 08:40:02 PM
Republic XF-84H Thunderscreech

The Republic XF-84H "Thunderscreech" was an experimental turboprop aircraft derived from the F-84F Thunderstreak. Powered by a turbine engine that was mated to a supersonic propeller, the XF-84H had the potential of setting the unofficial air speed record for propeller-driven aircraft.
The USAF Wright Air Development Center was the key sponsor of the Republic Project 3347 turboprop fighter, the initial inception came from a U.S. Navy requirement for a carrier fighter not requiring catapult assistance.Originally known as XF-106,the project and its resultant prototype aircraft were redesignated XF-84H.

A projected contract for three prototypes was scrubbed when the US Navy cancelled its order,the remaining XF-84H prototypes became pure research aircraft built for the Air Force’s Propeller Laboratory at Wright-Patterson AFB to test supersonic propellers.
The XF-84H was created by modifying a F-84F airframe, installing a 5,850 hp Allison XT40-A-1 turboprop engine in a centrally-located housing behind the cockpit with a long extension shaft to the nose-mounted propeller.The turbine engine also provided thrust through its exhaust; an afterburner which could further increase power to 7,230 hp was installed but never used.

It was destabilized by the powerful torque from the propeller, as well as inherent problems with supersonic propeller blades. A number of exotic blade configurations were tested before settling on a final design.
First flown on July 22, 1955, the XF-84F had incredible acceleration but soon its impracticality was discovered.It was unsuited to combat due to the engine's 30 minute warm up time but the most serious concerns were vibration generated from the 12-foot propeller diameter and mechanical failures of the prop pitch gearing.

Lin Hendrix, one of the Republic test pilots assigned to the program, flew the aircraft once and refused to ever fly it again, claiming "You aren't big enough and there aren't enough of you to get me in that thing again".Test pilot Hank Beaird took the XF-84H up 11 times, with 10 of these flights ending in forced landings.

The XF-84H was almost certainly the loudest aircraft ever built, earning the nickname "Thunderscreech" as well as the "Mighty Ear Banger".On the ground "run ups", the prototypes could reportedly be heard 25 miles away.Unlike standard propellers that turn at subsonic speeds, the outer 24–30 inches (61–76 cm) of the blades on the XF-84H's propeller traveled faster than the speed of sound even at idle thrust.The aircraft was notorious for inducing severe nausea and headaches among ground crews.In one report, a Republic engineer suffered a seizure after close range exposure to the shock waves emanating from a powered-up XF-84H.

Engine and equipment failures coupled with the inability to reach design speeds and subsequent instability experienced were insurmountable problems, the USAF cancelled the program in September 1956.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on May 17, 2019, 06:16:27 PM
Taylorcraft F-19 Sportsman

The Taylorcraft Model F-19 Sportsman is a two-seat cabin monoplane designed and built by Taylorcraft Aircraft as the first new product of the reformed Taylorcraft Aviation Company.

C.G. Taylor and his brother formed the Taylor Brothers Aviation Corporation in 1929,it had produced several thousand light single-engines by the time it went bankrupt in 1946. It emerged in 1947 as Taylorcraft Inc. and produced light airplanes until 1958, when it ceased production.
In 1968 a new company, Taylorcraft Aviation Corporation, was formed, primarily to provide support for the thousands of airplanes still operational.

In 1973 the company geared up to produce an updated Taylorcraft B, now named the Model F-19 Sportsman.It was similar to the Model B but incorporated more power,and better performance.Production continued until early 1980, when the company chose to switch to the higher-powered Model F-21.
Powerplant was 1 × Continental O-200 of 100 hp,giving a max speed of 127mph and a cruise speed of 115mph with a range of 400 miles.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on May 21, 2019, 03:31:37 PM
Due to a line fault, I have had no tinterweb since Saturday morning, 3x KN vans just away after much fiddling and gadget testing.

Hopefully normal service will resume shortly.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on May 21, 2019, 05:38:47 PM
Taylorcraft Ranch Wagon

The Taylorcraft Model 20 Ranch Wagon was a four-seat cabin monoplane designed as a development of the earlier experimental Model 18.
It`s construction  was  of moulded fibreglass over a tubular framework.It had a conventional landing gear and powerplant was a nose-mounted 225 hp Continental O-470-J engine,which was sufficent to give a max speed of 160mph and a 150mph cruise.

It came in four main versions,

Model 20 Ranch Wagon   Utility model powered by a 225hp Continental O-470-J engine.
Model 20 Zephyr 400      Tourer variant of 1958 with detailed changes from the basic Model 20.
Model 20AG Topper        Agricultural variant. Chemical hopper or tank in rear of cabin.
Model 20 Seabird            Floatplane variant.

Approx 40 were built.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on May 22, 2019, 09:20:27 PM
VanGrunsven RV-1

The RV-1 is a Stits Playboy that was constructed with modifications by Richard VanGrunsven.The aircraft was the first of a series of Van's aircraft that became popular homebuilt aircraft.

The first RV-1 was a Stits SA-3A completed on 3 October 1965.It is a single seat strut-braced, low-wing aircraft with conventional landing gear. The engine was upgraded from the normally-fitted 65 hp powerplant to a 125 hp Lycoming O-290G.The resulting aircraft had good performance,but a high landing speed.On 16 August 1965,the aircraft was registered as an RV-1.

Other modifications included a new aluminum wing with flaps,and a bubble canopy.The fuselage uses welded steel tube construction in contrast to the RV series that followed which uses all-aluminum fuselage construction.The flaps reduced the stall speed to 50 mph. A second series of modifications included a more streamlined cowling, wheel pants and modified horizontal tail surfaces.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on May 23, 2019, 06:23:31 PM
Van's Aircraft RV-9

The Van's RV-9 and RV-9A are two-seat, single-engine, low-wing homebuilt airplanes sold in kit form.The RV-9 is the tail-wheel equipped version while the RV-9A features a nose-wheel.

The RV-9 was designed from the start as a two-seater, side-by-side, touring aircraft and as such it forgoes the aerobatic capabilities and the lighter handling for more stability and economy.Design horsepower is 118-160 and the prototype was flown with a Lycoming O-235 powerplant of 118 hp as a proof-of-concept.
Compared to the similar RV-7, the RV-9 has a wing of increased span and higher aspect ratio using a Roncz airfoil. The RV-9 has a slow stall speed, and docile handling suitable for low-time pilots.Cruise speed is 167 mph even with the 118 hp engine.

The RV-9 is unique in Van’s aircraft history in that the tricycle gear RV-9A version was flown first on June 15, 2000, three years before the tail wheel version flew. The later conventional landing gear equipped RV-9 was first flown by its designer in 2002. The RV-9A features solid circular spring steel landing gear, the aircraft is steered with differential braking.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on May 24, 2019, 07:29:53 PM
Viking SF-2A Cygnet

The Viking SF-2A Cygnet, also called the Sisler SF-2A Cygnet and the HAPI SF-2A Cygnet, is a STOL amateur-built aircraft,designed by Bert Sisler and produced by Viking Aircraft LLC.The aircraft is supplied in the form of plans for amateur construction.

It is a development of the earlier Sisler SF-2 Whistler introduced in 1973.The design features a strut-braced shoulder-wing, a two-seats-side-by-side configuration enclosed cockpit under a bubble canopy, fixed conventional landing gear and a single engine in tractor configuration.
The aircraft's recommended engine power range is 60 to 82 hp and standard engines used include the 82 hp Volkswagen four-stroke powerplant.Construction time from the supplied kit is estimated as 1700–1800 hours.The aircraft is made from wood, 4130 steel tubing and covered in doped aircraft fabric.

In July 2016 a total of 19 SF-2A Cygnets were registered in the US with the FAA,four with Transport Canada and seven with the CAA in the United Kingdom.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on May 25, 2019, 06:32:04 PM
Vought FU-1 / FU-2

The Vought FU was a biplane fighter aircraft in service with the USN during the late 1920s.
 
In 1926 the Navy gave Vought a contract for 20 convertible land/sea fighters.Vought already had a two-seat observation plane, the UO-1, basically a VE with additional fuselage streamlining and a Wright J-3 radial engine.This was made into a fighter by closing one cockpit and adding machine guns, and upgrading to a 220 hp Wright R-790 Whirlwind with a supercharger.
The newly designated FU-1 was able to reach a speed of 147 mph at 13,000 ft.

The FU-1s were delivered to VF-2B based in San Diego, California.One was assigned to each of the battleships of the Pacific Fleet, where they were launched from catapults. They spent eight months in this role, but as the squadron went to aircraft carrier operations, the further-aft cockpit proved to have a visibility problem when maneuvering around a carrier deck.In response,the forward cockpit was re-opened,the resulting aircraft being designated FU-2.

As well as the USN,the Peruvian Air Force and Navy operated two aircraft each.Twenty aircraft were built in total.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on May 26, 2019, 04:37:34 PM
Vought SBU Corsair

The Vought SBU-1 Corsair was a two-seat, all-metal biplane dive bomber, built for the USN.
The aircraft was equipped with a closed cockpit, had fixed landing gear, and was powered by a Pratt & Whitney R-1535 700hp radial air-cooled engine, as had the F3U-1, but also included a controllable pitch propeller and a new NACA cowl with adjustable cowling gills on the trailing edge of the cowl.
The adjustable cowling gills permitted better control of cooling airflow over the engine.Max speed was 205mph, with a cruising speed of a more sedate 122mph.

Armament consisted of 1 x fixed forward firing 0.30in Browning machine gun, and 1 x 0.30inch rear firing machine gun in the rear cockpit,it could also carry a 500lb bomb.
It`s first flight was in May 1933,the SBU-1 completed flight tests in 1934 and went into production under a contract awarded in January 1935.The Corsair was the first aircraft of its type, a scout bomber, to fly faster than 200 mph. The last SBU Corsairs were retired from active service in 1941, being reassigned as trainers.

As well as being operated by the USN,the type also served with the Argentine Navy,125 aircraft were built.The name "Corsair" was used several times by Vought's planes; the O2U/O3U, SBU, F4U, and the A-7 Corsair II.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on May 27, 2019, 05:28:49 PM
Vought F6U Pirate

The Vought F6U Pirate was the Vought company's first jet fighter,designed for US Navy during the mid-1940s.The XF6U was a small aircraft with tricycle landing gear and with straight wings and tail surfaces.The wings were short enough that they did not need to fold.

The most unusual feature of the aircraft was its use of "Metalite" for its skin,made of balsa,sandwiched between two thin sheets of aluminum. "Fabrilite" was also used for the surfaces of the vertical stabilizer and rudder; this was similar to Metalite but used fiberglass instead of aluminum.Underneath the cockpit were four 20 mm (0.79 in) M3 autocannon.
After a company contest to name the aircraft,the initial prototype received the name Pirate and made its first flight on 2 October 1946.Flight tests revealed severe aerodynamic problems,mainly caused by the airfoil section and thickness of the wing. The vertical stabilizer also had to be redesigned to smooth out the airflow at the intersection of the horizontal and vertical stabilizers.Other changes included the addition of dive brakes on the sides of the fuselage and the replacement of the Metalite panels near the engine exhaust with stainless steel ones.

To improve the lacklustre performance, the 3rd prototype,which first flew on 10 Nov 1947,was lengthened by 8 feet to use a Westinghouse J34-WE-30 afterburning engine of 4,224 lbf thrust,the first USN fighter to have such a powerplant.
Before the flight testing of the prototypes was completed,30 production aircraft were ordered.They incorporated an ejection seat and a redesigned vertical stabilizer as well as two auxiliary fins.
The first production F6U-1 performed its initial flight on 29 June 1949,and 20 of the aircraft were provided to VX-3, an OES based at NAS Patuxent River.The judgment from the evaluation was that the Pirate was unacceptable for operational use.On 30 October 1950, BuAer informed Vought of the Navy's opinion of the Pirate "The F6U-1 had proven so sub-marginal in performance that combat utilization is not feasible.".

The 30 production aircraft had only a total of 945 hours of flight time,31.5 hrs each.Some aircraft flew only 6 hrs which was enough for little more than their acceptance flight and the flight to their disposition.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on May 28, 2019, 04:09:57 PM
Vought F7U Cutlass

The Vought F7U Cutlass is a USN carrier-based jet fighter and fighter-bomber of the early Cold War era. Allegedly based on aerodynamic data and plans captured from the German Arado company at the end of World War II, though Vought designers denied any link to the German research at the time.It`s first flight was 29th Sept 1948.

Former Messerschmitt AG senior designer Waldemar Voigt, who supervised the development of numerous experimental jet fighters in Nazi Germany, contributed to its design with his experience in the development of the Messerschmitt P.1110 and P.1112 projects.
The design featured low aspect ratio,swept wings,with twin wing-mounted tail fins either side of a short fuselage.The cockpit was situated well forward to provide good visibility for the pilot during aircraft carrier approaches.The design was given the company type number of V-346 and then the official designation of "F7U" when it was announced the winner of a USN competition.

The aircraft had all-hydraulic controls which provided artificial feedback so the pilot could feel aerodynamic forces acting on the plane.The hydraulic system was not ready for front-line service and was unreliable.
The F7U was also largely let down by its underpowered Westinghouse J34 turbojets,an engine that some pilots liked to say "put out less heat than Westinghouse's toasters." Naval aviators called the F7U the "Gutless Cutlass".None of the 14 F7U-1s built between 1950 and 1952 became approved to be used in squadron service.Test pilots found it a stable weapons platform, maneuverable, fun to fly and the strengthened airframe to be sturdy.Test pilots particularly praised its high roll rate at 570 degrees/s, three times faster than most production jets at the time.

The F7U's performance suffered due to a lack of sufficient engine thrust;its carrier landing and takeoff performance was notoriously poor.The J35 was known to flame out in rain, a very serious fault.
The first fleet squadron to receive F7Us was Fighter Squadron 81 (VF-81) in April 1954.Few squadrons made deployments with the type, and most "beached" them ashore during part of the cruise owing to operating difficulties.
The US.Navy Flight Demonstration Squadron, the Blue Angels, flew two F7U-1 Cutlasses as a side demonstration during their 1953 show season in an effort to promote the new aircraft,but did not use them as part of their regular formation demonstration.

During a flight to an airshow at Naval Air Station Glenview in Chicago, one of the two Blue Angels aircraft had an engine flameout  forcing the pilot to make an emergency landing at NAS Glenview.His wingman Lt Edward "Whitey" Feightner, was redirected to make his landing at Chicago's former Orchard Airpark, which had been expanded and renamed O'Hare Airport. The runway had just been completed and was covered with peach baskets to prevent aircraft from landing until it was opened. Feightner was told to ignore the baskets and land on the new runway. As a result, Feightner's F7U became the first aircraft to land on the new runway for Chicago's O'Hare International Airport.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on May 29, 2019, 08:29:10 PM
Vought SB2U Vindicator

The Vought SB2U Vindicator is a carrier-based dive bomber developed for the US Navy in the 1930s, the first monoplane in this role.
In 1934,the USN issued a requirement for a new monoplane Scout Bomber for carrier use,Vought submitted the XSB2U-1,a conventional low-wing monoplane configuration with a retractable tailwheel landing gear,the pilot and gunner being seated in tandem under a long greenhouse-style canopy.A Pratt & Whitney R-1535 Twin-Wasp Junior 750hp radial engine drove a two-blade constant-speed propeller, which was intended to act as a dive brake.A single 1,000 lb (450 kg) bomb could be carried on a swinging trapeze to allow it to clear the propeller in a steep dive, while further bombs could be carried under the wings to give a maximum bombload of 1,500 lb.

First flight was 4th Jan 1936,it was accepted for operational evaluation on 2 July 1936, the prototype XSB2U-1, BuNo 9725, crashed on 20 August 1936.However it`s successful completion of trials led to further orders.An export version for the French Navy was produced,it had an 825hp engine and was known as the the V-156-F,40 of this type were delivered and they saw action in the early part of WWII,but were outclassed by Luftwaffe aircraft.

Aside from the US Navy,the SB2U also served with the USMC,VMSB-131 and VMSB-241 were the only two USMC squadrons that fielded the Marine-specific SB2U-3 between March 1941 and September 1943. VMSB-241's Vindicators saw combat at the Battle of Midway in June 1942.

The Royal Navy's Fleet Air Arm,took over a French order for 50 V-156B-1 export versions similar to the SB2U-3 and powered by a 750hp R-1535-SB4-G engine,it was designated Chesapeake Mk.I,they were fitted with 4 x .303 forward firing machine guns.Fourteen Chesapeakes were used to equip a reformed 811 NAS on 14 July 1941 at RNAS Lee-on-Solent.The squadron crews referred to it as the "cheesecake", intended to use them for anti-submarine patrols, and they were earmarked for the escort carrier HMS Archer.
They were withdrawn from 811 Squadron in November 1941 for use as training aircraft and the unit was re-equipped with the biplane Fairey Swordfish.
 
There were 260 examples of all Vindicator variants produced, and a single example is preserved at the National Naval Aviation Museum at NAS Pensacola.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on May 30, 2019, 05:58:48 PM
Vought XF5U

The Vought XF5U "Flying Flapjack" was an experimental U.S. Navy fighter designed by Charles H. Zimmerman for Vought during World War II.The unorthodox design consisted of a flat,disc-shaped body serving as the lifting surface.Two piston engines buried in the body drove propellers located on the leading edge at the wingtips.

It was a much developed version of the original V-173 prototype,the XF5U-1 was a larger aircraft.With an all-metal construction, it was almost five times heavier, with two 1,600 hp P & W R-2000 radial engines.The unusual configuration was designed to create a low aspect ratio aircraft with low takeoff and landing speeds but high top speed.
The XF5U attempted to overcome the tip vortex problem using the propellers to actively cancel the drag-causing tip vortices.The propellers are arranged to rotate in the opposite direction to the tip vortices,the aim being retaining the higher-pressure air below the wing.With this source of drag eliminated, the aircraft would fly with a much smaller wing area, and the small wing would yield high maneuverability with greater structural strength.

An ejection seat was fitted to allow the pilot to clear the massive propellers in the event of an in-flight emergency.Although the prototype was unarmed, a combination of machine guns and cannons would have been installed under the nose.The XF5U design was promising,however,it came at the time when the USN was switching to jet propelled aircraft.By 1946,the project was already long over its expected development time,and well over budget.

The Navy finally canceled the project on 17 March 1947,the prototype aircraft (V-173) was transferred to the Smithsonian Museum for display.Although two aircraft were constructed, a lone XF5U-1 underwent ground runs but never overcame serious vibration problems.Taxi trials culminated in short "hops" that were not true flights.The only completed XF5U-1 proved to be so structurally solid that it had to be destroyed with a wrecking ball. 
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on May 31, 2019, 09:23:32 PM
Vought XF8U-3 Crusader III

The Vought XF8U-3 Crusader III was an aircraft developed by Chance Vought as a successor to the successful Vought F-8 Crusader program, and as a competitor to the McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom II.
The Crusader design team was also working on a larger aircraft with even greater performance, internally designated as the V-401.Externally similar to the Crusader and sharing with it such design elements as the variable incidence wing, the new fighter was larger and was powered by the Pratt & Whitney J75-P-5A engine generating 29,500 lbf of afterburning thrust.To deal with Mach 2+ flight conditions it was fitted with large vertical ventral fins under the tail which rotated to the horizontal position for landing.

The XF8U-3 was officially labeled "Crusader III and first flew on 2 June 1958.The first time that the aircraft exceeded Mach 2.0 in level flight was on August 14, during its 38th test flight,well before the rival F4H-1.In fly-offs against the Crusader III's main competitor, the future McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom II, demonstrated that the Vought design had a definite advantage in maneuverability. John Konrad, Vought's chief test pilot,stated that the Crusader III could fly circles around the Phantom II.However it emerged that combat workload was extremely high for the single seat Crusader.
The Phantom's considerably larger payload and the ability to perform air-to-ground as well as air-to-air missions, trumped Vought's fast but single-purposed fighter. For similar reasons, the Phantom would replace the Navy's F-8 Crusader as the primary daylight air superiority fighter in the Vietnam War.

The F8U-3 program was canceled with five aircraft built. Three aircraft flew during the test program, and, along with two other airframes, were transferred to NASA for atmospheric testing, as the Crusader III was capable of flying above 95% of the Earth's atmosphere. NASA pilots flying at NAS Patuxent River routinely intercepted and defeated U.S. Navy Phantom IIs in mock dogfights, until complaints from the Navy jocks put an end to the harassment.

All of the Crusader IIIs were later scrapped.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on June 01, 2019, 07:32:30 PM
Waco 9

The Waco 9 is an American-built three-seat biplane design that first flew in 1925.The Model 9 was of rugged construction to meet the barnstorming requirements of the period. The cost when new was between $2,025 and $2,500.A Waco 9 was flown in the 1926 Ford National Reliability Air Tour.

The Waco 9 was the first of the steel-tubed fuselage aircraft designs to be built by the Advance Aircraft Company,which became the Waco Aircraft Company circa 1929.
The Model 9 was a three-seat open cockpit biplane with the ailerons on the upper wings extending outboard of the main wing surfaces.
Model 9s were fitted with a variety of engines including the 90 hp Curtiss OX-5, the 100 hp Curtiss OXX-6, up to the 150 hp Hisso A.

By 2007, a few examples remained airworthy in the USA, and five aircraft were held by museums.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on June 02, 2019, 05:29:35 PM
Wittman Tailwind

The Wittman W-8 Tailwind is a popular two-seat light aircraft for homebuilding.It is a high-wing,braced cabin monoplane of taildragger configuration. Construction is with a steel tubing fuselage,wooden wings, and fabric covering.

The Tailwind is the third in a series of high-wing aircraft designed by Sylvester J."Steve" Wittman (1904–1995), a well-known air racing pilot and race plane designer.
A model of the 1965 Wittman Tailwind may be found in the Sun 'n Fun Museum.In 1953, the Tailwind became the first aircraft covered under the FAA's Experimental category to be certified to carry a passenger. Whilst crude looking by modern standards, it outperformed many similar factory-built planes, and only with the advent of composite construction were new designs able to achieve similar speed per horsepower and range.

Usual powerplant is 1 × Lycoming O-320, 160 hp giving a max speed of 200mph.The aircraft can be built as a taildragger or with a tricycle undercarriage, W-9 or W-10 Tailwind.

The example below G-CFON used to be a resident at Newtownards,but it now lives in Scotland.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on June 03, 2019, 07:43:26 PM
Wright Model R

The Wright Model R was a single-seat biplane built by the Wright Company in Ohio,in 1910.Sometimes known as the Roadster or the Baby Wright,it was designed for speed and altitude competitions.

It was derived from the Wright Model B, and was a two seat biplane with rear-mounted twin rudders mounted in front of a single elevator and carried on wire-braced wood booms behind the wing and was powered by a 30 hp Wright four-cylinder inline water-cooled engine driving a pair of pusher propellers via chains.

Two examples were flown at the International Aviation Tournament in November 1910, one being a standard model flown by Alec Ogilvie and the other being a special competition model known as the Baby Grand, which had a 60 hp V-8 engine and a reduced wingspan of 21 ft 5 in.Orville Wright succeeded in flying the Baby Grand at a speed of nearly 70 mph Both aircraft were entered for the second Gordon Bennett Trophy competition which was held at the meeting, but the Baby Grand, flown by Walter Brookins, suffered an engine failure during a trial flight on the race day and crashed heavily. Ogilvie's aircraft also had engine problems, but after repairs finished third.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on June 04, 2019, 07:05:31 PM
World Aircraft Vision / Sentinel

The World Aircraft Vision, also called the Sentinel, is an American STOL amateur-built aircraft, produced by the World Aircraft Company.
A development of the World Aircraft Spirit, the Vision has a strut-braced high-wing, a two-seats-in-side-by-side configuration enclosed cockpit that is 48.5 in (123 cm) wide, fixed tricycle landing gear and a single engine in tractor configuration. It also has large clear plastic doors and an enlarged front windshield to enhance visibility.

The aircraft's recommended engine is the 100 hp Rotax 912ULS four-stroke powerplant.The tricycle landing gear is strengthened for rough field operations and includes an adjustable nose strut shock absorber.Electric rudder trim is standard.
Vision kits are fully assembled at the factory and then disassembled for customer delivery and may be shipped pre-painted.
As of October 2012, the design appears on the Federal Aviation Administration's list of approved special light-sport aircraft.Two have been registered with the FAA to date.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on June 05, 2019, 08:00:58 PM
Oops, I forgot about some other "V" aircraft.

Vultee V-1

The Vultee V-1 was a 1930s single-engined airliner built by the Airplane Development Corporation, designed by Gerard Vultee.
The prototype (V-1) was an all-metal low-wing cantilever monoplane with a retractable tailwheel landing gear. It could carry a pilot and six passengers and first flew on February 19, 1933.It was powered by a 650 hp Wright SR-1820-F2 Cyclone engine.
Production aircraft were designated the V-1A and had a slightly larger and longer fuselage for two pilots and eight passengers,they had a 735 hp Wright Cyclone R-1820-F2 radial engine.

American Airlines bought at least 13 V-1As and the V-1 prototype ( it was modified for two pilot operation) and they entered service in 1934.On introduction, they were the fastest commercial airliners of their day.By 1936, they were sold, having been replaced with twin-engined aircraft when the Bureau of Air Commerce severely limited the use of single engine airliners.
V-1ADs were operated by several private companies or individuals as high-speed executive aircraft, they had an uprated 850hp engine.

Seven former American Airlines aircraft, plus eight others were used by the Republicans in the Spanish Civil War, with machine guns and under-fuselage bomb racks fitted. Four of the aircraft were captured by the Nationalists.
The V-1 was used in the filming of Jungle Queen (1944) with Clark Gable, and The Tarnished Angels (1957).

The V-1AD Special NC16099 ( with a 1,000 hp Wright Cyclone R-1820-G2 radial engine) is the sole survivor of the 25 V-1`s built,and is preserved on public display at KEZF Shannon Air Museum in Fredericksburg, Virginia.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on June 06, 2019, 08:15:24 PM
Vultee P-66 Vanguard

The Vultee P-66 Vanguard was a USAAF fighter aircraft.It was the product of a concept by the Vultee Aircraft Division of the AMC of developing four aircraft designed for different roles from a set of common wings and aft fuselage and tail assemblies.

In 1938,Richard W. Palmer started the detailed design of the V-48 fighter member of the quartet.The aircraft featured a metal-covered, semi-monocoque fuselage and fully retractable landing gear, and was powered by a Pratt & Whitney R-1830 air-cooled radial engine.
It first flew in Sept 1939,and was given the name Vanguard.The second aircraft first flew on February 11, 1940. As a result of flight tests, a number of changes were made to the design including substantially increasing the areas of the horizontal and vertical tail surfaces.

On 6 February 1940, the Swedish government ordered 144 Vanguards as the V-48C.The production prototype flew on 6 September 1940. The model V-48C was similar to the V-48X except for installation of a later version of the R-1830 engine with better higher altitude performance and provision for four .30 in (7.62 mm) machine guns in the wings and two .50 in (12.7 mm) machine guns in the fuselage.
Production deliveries began in September 1941, the U.S. government placed an embargo on exporting the aircraft to Sweden. In the aftermath of Pearl Harbor, all Vanguards were assigned the designation P-66. Production ended in April 1942.Approximately 50 aircraft were retained by the USAAF.
The British took possession of 100 P-66s as the Vanguard I with plans to use the aircraft as an advanced trainer in Canada.After trials however,the British then relinquished the aircraft to China where 104 Vanguards (including USAAC examples) were shipped under the Lend-Lease program.

The Chinese received the assembled fighters via India by late 1942; Chinese Vanguards had USAAF insignia and serials as well as Chinese markings and Vultee serials on factory models.It was no match for the agile Japanese fighters in high-g maneuvers and relied on hit-and-run tactics.The P-66 in Chinese service was largely replaced by Curtiss P-40s in 1943.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on June 07, 2019, 07:55:18 PM
Vultee XP-54

Vultee had submitted a proposal in response to a USAAC request for an unusual configuration prototype fighter.

The Vultee design won the competition,designating it Model 84, a descendant of their earlier Model 78. After completing preliminary engineering and wind tunnel tests, a contract for a prototype was awarded on 8 January 1941. A second prototype was ordered on 17 March 1942.

The XP-54 was designed with a pusher engine in the rear part of the fuselage. The tail was mounted rearward between two mid-wing booms, with the 12-ft propeller between them. The design included a "ducted wing section" developed by the NACA that enabled installation of cooling radiators and intercoolers in the inverted gull wing. The Pratt & Whitney X-1800 engine was initially proposed as the powerplant but after its development was discontinued, the liquid-cooled 2300hp Lycoming XH-2470 was substituted.
In September 1941, the XP-54 mission was changed from low altitude to high altitude interception,therefore a turbo-supercharger and heavier armor had to be added.

Unusual features included the nose section which could pivot through the vertical,up and down.In the nose, two 37 mm T-9 cannon were in rigid mounts while two .50 cal machine guns were in movable mounts. Movement of the nose and machine guns was controlled by a special compensating gun sight. Thus, the cannon trajectory could be elevated without altering the flight attitude of the aircraft.

Flight tests of the first prototype,began on 15 January 1943,with initial trials showing performance to be substantially less than expected.Development of the XH-2470 engine was discontinued and, although it appeared possible to substitute the Allison V-3420 engine without substantial airframe changes, the projected delay and costs resulted in a decision not to put it into production.The prototypes continued to be used in an experimental program until problems with the Lycoming engines and lack of spare parts caused termination.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on June 08, 2019, 06:37:51 PM
Vultee V-11

The Vultee V-11 and V-12 were American attack aircraft of the 1930s,developed from the Vultee V-1 single-engined airliner.
It retained the single-engined, low wing format and all-metal stressed skin structure of the V-1,but combined a new fuselage with accommodation for the two or three crew members under a long greenhouse canopy with the wings and tail surfaces of the Vultee V-1.

The V-11-G Original two-seat light bomber was powered by one 1,000 hp Wright R-1820-G2 Cyclone engine.An initial order for 30 two-seat V-11Gs was placed by China before the end of 1935.This was followed by orders in 1939 for two versions (the V-12-C and V-12D) of the more powerful V-12 variant.The majority of these were planned to be assembled from kits at the Central Aircraft Manufacturing Company factory near the China-Burma border.The V-11s and V-12s were used as light bombers and achieved some success,before the aircraft were withdrawn from bombing missions to training and liaison duties in 1940.

In February 1939 the Brazilian Army Air Corps acquired 10 Vultee V-11–GB2s for long range bombing.26 aircraft were eventually used by the Brazilian Air Force.

In the late 1930s, the USAAC was favoring twin engine light attack aircraft but seven YA-19 aircraft were ordered in the summer of 1938 for comparison purposes.The YA-19s were armed with six .30 in (7.62 mm) machine guns and 1,080 lb (490 kg) bombs in an internal bomb bay, powered by a 1,200 hp Twin Wasp radial engine and was manned by a crew of three – pilot, observer/gunner, and bombardier/photographer.Tests showed that twin engine attack aircraft were faster, could be better armed and carried a larger bomb load so no further YA-19s were ordered.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on June 09, 2019, 06:23:44 PM
Zenith STOL CH 801

The Zenith STOL CH 801 is a four-seat sport STOL aircraft available in kit form from the Zenith Aircraft Company.
The CH 801 is based on the general design and features of the smaller two-seater STOL CH 701 model.It offers a useful load of 1,000 lb (450 kg), which is double the 701's 500 lb (230 kg).While the aircraft look similar they do not share any common parts.

Usual powerplant is 1 × Lycoming O-360 of 180 hp,giving a leisurely cruise speed of 105mph and a stall speed of around 40mph.
The STOL CH 801 is made from sheet aluminium and employs a deep wing chord,with full-length leading edge slots and trailing edge flaperons to develop high lift at low speed, while maintaining a short wing-span for maximum strength and ground maneuverability.By the end of 2011 160 CH 801s had been completed and were flying.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on June 10, 2019, 06:56:54 PM
Zivko Edge 540

The Zivko Edge 540 manufactured by Zivko Aeronautics is a highly aerobatic aircraft.
It is capable of a 420 degree per second roll rate and a 3,700 foot per minute climb rate,it has been flown to victory on the international Unlimited aerobatics circuit several times since the mid-1990s.A tandem-seat version is sold as the Edge 540T.

Powerplant is 1 × Modified 340hp Lycoming AEIO-540 Hartzell composite,3 blade prop,giving a max speed of 230 kts or 265mph if you prefer.
The Zivko Edge 540 is a popular aircraft,often used in the Red Bull Air Race World Series.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on June 11, 2019, 06:20:59 PM
That`s the USA taken care of, now to Europe and first up France. Just to repeat these are military or civil aircraft that may not be so well known to some.

Abraham Iris

The Abraham Iris was a two-seat touring airplane produced in the early 1930s in two slightly different versions,the Iris I with a 100 hp Hispano-Suiza piston engine, and the Iris II with a 95hp Renault engine.The Iris was a conventional parasol wing monoplane with a neatly faired-in engine.

Max speed was around 110mph
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on June 12, 2019, 06:32:45 PM
ANF Les Mureaux 120

The ANF Les Mureaux 120 was a 1930s three-seat military night reconnaissance monoplane.

It was designed to meet a 1928 French Aéronautique Militaire requirement for a three-seat night reconnaissance aircraft.The prototype was first flown in 1931,powered by two 300 hp  Lorraine Algol engines.It was followed by a second aircraft, designated ANF Les Mureaux 121, powered by 300 hp Gnome-Rhône 7Kb engines, which flew later the same year.

Max speed was around 140mph with a range of 920 miles.It was armed with one twin machine-gun in nose cockpit and one in midship cockpit.
The aircraft failed to gain any interest from the French military and did not enter production.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on June 13, 2019, 09:58:42 PM
ANF Les Mureaux 180

The ANF Les Mureaux 180 was a prototype French fighter aircraft of the 1930s.It was designed and built by Les Ateliers de Construction du Nord de la France et des Mureaux.
It was a single-engined, two-seat, gull wing monoplane.
It first flew on 10 February 1935 with a 690 hp Hispano-Suiza 12X brs engine and a single fin and rudder.It had a max speed of 235 MPH and a range of around 460 miles.

In April 1935 the 180 was modified with a Hispano-Suiza 12X crs motor-canon engine, it had 20mm cannon that fired through the propeller hub. The aircraft was also fitted with two wing-mounted 7.5mm machine guns.The observer also had a machine gun mounted on a flexible mount and the tail unit was changed to two vertical surfaces.Testing continued until April 1936, but the project was abandoned when the design was considered to be obsolete.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on June 14, 2019, 08:14:49 PM
Arsenal VB 10

The Arsenal VB 10 was a French fighter aircraft developed during and shortly after WW II. It was a low-wing monoplane with retractable tailwheel undercarriage and of largely orthodox configuration. It was an evolution of a design that began with the Arsenal VG 10 before WW II, the VB 10 added a second engine behind the cockpit which drove a second propeller, coaxial with and contra-rotating to the propeller driven by the engine in the nose.

In January 1937 Arsenal were given a contract to develop a twin-engined heavy interceptor built from wood, powered by two 590 hp Hispano-Suiza 12X engines mounted in tandem inside the fuselage.Work on the VG 10 was abandoned in June 1937 in favour of the VG 20, which was essentially similar but powered by two 900 hp Hispano-Suiza 12Y engines. The VG 20 was abandoned in turn in January 1938, but the design work and studies were used for the design of the all-metal VB 10.

Due to WW II little progress was made during France's occupation, the prototype did not fly until after VE day. By then, it was clear that the future of the fighter lay with jet power, but development of the VB 10 continued as a safety net for France's jet fighter programmes.
In December 1945, a contract for 200 machines was placed by the French government, the first of which flew on 3 November 1947. By the time the fourth had been delivered in September 1948, the entire order was cancelled,only 6 examples were completed.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on June 15, 2019, 11:25:34 PM
Arsenal VG 90

The Arsenal VG 90 was a carrier-based fighter aircraft built in 1949, but which was not developed past the prototype stage.
It us up against the SNCAC NC 1080 and Nord N.2200 for an Aéronavale contract, tragically both VG 90 prototypes were destroyed in fatal crashes early in the development stages.
It was powered by 1 × Hispano-Suiza-built Rolls-Royce Nene,5,000 lbf thrust, giving a max speed of 570mph,it was armed with 3 × 30 mm cannons,
and could also carry a pair of 500kg bombs.
The VG 90 had a similar configuration to Arsenal's VG 70 and VG 80 research aircraft, with a high wing and all-swept flying surfaces, air intakes were mounted on the fuselage sides.

The first accident occurred on 25th May 1950,when an undercarriage door sheared off in flight and struck the aircraft's tail. Test Pilot Pierre Decroo was killed in the crash. The second claimed the life of pilot Claude Dellys, and took place on 21 st February 1952 when the tail was torn off due to aerodynamic flutter.The ejection seat system malfunctioned and did not fire. A third prototype, then under construction, was abandoned.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on June 16, 2019, 07:15:36 PM
Amiot 143

The Amiot 143M was a late 1930s French medium bomber designed to meet a requirement for a bomber capable of day/night bombing, long-range reconnaissance and bomber escort.
In 1928, the French Air Ministry issued a specification for a multi-seat combat aircraft to act as a light bomber, reconnaissance aircraft and long-range escort fighter.
Amiot received an order for two prototype Amiot 140s, to be evaluated against the competing Bleriot 137, Breguet 410 and SPCA 30.

The Amiot 140 was a high-winged cantilever monoplane of all-metal construction, with corrugated wing skinning and a fixed tail wheel undercarriage. The pilot sat in an open cockpit, with cockpits for gunners in the nose and dorsal positions. A glazed gondola under the forward fuselage carried a bombardier/gunner, ensuring that the gunners had a clear field of fire.

The first prototype was fitted with Hispano-Suiza 12Nbr engines to allow flight testing, making its maiden flight on 12th April 1931 with the second prototype completed in Feb 1932 but the continued non-availability of its intended engines, the Lorraine-Dietrichs or turbocharged Hispano-Suizas, meant that it never flew. Despite this, on 23 November 1933 an order was placed for 40 Amiot 140s, to be powered by 880 hp Lorraine 12Q Eider engines.

The FAM had revised its requirements,concentrating on the bombing role and for better performance. Amiot redesigned the aircraft and incorporate lessons learned during testing of the Amiot 140. The gondola under the fuselage was enlarged, allowing easier operation of the aircraft's guns and a radio-operator to be carried. Manually operated gun turrets were provided in the nose and dorsal positions.Orders were placed for two prototypes, differing only in the engines fitted, with the Amiot 142 having Hispano-Suiza 12Y engines and the Amiot 143 having Gnome-Rhone 14K radial engines. The 143 flew first, on 1 August 1934, with the 142 not flying until January 1935.As it was decided to allocate the Hispano-Suiza engines to fighters, the Amiot 143 was selected,the existing order for 40 Amiot 140s being converted to 143s.

The Amiot 143 had the same high-wing and fixed undercarriage as the Amiot 140, with the wing thick enough to allow crew access to the engines by a tunnel between the wing spars. The pilot sat in an enclosed cockpit, level with the leading edge of the wing and the navigator-bombardier, who was also provided with flying controls,sat in the glazed gondola beneath the pilot. After 40 aircraft had been completed, the design was further revised, with the aircraft being fitted with a longer nose and changes to the defensive gun placements.

At the outbreak of the Second World War, Amiot 143s equipped 5 metropolitan groupes together with a single African based groupe.Following the start of the Battle of France, the Amiot 143M was mainly used in night attacks against German airfields and lines of communications, with losses relatively low.Some planes of II/38 served as transports for the French in Syria. This groupe later went over to the Allies after their landings in Africa.The last Amiot 143M was retired from service in February 1944.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on June 17, 2019, 08:51:36 PM
Amiot 354

The Amiot 350 series originated in the same 1934 requirement as a rival to the Lioré et Olivier LeO 451.

The Amiot 340 prototype was involved in a propaganda misinformation flight to Berlin in August 1938 to convince the Germans that the French employed modern bombers.Over 120 were ordered by the French government that year,but production delays and order modifications ensured that September 1939 saw no delivered aircraft.The order of this very modern aircraft reached 830,though ultimately only 80 machines were received by the Air Ministry.The main variant was the twin-tailed 351; however, due to various delays, the single-tailed 354 was accepted into service as an interim type.

The Amiot 351 was planned to mount one 7.5 mm MAC 1934 machine gun in nose and ventral positions and one 20 mm Hispano-Suiza HS.404 cannon in the dorsal position. However technical problems with the armament installation,meant many aircraft went to operational units with only a light machine gun in the dorsal position.

In May 1940, the Amiot 351/354 was in the process of equipping just two bomber groupes based at Avignon.Though 200 were in the final stages of construction, only 35 were ready for flight.Powerplant was a pair of Gnome-Rhône 14N-48 14-cylinder two-row air-cooled radial piston engines of 1,061 hp each.By June, the Amiot 351/354 was also delivered for GB I/34 and GB II/34, neither flying them in combat.At that time, all Amiot 351/354s were based on the northern front.Three had been lost in combat, ten in training accidents.All aircraft were ordered to evacuate to Africa on 17 June, 37 surviving the journey.Five Amiot 351/354s continued to be used as mail planes after the Battle of France and four Amiot were commandeered by the Luftwaffe as transports.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on June 18, 2019, 08:06:05 PM
Avions Mauboussin M.120

The Mauboussin M.120 was a trainer and touring aircraft built in France in the 1930s and again in the years following World War II.

The aircraft was based on a 1931 Peyret-Mauboussin collaboration between Louis Peyret and Pierre Mauboussin, the Peyret-Mauboussin PM.XII, and like it, was a low-wing cantilever monoplane of wooden construction.Pilot and instructor sat in tandem, open cockpits.
Mauboussin built a number of prototypes himself, followed by a small series manufactured for him by Breguet in 1934. At one stage Mauboussins were produced by the Société Zodiac.The aircraft first flew in 1932 and was popular in international touring aircraft contests.

In 1936,Fouga, then a builder of railway rolling stock, purchased all rights to the design as part of an effort to enter the aircraft industry, and was able to secure a contract from the Armée de l'Air to supply the type as the M.123.
Powerplant for the M.123 was a Salmson 9Adr,60 hp,enough for a modest top speed of 100mph. Production was restarted by Fouga after the war for the French flying clubs.116 were built in total.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on June 19, 2019, 09:16:54 PM
Avions Max Holste MH.52

The Avions Max Holste MH.52 was a 1940s French-built two-seat touring or training monoplane.
Developed in the mid-1940s,the MH.52 was a low-wing cantilever monoplane with twin fins and rudders and a fixed tricycle landing gear.It had a raised cockpit with side-by-side seating for the pilot and trainee or passenger.The canopy was framed with forward-opening transparent sliding doors.
The prototype first flew on 21 August 1945 and was powered by a variety of inline engines developing between 95 and 150 hp.
The 150 hp version had a top speed of 143 mph and a useful range of 370 miles.

A development of the MH.52 was the sole MH.53 Cadet which had a fixed tailwheel landing gear and a lower powered 135 hp De Havilland Gipsy Major 10 engine.
A total of 13 production aircraft were built by the end of the 1940s.Most were flown by aero clubs and private pilots in France, but three examples were delivered to Egypt.
Two MH.52s survived in the 2000s. No.4 is awaiting restoration to fly at an airfield near Paris. No.11 is privately stored by a group located at an airfield near Bergerac.

It`s design is very similar to the ERCO Ercoupe, and it`s various incarnations.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on June 20, 2019, 07:36:43 PM
Avions Max Holste MH.260 Super Broussard

Built in prototype form as the Avions Max Holste MH.260 Super Broussard, ("Super Bushranger"), was a turboprop-powered, uprated version of the piston-engined Avions Max Holste MH.250 Super Broussard, that was further developed into the Aérospatiale N 262.

It was designed in partnership with Nord Aviation to carry 23 passengers or 3,445 kg (7,595 lb) of cargo on short fields, as a modern equivalent of the DC-3.The MH.260 was a high-wing, twin-engine turboprop aircraft powered by 980 hp Turbomeca Bastan engines.The fuselage was of all -aluminum construction with fabric covered control surfaces.The landing gear retracted into fuselage-mounted fairings.

The design was taken over by Nord and production started to fill a French government order for ten aircraft under the designation Nord 260. No orders were received from outside the government as the nascent Nord 262 offered better performance. Eight Nord 260s were completed and delivered to a few airlines on lease for short periods before final delivery to the French Air Force.

Cruise speed was 235 mph,with a range of 930 miles.Just nine aircraft were completed.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on June 21, 2019, 09:26:06 PM
Blériot XXI

The Blériot XXI was an early French aircraft built by Blériot Aéronautique.
The aircraft was a shoulder-wing monoplane powered by a 70 hp Gnome Gamma 7-cylinder rotary engine driving a two bladed propeller.Pilot and passenger were seated in side-by-side configuration: the control column was centrally mounted and there were two sets of rudder pedals, so that it could be flown from either seat.

It had a rectangular fuselage tapered to a horizontal knife-edge at the tail. Lateral control was effected by wing-warping, the wires leading to a single inverted V-strut cabane above the fuselage and a similar V strut beneath. Petrol was stored in three tanks: a pair of gravity tanks were located under the top decking in front of the cockpit, pressure-fed from a larger tank under the seats.
The undercarriage was a variant of the well-proved pattern used on the Blériot XI, with the wheels mounted on a trailing arm free to slide up and down and sprung by bungee cords.A Type XXI was one of the two Blériot designs entered for the 1912 British Military Aeroplane Competition.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on June 22, 2019, 05:34:43 PM
Blériot 115

The Blériot Bl-115 was a French biplane 4 engine airliner of the 1920s,it was a large aircraft, mounting one pair of engines on the upper wing and one pair on the lower.
It first flew on 9 May 1923, the prototype crashed on 23 June, killing its pilot.

It was powered by 4x 180 hp Hispano-Suiza 8Ac engines,giving it a leisurely top speed of 112mph, cruising speed was around 90 mph.
The third and fourth machines built (Roland Garros and Jean Casale) were used in Colonel de Goÿs' attempts to trial air routes to Africa.
They departed France on 18 January 1925,arriving in Colomb-Béchar, Algeria, on 28 January.The expedition ended in disaster on 7 February in Niamey, Niger when the Jean Casale crashed on take-off, killing its radio operator and seriously injuring its two pilots, including Dagnaux.

Only six aircraft were completed.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on June 23, 2019, 06:56:53 PM
Blériot 127

The Blériot 127 (or Bl-127) was a French bomber aircraft of the 1920s and early 1930s,developed from the Blériot 117.

It was a large monoplane of conventional configuration that featured open gunner's positions in its nose and at the rear of its two underwing engine nacelles.
Powerplant was  2 × Hispano-Suiza 12Hb V-12 water-cooled piston engines of 550 hp each driving 2-bladed fixed pitch wooden propellers. Max Speed was approx 135 Mph,armament consisted of 2 × forward trainable 7.7 mm (0.30 in) Lewis guns in nose and 2 × rearward trainable 7.7 mm (0.30 in) Lewis guns in each of two engine nacelles plus up 1000 kg of bombs.

Forty-two aircraft were operated by the Armée de l'Air from 1929 until 1934, by which time they were thoroughly obsolete.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on June 24, 2019, 07:27:21 PM
Blériot 5190

The Blériot 5190 was a French transatlantic mail plane of the 1930s.It was a large parasol-wing monoplane flying boat with an unusual design, featuring a low-profile hull and a crew compartment housed in the thick pylon that supported the wing.
It was powered by four engines,Hispano-Suiza 12Nbr`s, of650 hp each arranged with three along the leading edge of the wing, and the fourth on the centreline of the trailing edge.

The first flight was on the 3rd Aug 1933, by the end of 1934,the aircraft named Santos-Dumont had completed two proving flights across the South Atlantic.In February 1935 the Santos-Dumont entered service. From then until April, she carried all of France's transatlantic mail at the rate of one crossing per week until rejoined by la Croix du Sud and a new Farman F.220 named Le Centaure.As part of this small fleet, the Santos-Dumont continued in this role until June 1937. Altogether, by that time, she had made 38 crossings of the Atlantic.

The French government had ordered a further three 5190s from Blériot, and the company had borrowed heavily in order to build the aircraft. Without warning, the contract was cancelled without explanation or compensation,forcing the firm into bankruptcy. Louis Blériot died of a heart attack soon afterwards, on 1 August 1936.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on June 25, 2019, 07:45:01 PM
Blériot-SPAD S.33

The Bleriot-SPAD S.33 was a small airliner developed soon after World War I.
It was a conventional configuration biplane but its design owed much to the Blériot company's contemporary fighter`s such as the S.20.Four passengers could be carried in an enclosed cabin within the fuselage, and a fifth in the open cockpit beside the pilot,(the cheap seat!).
It proved to be a great success, the S.33 dominated in it`s class throughout the 1920s,initially on CMA's Paris-London route,and later on continental routes.

It`s powerplant was a Salmson CM.9 9-cylinder air-cooled radial piston engine offering 260 hp, which gave a cruise speed of around 105mph and range of 650 miles.
In total 41 S.33`s were built,an improved version known as the S.46 followed later with a 370 hp Lorraine-Dietrich 12Da engine.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on June 26, 2019, 07:05:12 PM
Blériot-SPAD S.61

The Blériot-SPAD S.61 was a French biplane fighter aircraft developed in 1923.
The prototype S.61 was evaluated by the French Air Force alongside the S.51 as a potential new fighter,but like its stablemate, was rejected.It first flew 6th Nov 1923.
The Polish Air Force (also purchased the S.51) was impressed and ordered 250, plus purchase licences for local production.The Romanian Air Force also ordered 100 aircraft,of which 30 were built in Poland,by the CWL.

The production version for Poland and Romania,was powered by a 450 hp Lorraine-Dietrich 12E W-12 engine with supplementary supercharger. French versions had a similar 430 hp engines and the racers had up to 500hp in different versions.
Despite building them under licence, they had a poor reputation in Poland due to numerous crashes, many attributed to a weak wing mounting,From 1926 to 1931, 26 pilots were killed while flying the S.61.
 
They were used in France for racing and record-setting attempts, for example,on 25 June 1925, Pelletier d'Oisy won the cross-country Coupe Michelin in an S.61,and another of the type won the 1927 competition and was placed second in 1929.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on June 27, 2019, 10:32:46 PM
Blériot-SPAD S.510

Designed in 1930,this open-cockpit biplane first flew in 1933 and entered service in 1936.Performance was similar to the Gloster Gladiator.The S.510's armament consisted of 4 machine guns as either a combination of 2 fuselage-mounted guns, plus 2 in under-wing gondolas or with all 4 in under-wing gondolas.
This gave it a heavy punch attack capability than most earlier biplane fighters,and equalled that of the final biplanes used by the British and Italians, the Gladiator and Fiat CR.42 Falco.

When it was designed many pilots and experts strongly believed that biplanes would prove better fighters than monoplanes because of their tighter turning circles,but some  thought the S.510 was doomed to obsolescence before it even flew.
It was overshadowed by the faster Dewoitine D.510 monoplane, an order of 60 aircraft was placed in August 1935 when French ace pilot Louis Massot demonstrated the S.510 to excellent effect, showing its superior maneuverability and rate of climb.
Powerplant was a Hispano-Suiza 12Xbrs V-12 liquid-cooled piston engine of 692hp, which gave a max speed of around 235mph and a range of 540 miles.

The S.510 entered service in early 1936,they were intended as transition aircraft between the Morane-Saulnier MS-225 and the Morane-Saulnier MS-406.
At the outbreak of WW II, the S.510 served in reserve squadrons only,metropolitan reserves were mobilized into the II/561 based in Havre-Oteville. From January 18, 1940 over a period of weeks, the S.510s were replaced with Bloch MB.151 aircraft, the groupe changing designation to GC III/10. The S.510s returned to their training role. Approximately ten S.510s had been sent to French North Africa where, by the Battle of France, they were mobilized into a fighter group, the GC III/5, but their age allowed them to be used for training flights only.

The Blériot SPAD S.510 was the last French biplane fighter to be produced.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on June 28, 2019, 11:34:27 AM
Bloch MB.131

The Bloch MB.130 and its derivatives were a series of French monoplane reconn-bombers developed during the 1930s.
It was developed in response to the August 1933 French Aviation Ministry request for a reconnaissance and tactical bomber.It was an all-metal, twin-engine, low-wing monoplane with retractable landing gear, and armed with three 7.5mm MAC1934 flexible machine guns, one each in the nose, dorsal turret, and ventral gondola.

It first flew on 29 June 1934, and despite it`s moderate performance, soon entered production, 40 machines being ordered in October 1935. An improved version, the MB.131 was first flown on 16 August 1936, but still needed more work to overcome its deficiencies. The radically revised second prototype which flew on 5 May 1937 eventually formed the basis for series production, with aircraft being manufactured by SNCASO, the nationalised company that had absorbed Bloch and Blériot. Total production (including prototypes) was 143.

Powerplant was a pair of Gnome-Rhône 14N-10/11 14-cylinder air-cooled radial engines,producing 950 hp each.Max speed was a leisurely 217 mph,range was around 800 miles
It entered service in June 1938, the MB.131 went on to equip seven reconnaissance Groupes, six in metropolitan France and one in North Africa. Upon the outbreak of the war, the metropolitan Groupes suffered heavy losses in attempts at daylight reconnaissance of Germany's western borders.
They were subsequently restricted to flying night missions, though they still suffered heavy losses even then.
After the Battle of France, the aircraft left in Vichy possession were relegated to target towing duty. 21 planes were reported captured by the Luftwaffe in inoperable condition, but photographic evidence suggests at least a few flew for the Nazis.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on June 29, 2019, 06:31:25 PM
Bloch MB.170

The Bloch MB.170 and its family of derivatives were French reconnaissance bombers designed and built shortly before World War II.
They were the best aircraft of this type available to the Armée de l'Air at the outbreak of the war, with speed, altitude, and maneuverability that allowed them to evade interception by most German fighters of the time. They were too few in number to make any measurable impact on the Battle of France,but they continued in service with the Vichy forces after the armistice.

The first prototype, the MB 170 AB2-A3 No.01,was equipped as a two-seat attack bomber or a three-seat reconnaissance aircraft, made its maiden flight on 15 February 1938.
It was powered by two 970 hp Gnome-Rhône 14N radial engines and was armed with a 20 mm Hispano-Suiza cannon in the nose, two 7.5 mm MAC 1934 machine guns in the wing, with another machine gun flexibly mounted in the rear cockpit, with a ventral cupola housing either a rearward firing machine gun or a camera.The second prototype, the MB 170 B3 No.2 was a dedicated three seat bomber, with the ventral cupola housing the camera removed, a revised canopy and larger tail fins.

The MB.175 succeeded the MB.174 on the assembly lines in full flow.This version, a dedicated bomber,it had a redesigned bomb bay capable of carrying bombs of 100–200 kg (220-440 lb), where the MB.174 was limited to 50 kg (110 lb) bombs. The MB.175's fuselage was lengthened and widened to accommodate this greater capacity, but only 25 were delivered before France's defeat.

Like the majority of the modern equipment of the Armée de l'Air during the campaign, they arrived too late and in insufficient numbers. At the time of the armistice, most surviving MB.174s and 175s had been evacuated to North Africa. A few were recovered by the Germans and then used for pilot training. During the Vichy government rule on the French empire, MB.174s frequently flew over Gibraltar to monitor the British fleet.
After Operation Torch, as French forces split from Vichy to side with the Allies, remaining examples of the MB.170 line flew their final combat missions during the Battle of Tunisia.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on June 30, 2019, 04:48:08 PM
Bloch MB.220

The Bloch MB.220 was a French twin-engine passenger transport airplane built by Société des Avions Marcel Bloch during the 1930s.It some respects it`s design was similar to the DC-3.
The MB.220 was an all-metal low-wing cantilever monoplane powered by two 915 HP Gnome-Rhône 14N radial engines and had a retractable landing gear.Usualcrew was four, with seating for 16 passengers, with eight seats each side of a central aisle. The prototype first flew in December 1935, and was followed by 16 production aircraft.

By mid 1938, the type was being utilised by Air France on European routes. The first service was between Le Bourget and Croydon was flown on 27 March 1938 with a scheduled time of 1 hour 15 minutes. During World War II, most MB.220s were taken over as military transports, including service with German, Free French and Vichy French air forces. Air France continued to fly the aircraft (as MB.221s) after the war on short-range European routes. It sold four aircraft in 1949 but within a year all had been withdrawn from service.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on July 01, 2019, 06:31:29 PM
Bloch MB.480


The Bloch MB.480 was a French twin-engined torpedo-bomber/reconnaissance floatplane designed just before the start of the Second World War.
In May 1937, the French Air Ministry placed an order with Société des Avions Marcel Bloch for two prototype floatplanes intended to fulfill a French Navy requirement for a twin-engined torpedo-bomber/reconnaissance floatplane.

The Bloch MB.480 was a low-winged monoplane that resembled the earlier Bloch MB.131 reconnaissance/bomber landplane.It was powered by two 1,060 hp Gnome-Rhône 14N radial engines and carried a crew of five. Defensive armament was a 7.5 mm Darne machine gun in the nose and a ventral bath, while a 20 mm cannon was fitted in a powered dorsal mounting. A usful load of bombs, torpedoes or auxiliary fuel tanks could be carried in an internal bomb bay.

The first prototype made its maiden flight in June 1939. The aircraft's twin tail was raised to avoid spray on take-off and landing, and the tail fins were cropped to ensure a good field of fire for the dorsal cannon after the tail assembly had been raised. The second prototype flew in October 1939.
Testing was relatively successful, the French Navy had meanwhile decided that the torpedo-bomber reconnaissance role could be better met by landplanes.On 9th September 1939, Bloch was told to suspend development trials, while on 10th December it was officially announced that no orders would be placed for either the MB.480 or its two competitors, the SNCAC NC-410 and the Loire-Nieuport 10.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on July 02, 2019, 07:33:37 PM
Breguet 19

The Breguet 19 was designed as a successor to a highly successful World War I light bomber, the 14. A new, updated design was flown in March 1922, featuring a conventional layout with a single 450 hp Renault 12Kb inline engine. The aircraft was built in a sesquiplane platform, with lower wings substantially smaller than the upper ones.After trials, the Breguet 19 was ordered by the French Army's Aéronautique Militaire in September 1923.

The first 11 Breguet 19 prototypes were powered by a number of different engines. A "trademark" of Breguet was the wide usage of duralumin as a construction material, instead of steel or wood. At that time, the aircraft was faster than other bombers, and even some fighter aircraft.

The fuselage,was ellipsoid in cross-section, with a frame of duralumin tubing.The front section was covered with duralumin sheets, and the tail and wings were canvas covered. It had a conventional fixed landing gear with rear skid. The crew of two, pilot and observer/bombardier, sat in tandem in open cockpits, with dual controls.
A fixed 7.7 mm (0.303 in) Vickers machine gun with an interrupter gear was operated by the pilot, while the observer had twin 7.7 mm (0.303 in) Lewis Guns.There was also a fourth machine gun, which could be fired by the observer through an opening in the floor.   
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on July 03, 2019, 07:52:45 PM
Breguet 26T

The 26T was an attempt by the Breguet company to find a civil market for their 19 warplane by mating its wings, tail surfaces and undercarriage to an entirely new fuselage design and new engine.A Gnome et Rhône 9Ab (licence-built Bristol Jupiter),of 420 hp,which gave it a max speed of 128mph.
One of the two Breguet-built civil examples,the engine was later changed back to the Lorraine 12Ed inline, as used on the Br.19.
 
It could carry six passengers within an enclosed cabin, while the pilots sat in an open cockpit ahead of the upper wing.CASA purchased a licence to build another two in Sain for the domestic market, and France's Aviation Militaire purchased two more as air ambulances under the designation Bre.26TSbis.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on July 04, 2019, 09:34:01 PM
Breguet 460

The Breguet 460 was a light bomber, initially designed a multifunctional aircraft,by the French aviation authorities.
Based on aspects of the Breguet 413,it was a monoplane fitted with two powerful radial Gnome et Rhône 14Kjrs engines, having a more aerodynamic design, although it kept the tail of the obsolete 413. Production was delayed due to minor design problems,and when the first prototype of the Breguet 460 Vultur flew, it could not achieve the 400 km/h (250 mph) required for a high-speed bomber.The French Air Ministry lost interest in this unit and concentrated on projects by other companies.

The Spanish Civil War provided the French aircraft industry with an opportunity both for getting rid of obsolete aircraft and for testing new developments,thus the Breguet 460 prototypes ended up in the Spanish Republican Air Force. One of the units seen in a picture of the Spanish conflict has an improved, more modern tail of the same type that would be used later for the Breguet 470 Fulgur airliner.
Details of Spanish units operating them are sketchy at best,it is known that one of these aircraft was based at the Celrà airfield towards the end of the conflict and that it belonged to the Night Flight Group no. 11, which comprised the Vultur and two Bloch MB.210.

The Breguet Br 462 was a modernized version of the 460, although still similar,it made its first test flight towards the end of 1936. The forward fuselage was redesigned to look more aerodynamic and the aircraft was fitted with two Gnome Rhone 14NO engines that allowed it to reach a speed of 402 km/h (250 mph).It has been described as similar to the Breguet 461 that was supplied to Japan in 1935.
Plans were made forinstallation of 1,350 hp engines, expected to give it a speed of around 300 mph.Defensive armament was a forward-firing 20 mm cannon and two rear-firing machine guns.

Only three Breguet 462s were built. Two of them served in the Vichy French Air Force where they did not see much action and were scrapped in 1942.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on July 05, 2019, 07:03:31 PM
Breguet G.11E

The Breguet G.11E was a French passenger coaxial rotors helicopter flown soon after World War II. Only one was built, development ceased when funding ran out.
Breguet developed his wartime studies of a project named the G.34 into the two-passenger Breguet G.11E, otherwise known as the Société Francaises du Gyroplane G.11E.

It was a much larger aircraft, the G.11E used the same coaxial, three blade twin rotor layout as on the Gyroplane Laboratoire.It was initially powered by a fan cooled
240 hp Potez 9E nine cylinder radial engine midmounted under the concentric rotor shafts.The control column alters cyclic pitch via swashplates,and pedals make torque corrections and control yaw by changing the relative collective pitch of the two rotors.A mechanical inertial governor limited rotor acceleration; the pilot could increase the collective pitch over that set by the governor but not below it, emergencies apart.

The first flight was made on 21 May 1949 but tests showed that the G.11E was very underpowered,so the engine was changed to a bigger nine-cylinder radial, a 450 hp Pratt & Whitney Wasp Junior.The name was changed to G.111 and some re-design accompanied the power increase; the rotor diameter was increased by 1.00 m (3 ft 3 in) and the fuselage lengthened to include two more seats so that four passengers could be carried.
The G.111 began flight tests in 1951 but these were not completed as SFG were declared bankrupt the following year.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on July 06, 2019, 11:36:34 PM
Breguet Deux-Ponts

The Breguet 761/763/765 are a family of 1940s and 1950s French double-deck transport aircraft,Deux-Ponts (Double-Decker) was not an official name.
Design work on the Breguet 761 double-deck airliner even before the end of WWII.It was decided that a medium-range airliner with seating for over 100 passengers would be built. The design envisaged using readily available engines with the aim of ease of manufacture and an early first-flight date.

The prototype Br.761, F-WASK, first flew at Villacoublay on 15 February 1949,it was powered by four 1,580 hp SNECMA 14R-24 radial engines.It was followed by three Br.761S pre-production aircraft powered by 2,020 hp Pratt & Whitney R-2800-B31 radial engines.These were fitted with 12 ft 1½in Hamilton Standard propellers.The aircraft successfully completed their trials incident-free.Their first flights were in 1951 and 1952.

The French Government ordered 12 production aircraft, the Breguet 76-3, which was later redesignated Br.763.Six aircraft were to be operated by Air France and the other six by the Ministry of Transport. The 763 had more powerful engines, a larger wingspan, strengthened wings and a three-crew flight deck (earlier aircraft had four crew). The 763 first flew on 20 July 1951 and entered service with Air France during autumn 1952.

Air France aircraft had accommodation for 59 passengers on the top deck, and 48 on the lower deck, although the aircraft was capable of carrying 135 passengers in a high-density layout.During 1964 Air France transferred six Br.763s to the French Air Force. They also acquired the three pre-production Br.761S aircraft and four new Br.765 Sahara freighter aircraft with removable cargo doors.They provided the French Air Force with a valuable transport fleet for moving personnel and materials to the Pacific nuclear testing areas.The Sahara fleet was retired in 1972.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on July 07, 2019, 07:25:43 PM
Breguet 941

The Breguet 941 was a French four-engine turboprop STOL transport aircraft developed by Breguet in the 1960s.
Louis Charles Breguet developed a concept for a Short Take Off and Landing (STOL) aircraft using four free-turbine turboshaft engines to drive a common powershaft, which, in turn drove four oversize propellers, which were evenly spaced along the leading edge of the wing with large, full-span, slotted flaps, with the arrangement known as "l'aile soufflée" or blown wing.

An experimental prototype, powered by four Turbomeca Turmo II engines, the Breguet 940 Integral, first flew on 21 May 1958,and was used to prove the concept, demonstrating excellent short field performance.This led to an order being placed in February 1960 for a prototype of an aircraft employing the same concept,but capable of carrying useful loads.This aircraft,the Breguet 941,first flew on 1 June 1961.

Further testing of this prototype resulted in an order for four improved production aircraft, the Breguet 941S for the French Air Force, first flying on 19 April 1967. These were fitted with more powerful engines and a modified rear cargo door to allow for air-drops.

The 941 prototype was tested extensively by both France, and the USA, where a license agreement had been drafted with McDonnell Aircraft.The prototype, known as the McDonnell 188 in the US, was evaluated by both NASA and the US military, but no orders were placed.
The second Br 941S also carried out a tour of the USA, being evaluated as a STOL passenger airliner for operation from small city airports,again, no orders resulted.The aircraft demonstration activity included flights for Eastern Airlines in the northeast U.S.

The four Breguet 941S aircraft entered service with the French Air Force in 1967,they were retired in 1974.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on July 08, 2019, 07:27:23 PM
Breguet Br 904 Nymphale

The Breguet Br 104 Nymphale (English: Nymph) is a two-seat trainer and competition sailplane, built in France in the 1950s.
The Nymphale is a two-seat development of the double World Gliding Championships (WGC) winning Br 901 Mouette.It is larger all round, with a 2.72 m (8 ft 11 in) increase in span and 1.43 m (4 ft 8 in) longer, but is still built of wood and fabric like the single-seater.

The mid mounted wings,are straight-tapered like those of the 901,but differ in having no sweep on the leading edge so that at mid-chord the wing is forward-swept.
The lengthened cockpit,has the same style of fuselage contour following canopy as the 901 but is divided into front and rear sections,with the rear stretching back over the wing leading edge.

It`s first flight on 26 May 1956,3 prototypes were completed,and fifteen production series 904S Nymphales were built in the late 1950s and widely used by gliding clubs.
The Nymphale also competed: one placed 5th in the two-seater class of the 1956 WGC held at Saint-Yan in France.Six aircraft remain airworthy, all in France.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on July 09, 2019, 06:10:30 PM
Brochet MB.70

The Brochet MB.70 was a light two-seater aircraft developed in France in the early 1950s for recreational flying and amateur construction.
It was a high-wing braced monoplane that seated the pilot and passenger in tandem within a fully enclosed cabin. It was fitted with fixed tailwheel undercarriage layout and was of all-wooden construction.
A requirement from the Service de l'Aviation Légère et Sportive for a new light aircraft for French aeroclubs speeded progress, and a series of development machines were built with a several different engines, eventually leading to the Brochet MB.80.

The MB.72 of which five were built used a Continental A65 horizontally opposed four-cylinder engine 0f 65hp,giving the aircraft a very sedate max speed of 81mph.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on July 10, 2019, 06:17:00 PM
Caudron Type D

The Caudron Type D was a French pre-WW I single seat,twin-boom tractor biplane, a close but slightly smaller relative of the two seat Caudron Type C.
The Type D was a two bay biplane with an inner bay only about half the width of the outer. Both two spar fabric covered wings had rectangular plans apart from angled tips. There was no stagger, so the two sets of parallel interplane struts were parallel and vertical.The upper wing overhang produced by the sesquiplane modification was supported by extra parallel pairs of outward leaning interplane struts,and wire bracing completed the structure.

The Type D first appeared in December 1911 and in total thirteen were built.One was sold in England and three others to China,the Chinese aircraft had the more powerful 45 hp 6-cylinder Anzani radial engine.This engine was again mounted uncowled, showing its characteristic ring exhaust.

Another Type D powered by a larger 6-cylinder Anzani, producing 60 hp, was delivered from Paris on 21 June 1912 by Guillaux to Mr Ramsay in London.
It had a longer nacelle which seated two, had curved, raised decking immediately ahead of the cockpit and was suspended between the innermost interplane struts.
Caudron referred to this version as the Type D2. With tanks for 125 l (27 imp gal; 33 US gal) it had an endurance of around 3 hours.
It is not known how many aircraft were constructed in the UK by Ewen Aviation or its successor, British Caudron.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on July 11, 2019, 07:40:00 PM
Caudron R.11

The Caudron R.11, was a French five-seat twin-engine bomber,reconnaissance and escort biplane developed and produced during the First World War.
It was originally intended to fulfill the French Corps d'Armee reconnaissance category.The R11 was similar to the Caudron R.4, but with a more pointed nose, two bracing bays outboard the engines rather than three, no nose-wheel, and a much bigger tail.

The engines were housed in streamlined nacelles just above the lower wing,they were a pair of Hispano-Suiza 8Bba V-8 water-cooled piston engines,210 hp each.
Max speed was around 120mph and it was armed with five 7.7 mm (0.30 in) Lewis machine guns.
The French army ordered 1000 R.11s,and production began in 1917, with the first aircraft completed late in that year.In February 1918 the first squadron R.26 was equipped. The last squadron to form before the Armistice was R.246, at which point 370 planes had been completed and production ended soon after.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on July 12, 2019, 04:47:49 PM
Caudron C.27

The Caudron C.27 was a French biplane, a two-seat basic trainer which also competed successfully in the 1920s.
It was a two bay biplane,without stagger or significant dihedral.It had rectangular plan wings,each built around two wooden spars and they were fabric covered.These were braced with parallel interplane struts, assisted by piano-wire bracing. There were simple parallel cabane struts between the upper wing centre section and the upper fuselage longerons.Ailerons were fitted only to the upper wing.

The C.27 was powered by a 80 hp Le Rhône 9C nine cylinder air-cooled rotary engine,driving a two blade propeller and with a cowling which surrounded its upper three-quarters.
This give it a max speed of around 80mph,later versions had more powerful engines fitted,up to 130 hp.These were designated C.125`s.

The exact date of the first flight,is not known but the aircraft was flown publicly at Orly at the end of June 1922.Two years later a C.27 won the 1924 Zenith Cup, a trophy based on fuel consumption and load carrying ability.The C.128 was again very similar but powered by a 120 hp Salmson 9AC, a nine-cylinder, air cooled radial engine.
At least twenty-one C.27, C.125, C.127 and C.128 aircraft appeared on the French civil register at one time.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on July 13, 2019, 06:16:04 PM
Caudron C.430 Rafale

The Caudron C.430 Rafale was a fast, two seat French touring monoplane.
It was a two-seat development of the single seat Caudron C.362, the winner of the 1933 Coupe Deutsch de la Meurthe.It was slightly larger and heavier, though with a lower wing loading,the Rafale was a low wing cantilever monoplane, wood framed and covered with a mixture of plywood and fabric.
It`s one piece,single spar wing was strongly straight tapered to elliptical tips and was plywood covered with an outer layer of fabric.There were flaps inboard of the ailerons.
It had an air cooled 150 hp inverted four cylinder 6.3 l (384 cu in) inline Renault 4Pei Bengali engine in the nose,driving a two blade, two position variable pitch propeller.This gave an impressive top speed of 190 mph and a cruise of 160mph.

On 31st March 1934,about a week after its first flight, the C.430 F-AMVB set a new International speed record of 181 mph over 100 km (62 mi) for aircraft with an empty weight less than 560 kg (1,235 lb).
Hélène Boucher, a prominent French pilot in the mid-1930s, died in a landing approach accident in F-AMVB on 30 November 1934.Just two aircraft were completed.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on July 14, 2019, 06:11:42 PM
Caudron C.440 Goéland

The Caudron C.440 Goéland ("seagull") was a six-seat twin-engine utility aircraft developed in France in the mid-1930s.Eighteen subtypes were built over it`s production run.

It`s construction was almost wooden throughout,with wooden skinning except for the forward and upper fuselage sections,which were skinned in metal.It was a conventionally configured low-wing cantilever monoplane with tailwheel undercarriage.The main undercarriage units retracted into the engine nacelles.
Standard configuration was a crew of two,seating for six passengers,with baggage compartments fore and aft, and a toilet to the rear.

Production of the C.440 and its varients continued until the outbreak of WWII, at which time many C.440s were pressed into military service.Following the fall of France, some were operated by the German Luftwaffe and Deutsche Luft Hansa. Another user was the Slovenské vzdušné zbrane - it ordered 12 aircraft as the C.445M in 1942.

Production began again after the war for military and civil use as a transport and as a twin-engined trainer.In the postwar reorganisation of the French aircraft industry, Caudron became part of SNCA du Nord and the aircraft became the Nord Goeland; 325 of these were built.Commercial operators included Air France, SABENA, Aigle Azur and Compagnie Air Transport (CAT).
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on July 15, 2019, 07:59:52 PM
Caudron C.710.

The C.710 were a series of light fighter aircraft developed by Caudron-Renault for the French Air Force just prior to the start of World War II.
The contract that led to the C.710 series was offered in 1936 to quickly raise the number of modern aircraft in French service, by supplying a "light fighter" of wooden construction that could be built rapidly in large numbers without upsetting the production of existing types.The contract resulted in three designs, the Arsenal VG-30, the Bloch MB.700, and the C.710. Prototypes of all three were ordered.

A common feature of the Caudron line was a long nose that set the cockpit far back on the fuselage.The nose housed the 450 hp Renault 12R-01, a supercharged inverted and air-cooled V-12 engine that resulted from putting together two 6Q engines.The landing gear was fixed and spatted, and the vertical stabilizer was a seemingly World War I-era semicircle instead of a more common trapezoidal or triangular design. Armament consisted of a 20 mm Hispano-Suiza HS.9 cannon under each wing in a small pod.

The C.710 prototype first flew on 18 July 1936.[3] Despite its small size, it showed good potential and was able to reach a level speed of 292 mph during flight testing. Further development continued with the C.711 and C.712 with more powerful engines, while the C.713 which flew on 15 December 1937 introduced retractable landing gear and a more conventional triangular vertical stabilizer.
The final evolution of the 710 series was the C.714 Cyclone, a variation on the C.713 which first flew in April 1938 as the C.714.01 prototype. The primary changes were a new wing airfoil profile, a strengthened fuselage, and instead cannons, the fighter had four 7.5 mm MAC 1934 machine guns in the wing gondolas. It was powered by the newer 12R-03 version of the engine, which introduced a new carburettor that could operate in negative g.

The French Air Force ordered 20 C.714s on 5 November 1938, with options for a further 180. Production started at a Renault factory in the Paris suburbs in summer 1939.Deliveries did not start until January 1940. After a series of tests with the first production examples, it became apparent that the design was seriously flawed. Although light and fast, its wooden construction did not permit a more powerful engine to be fitted,with the result that the Caudron was withdrawn from active service in February 1940.
In March, the initial production order was reduced to 90, as the performance was not considered good enough to warrant further production contracts. Eighty were diverted to Finland to fight in the Winter War. These were meant to be flown by French pilots,only six aircraft were delivered, and an additional ten were waiting in the harbour when deliveries were stopped.

On 18 May 1940, 35 Caudrons were delivered to the Polish Warsaw Squadron,I/145, stationed at the Mions airfield. After just 23 sorties, adverse opinion of the fighter was confirmed by frontline pilots who expressed concerns that it was seriously underpowered and was no match for contemporary German fighters.

On 25 May, only a week after it was introduced, French Minister of War Guy La Chambre ordered all C.714s to be withdrawn from active service. However,the French had no other aircraft to offer, the Polish ignored the order and continued to fly the Caudrons. Despite flying a fighter hopelessly outdated compared to the Messerschmitt Bf 109E, the Polish pilots scored 12 confirmed and three unconfirmed victories in three battles between 8 June and 11 June, losing nine in the air and nine more on the ground. Among the aircraft shot down were four Dornier Do 17 bombers, and also three Messerschmitt Bf 109 and five Messerschmitt Bf 110 fighters.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on July 16, 2019, 07:39:08 PM
Caudron Aiglon

The Caudron C.600 Aiglon is a 1930s French two-seat monoplane sport/touring aircraft built by Caudron–Renault.
The Aiglon (en: Eaglet) was designed by Marcel Riffard after he took over the design department when Caudron merged with Renault.It was a two-seat low-wing cantilever monoplane with tandem open cockpits,the first of two prototypes first flew in March 1935 from Issy-les-Moulineaux, France.

In December 1935 a C.610 special long-distance single-seat version with increased fue was flown from Paris to Saigon at an average speed of 80 mph.
Powerplant was usually a Renault 4Pgi Bengali Junior inline piston engine,of 100 hp giving a max speed of around 135mph,other engines were fitted to some versions.
With the outbreak of the Second World War many of the aircraft were requisitioned by the French Government for use as liaison aircraft by the Armée de l'Air. Total production of the Aiglon was 203 aircraft, including 178 of the basic Renault 4Pgi Bengali Junior powered model.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on July 17, 2019, 05:21:47 PM
CAMS 33

The CAMS 33 was a reconnaissance flying boat built in France in the early 1920s.It was designed in response to a French Navy requirement for new flying boats for various roles.
Chantiers Aéro-Maritimes de la Seine (CAMS) submitted prototype aircraft in two categories for the Navy requirement,as both a reconnaissance aircraft and a transport.The design was a conventional biplane flying boat with equal-span unstaggered wings and two engines mounted in a single nacelle in tractor-pusher configuration.
It featured an open cockpit for two pilots, plus open bow and dorsal gun positions on the reconnaissance machine, or an enclosed cabin for seven passengers on the transport version, which was not selected for production.

The armed reconnaissance version was accepted as the 33B.Twelve aircraft were eventually produced for the French Navy,equipping Escadrille 1R1 at Cherbourg.
Yugoslavia purchased another six machines.The 33T prototype flew under civil registration for a few years, but was unable to attract customers.
They were powered by 2 × Hispano-Suiza 8F,of 275 hp each, giving a max speed of around 110mph.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on July 18, 2019, 05:52:11 PM
CAMS 54

The CAMS 54 was a development and more powerful version of the French CAMS 51 civil transport and naval reconnaissance flying boat,designed for transatlantic flights.
It was a single-bay biplane with equal span,rectangular plan wings mounted without stagger.The upper wing was in three parts, a short centre section and two long outer panels; the lower wing had two inner panels, mounted on the upper fuselage and strengthened by short, parallel pairs of struts to mid-fuselage, and two outer panels.
 
It was powered by a pair of engines in push-pull configuration, mounted above the fuselage and just below the upper wing on two inward-leaning pairs of tubular N-struts.Their mounting also supported the wing centre-section with parallel pairs of struts outwards to the spars.Two types of engine could be used, either 500 hp Hispano-Suiza 12Mbr V12 enclosed in a common streamlined cowling, or 480 hp) Gnome-Rhône 9Akx Jupiter nine-cylinder radials, mounted uncowled for cooling, with a circular section cowling between them.

The CAMS 54's first flights were made in late March 1928, powered with the Hispano-Suiza engines.By 12 May 1928 it was making long test flights with the Gnome et Rhône radials.On 22 July the CAMS 54, with the radial engines, named La Frégate and crewed by Paris, second pilot and wireless operator Cadou and flight engineer Marot, flew to Horta, Azores.The first eight hours were uneventful at speeds around 109 mph, but failure of the rear engine then seriously slowed the aircraft and the 1,290 mi;flight lasted about 14 hr 15 min,at an average speed of about 90 mph.

Inspection of the engine after landing showed it could not be repaired and also that the heavy loads sustained by the forward engine operating alone had caused serious wear, ruling out further long flights. The French Marine Ministry therefore decided to bring La Frégate back to the mainland by boat.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on July 19, 2019, 07:32:51 PM
Potez-CAMS 141

The Potez-CAMS 141 was a French long range reconnaissance flying boat of the late 1930s. Intended to equip the French Navy, only a single prototype was completed before the German invasion of France halted production.
The 141 was designed by Chantiers Aéro-Maritimes de la Seine (or CAMS, which since 1933 had been part of Potez) to meet a 1935 French Navy specification for a long range marine reconnaissance flying boat to replace obsolete aircraft.

It was a four engined monoplane, powered by Hispano-Suiza 12Y liquid-cooled V-12 piston engines,of 860 hp each.Max speed was just under 200mph,cruise was around 160mph.
It had a high aspect ratio wing mounted above the fuselage and a twin tail.It was armed with a dorsal turret carrying two 7.5 mm Darne machine guns, with a further two machine guns in lateral barbettes and two in waist positions.

After evaluation, a production order for four aircraft was placed, with a further 15 being ordered before the start of the WWII.The prototype, named Antarès entered service with Escadrille E8 of the French Navy in September 1939, flying its first patrol mission over the Atlantic on 20 September 1939.
No production aircraft had been completed by the time of the Armistice in June 1940, with Antarès being evacuated to Port Lyautey in Morocco.
It was operated by the Vichy French Navy,until the allied invasion of North Africa, when after brief fighting, the French armed forces in North Africa joined with the Free French. Antarès continued in service, carrying out patrols over the Central and South Atlantic.Antarès was retired and scrapped early in 1944.

Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on July 20, 2019, 05:46:37 PM
CFA D.7 Cricri Major

The CFA D.7 Cricri Major was a French-built light civil aircraft of the 1940s.
It was a postwar-built light high-wing monoplane with enclosed two-seat tandem glazed cabin with fixed tail-wheel undercarriage, powered by a 90hp Salmson 5Aq-01 radial engine. Cruise speed was 80mph with a max speed of 93 mph, it had a range of just over 300 miles.

An initial series of ten Cricri (Cricket) Majors was completed and these were bought by aero clubs and private pilots.The design was rather outdated and no further examples were completed.Four D.7s remained in service in 1956 and one example, F-BFNG remained airworthy in 1967. This aircraft has been restored to airworthiness and was operational in 2005.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on July 21, 2019, 05:42:03 PM
CAB Minicab

The CAB GY-20 Minicab is a two-seat light aircraft built in France in the late 1940`s.
Its design was a scaled-down version of Yves Gardan`s designed SIPA S.90. The pilot and passenger sit side by side and access to the cockpit is via a one-piece perspex canopy that hinges forwards. Gardan's intention was to produce a low-cost, easy-to-fly, easy-to-maintain aircraft with the possibility of homebuilding the aircraft.

The prototype Minicab first flew at Pau-Idron on 1 February 1949.CAB manufactured a total of 22 Minicabs.This was followed by a larger number completed by amateur builders in France and other countries.Several Minicabs are currently active in the UK have been rebuilt to the JB.01 standard developed by M. Jean Barritault. Falconar sold plans for a tricycle gear homebuilt model named the Minihawk.

It was powered by a Continental A65 four-cylinder air-cooled horizontally-opposed piston engine,of 65 hp,which gave it a cruising speed of around 100mph or a max of 112 mph.
Type certification was obtained in mid-April 1949.Approx 160 aircraft were completed,over 130 were home builds.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on July 22, 2019, 06:40:07 PM
Couzinet 70

The Couzinet 70 was a 1930s French three-engined commercial monoplane built by Société des Avions René Couzinet founded by René Couzinet.
The Couzinet 70 Arc-en-Ciel III (Rainbow) was developed from the 1920s Couzinet 10 Arc-en-Ciel, which first flew on 7 May 1928, the Couzinet 11 and Couzinet 40.

The larger span Couzinet 70 was developed originally as a mail plane for use of Aéropostale's South Atlantic service.
It was a low-wing monoplane with an usual sweep up to the vertical stabiliser,and featured a fixed undercarriage.
The aircraft was powered by three  Hispano-Suiza 12Nb V-12 liquid-cooled piston engine,of 650 hp each.The wing mounted engines could be accessed in flight through tunnels in the wing.
After route-proving in 1933 the aircraft was modified and re-designated the Couzinet 71 and entered service with Aéropostale in May 1934.

It had a crew of four,cruising speed was around 160 mph with a max speed of 174 mph,range was over 4200 miles.Only three aircraft were completed.
Title: Re: The slightly less well known
Post by: Angry Turnip on July 23, 2019, 06:10:12 PM
Dewoitine D.7

The Dewoitine D.7 was a French ultra-light sport plane built in the mid 1920s.

The D.7 was a conventionally laid-out monoplane, with a thick cantilever shoulder wing.Its single seat,open cockpit,provided with a small windscreen,was over the wing.
It had conventional, fixed, tailskid landing gear.
The D.7 could be powered by any small engine; the Salmson AD.3 radial engine, the Clerget 2K flat twin, Vaslin flat-four or Vaslin water-cooled six cylinder inline engines were fitted.

Performance was leisurely to say the least,12hp gave top speed of 55mph.