Author Topic: The slightly less well known  (Read 114343 times)

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Offline Angry Turnip

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Re: The slightly less well known
« Reply #750 on: January 15, 2021, 11:29:16 AM »
Arado Ar 240

The Arado Ar 240 was a German twin-engine, multi-role heavy fighter aircraft from WWII.

The Ar 240 came about as the response to a 1938 request for a second-generation heavy fighter to replace the Messerschmitt Bf 110. The cockpit was fully pressurized,which would not have been easy if the defensive armament had to be hand-operated by the gunner, as it would have required the guns to penetrate the rear of the cockpit canopy. However, the aircraft had an advanced remote control gun system with two × 7.92 mm (.312 in) MG 81 machine guns which allowed them to be located in turrets in the unpressurized rear of the fuselage.

The aircraft were powered by two Daimler-Benz DB 601E inverted V-12 liquid-cooled piston engines of  1,175 hp each.In May 1939, the RLM ordered a batch of six prototypes. The first Ar 240 V1 prototype, took to the air on 25 June 1940, and immediately proved to have poor handling and also tending to overheat during taxiing. The second prototype was modified to have larger ailerons, as well as additional vertical fin area on the dive brakes to reduce yaw. Small radiators were added to the landing gear legs to improve cooling at low speeds, when the gear would normally be opened. Ar 240 V2, first flew on 6 April 1941, and spent most of its life at the factory in an experimental role. In total just 14 aircraft were completed, as the company decided to concentrate on other types.
« Last Edit: January 15, 2021, 11:30:47 AM by Angry Turnip »

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Re: The slightly less well known
« Reply #751 on: January 16, 2021, 12:39:22 PM »
Aviatik C.I

The Aviatik C.I was an observation aircraft which came into service during World War I in April 1915.

It was a single engine biplane,and a development of the Aviatik B.I and B.II model. In the C.I the observer sat in front of the pilot, with a machine-gun clipped on a sliding mounting fitted on a rail at either side of the cockpit giving the crew the means to attack enemy aircraft.
The positions of the pilot and observer were reversed in last series of 50, ordered in 1917 solely for trainer purpose.There was only one aircraft built of refined C.Ia version in May 1916, with armament still in a forward cab, serving as a prototype for C.III. Later models of the plane included the Aviatik C.II and the C.III, which had more powerful engines.

The aircraft were operated by Germany, Austro Hungary, Romania and Yugoslavia until 1917 when most were withdrawn from active service.
« Last Edit: January 16, 2021, 12:39:39 PM by Angry Turnip »

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Re: The slightly less well known
« Reply #752 on: January 16, 2021, 12:54:15 PM »
Blohm & Voss /  Hamburger Flugzeugbau Ha 135

The Hamburger Flugzeugbau Ha 135 was the first aircraft produced by the new aircraft subsidiary of the German company Blohm & Voss.

It was a two seat biplane developed as a trainer for the German Ministry of Aviation. After it proved unsuccessful in this role, the company sold it as a sport / touring aircraft.
The first prototype, designated the Ha 135 V1, made its first flight on 28 April 1934.It was powered by a 160 hp BMW-Bramo Sh 14A engine,which gave a max speed of 127 mph.
The second prototype, Ha 135 V2 first flew on 30 April 1934. It was used for flight characteristics and performance tests beginning on 14 July 1934. It also later flew as a sport aircraft with the German Air Sports Association. In total six aircraft were completed before production ended.
« Last Edit: January 16, 2021, 12:54:35 PM by Angry Turnip »

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Re: The slightly less well known
« Reply #753 on: January 16, 2021, 01:18:19 PM »
B+ V / Hamburger Flugzeugbau Ha 137

The Hamburger Flugzeugbau Ha 137 was a German ground-attack aircraft of the 1930s.

The aircraft was built entirely of metal and using a semi-monocoque fuselage, the design looked more like a fighter than a dive bomber. The wing used the tubular spar system, the inner portion of which was sealed as a fuel tank.It had fixed landing gear, so in order to reduce their length and their resulting drag, the wings featured a sharp inverted gull wing bend at about ¼ span. The wheels were mounted on two shock absorbers each, so the fairing around the gear was large enough to allow the mounting of a 7.92 mm MG 17 machine gun for testing, and a 20 mm MG FF cannon if required. Two additional 7.92 mm MG 17s were mounted in the fuselage decking above the engine.

The Reich Air Ministry (RLM) asked for the design to be resubmitted with the 650 hp Pratt & Whitney Hornet radial engine, then starting licensed production in Germany as the BMW 132. Vogt's team then modified the design to use the Hornet as Projekt 6a, or alternately the Rolls-Royce Kestrel as Projekt 6b. The RLM found the design promising enough to fund construction of three prototypes.

The Hornet-powered Ha 137 V1 first flew in April 1935, followed the next month by the V2.It quickly became obvious that the Hornet engine was so large that visibility during diving was greatly affected, and the RLM then suggested that the third prototype be completed as a 6b with the Kestrel. By this point the requirements for the dive bomber program had been drawn up, taken directly from Junkers' description of its own entry which had already been selected to win, calling for a two-seater arrangement. The Ha 137 was thus excluded, although realistically no other design had a chance to win.
The three Jumo-powered prototypes were built anyway during 1936 and 1937, eventually being used as testbed aircraft at Blohm & Voss.
« Last Edit: January 16, 2021, 01:19:36 PM by Angry Turnip »

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Re: The slightly less well known
« Reply #754 on: January 18, 2021, 03:16:57 PM »
Blohm & Voss BV 141

The Blohm & Voss BV 141 was a World War II German tactical reconnaissance aircraft, notable for its unusual configuration.

The (RLM) – issued a specification for a single-engine reconnaissance aircraft with optimal visual characteristics. The eventual winner was the Focke-Wulf Fw 189 Uhu; even though its twin-boom design using two smaller engines did not match the requirement of a single engined aircraft. Blohm & Voss (Hamburger Flugzeugbau) although not invited to participate, pursued as a private venture something far more radical. The proposal of chief designer Dr. Richard Vogt was the uniquely asymmetric BV 141.

The Plexiglas-glazed crew gondola on the starboard side housed the pilot, observer and rear gunner, while the fuselage on the port side led smoothly from the BMW 132N radial engine to a tail unit.At first glance, the placement of weight would have induced tendency to roll, but the weight was evenly supported by lift from the wings. The tailplane was symmetrical at first, but in the 141B it became asymmetrical – starboard tailplane virtually removed – to improve the rear gunner's fields of view and fire.

Three prototypes and an evaluation batch of five BV 141As were produced, backed personally by Ernst Udet, but the RLM decided on 4 April 1940 that they were underpowered, although it was also noted they otherwise exceeded the requirements. By the time a batch of 12 BV 141Bs were built with the more powerful BMW 801 engines, they were too late to make an impression, as the RLM had already decided to put the Fw 189 into production. Indeed, an urgent need for BMW 801 engines for use in the Fw 190 fighter aircraft further reduced the chance of the BV 141B being produced in quantity, around 28 were completed.
« Last Edit: January 18, 2021, 03:18:08 PM by Angry Turnip »

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Re: The slightly less well known
« Reply #755 on: January 18, 2021, 03:39:02 PM »
Blohm & Voss BV 222

The Blohm & Voss BV 222 Wiking (Pronounced "Viking") was a very large, six-engined German flying boat of World War II.

Construction of the first prototype, V1, began in January 1938, and  V1 made its test flight on 7 September 1940, carrying the civil registration D-ANTE. During trials it demonstrated that it could carry up to 92 passengers, or 72 patients on stretchers over short distances at a maximum speed of (239 mph). Flight characteristics were found to be satisfactory, but with some improvements required. Further trials lasted until December 1940, when the V1 passed into Luftwaffe service, receiving a military paint scheme.

The type had a long flat floor inside the cabin and a large square cargo door to the rear of the wing on the starboard side, with such a flat floor for the hull interior being a welcome novelty for that era. The usual balance floats for a flying boat design were ingeniously designed as a matching pair of retracting float units per side, which extended from beneath the wing's outer panels in "clamshell" fashion when fully extended, and fit fully flush with the wing panels' undersides when retracted.
Originally powered by Bramo 323 Fafnir radial engines, later aircraft were powered by six 1,000 hp Jumo 207C inline two-stroke opposed-piston diesel engines. The use of diesels permitted refueling at sea by special re-supply U-boats. C-13 aircraft was a sole example fitted with Jumo 205C and later Jumo 205D engines.

Three BV 222s were captured and subsequently operated by Allied forces, after the war along with V2, was flown by Captain Eric "Winkle" Brown from Norway to the RAF station at Calshot in 1946, with RAF serial number "VP501". After testing at Marine Aircraft Experimental Establishment at Felixstowe it was assigned to No. 201 Squadron RAF, who operated it up to 1947, when it was scrapped. Some  reports indicate the US captured aircraft were flown or shipped to the US. Convair acquired one for evaluation at the Naval Air Station Patuxent River, the intensive studies leading to the hull design of their Model 117 which in turn led to the R3Y Tradewind.
« Last Edit: January 18, 2021, 03:39:25 PM by Angry Turnip »

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Re: The slightly less well known
« Reply #756 on: January 19, 2021, 10:31:26 PM »
Blohm & Voss BV 238 / BV 250

The Blohm & Voss BV 238 was a German flying boat built during World War II.

Development of the BV 238 giant flying boat began in 1941, following the success of the smaller but still enormous BV 222 Wiking.The BV 238 was an extremely large flying boat of conventional aerodynamic design, but bearing the usual B&V hallmarks of all-metal construction with a tubular steel wing main spar which also acted as the armoured main fuel tank. Only the earlier Tupolev ANT-20, the Martin XPB2M-1 and the later Hughes H-4 had a bigger wing span. However it would be the heaviest yet flown, at 100 tonnes (220,000 lb) fully loaded.

The wing was of straight, constant-chord form with tapered outer sections. Auxiliary floats were integrated into underside panels of the outer sections and could be retracted to lie flush with the wing. A catwalk ran internally along the wing in front of the tubular steel main spar, providing access to the engines in flight.The hull had an unusually long and slim planing bottom, basically a two-step design but with a row of smaller auxiliary steps behind the main one. A large nose door opened onto its huge interior, with the main crew cabin immediately above and behind it.
The aircraft was powered by six 1,750 hp Daimler-Benz DB 603 liquid-cooled inverted V12 piston engines, arranged in nacelles.

A landplane version, initially called the BV 238-Land, was proposed, capable of carrying out transport, long-range bombing and transatlantic reconnaissance duties. The lower hull was replaced by a plain fairing with retractable undercarriage comprising twelve main and two nose wheels. One bomb bay filled the space between the wheel bays, another lay behind the main undercarriage. The wing floats were replaced with retractable outrigger stabilising wheels. The nose wheel could be folded up, making the aircraft "kneel" and allowing vehicles to drive directly on- and off-board via a loading ramp to the nose doorway. Alternatively, passenger seating could be fitted. A further, upper deck behind the crew cockpit accommodated further passengers, bringing the total capacity to 300.It was later enamed the BV 250 in 1942, three prototypes were ordered but none was finished by the end of the war.

It was designed to carry an impressive defensive armament of 8 x 13 mm (0.512 in) MG 131 machine guns with 1,800 rpg; 4 in each nose and tail turret, 8 x 13 mm (0.512 in) MG 131 machine guns with 900 rpg; 4 in each wing mounted turret, 4 x 13 mm (0.512 in) MG 131 machine guns with 500 rpg; 2 (as a twinned MG 131Z) in each manually aimed beam/waist position and 2 x 20 mm (0.787 in) MG 151/20 autocannon with 1,400 rpg in forward dorsal turret. This was in addition to a variety of bombs, torpedoes and even rocket powered anti ship radio controlled missiles, such as the Henschel Hs 293.

It was the heaviest aircraft ever built when it first flew in 1944, and was the largest aircraft produced by any of the Axis powers during World War II.
« Last Edit: January 20, 2021, 08:24:18 PM by Angry Turnip »

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Re: The slightly less well known
« Reply #757 on: January 20, 2021, 08:33:30 PM »
Blohm & Voss BV 40

The Blohm & Voss BV 40 was a German glider fighter designed to attack Allied bomber formations.

The BV 40 was the smallest glider that could accommodate an armoured cockpit and two cannon with limited ammunition. By eliminating the engine and lying the pilot on his front, the cross-sectional area of the fuselage was much reduced, making the BV 40 difficult for bomber gunners to hit.The fuselage was constructed almost entirely of wood. It was of conventional layout, the glider had a high-mounted, straight wing with a similarly-shaped tailplane mounted on the fin just above the fuselage. The pilot lay in prone in an armoured cockpit in the nose of the aircraft. The front steel plate was 20 millimetres (0.79 in) thick, and was fitted with a windscreen of armoured glass. Two 30 mm (1.18 in) MK 108 cannon were mounted in the wing roots.

It was to be towed by a Messerschmitt Bf 109 to operational altitude and released above the Allied bombers. Once released, it would dive down at a sharp angle towards the enemy aircraft. During its short attack time, the BV 40 would fire its weapons, then glide back to earth. Several prototypes were completed and flown, towed behind a Messerschmitt Bf 110. The first flight took place in May 1944. It was found the craft could reach 292 mph and it was thought to have the potential to go far faster. Various changes to the requirement and to the design were discussed, before the project was cancelled later in the year. In all, seven aircraft were completed and five of them flown.
« Last Edit: January 20, 2021, 08:34:05 PM by Angry Turnip »

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Re: The slightly less well known
« Reply #758 on: January 22, 2021, 01:44:01 PM »
Bölkow Bo 207

The Bölkow Bo 207 was a four-seat light aircraft built in West Germany in the early 1960s.

Bölkow had built the two and three-seat Kl 107 and developed a four-seat variant, at first designated the Kl 107D. The low-wing cabin monoplane had a re-designed cockpit and canopy and an enlarged tail. Two prototype Kl 107Ds were built and the first flew on 10 October 1960. With the change of name of the company to Bolkow and the move to new factory at Laupheim production of the new variant was started at this new factory. In May 1961 the design was re-designated but by July 1961 it was re-designated again as the Bolkow BO 207.

The Bo 207 is a wood construction, single-engined, cantilever low-wing cabin monoplane with a conventional landing gear with a tail wheel. The aircraft is powered by a Lycoming O-360 four-cylinder, direct-drive, horizontally opposed, air-cooled, piston engine of 180hp.The first of 90 production aircraft built at Laupheim was flown on 24 May 1961 and production continued until 1963.
« Last Edit: January 22, 2021, 01:44:24 PM by Angry Turnip »

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Re: The slightly less well known
« Reply #759 on: January 22, 2021, 01:57:14 PM »
Bölkow Bo 46

The Bölkow Bo 46 was a West German experimental helicopter.

Bölkow had been interested in high-speed rotor flight for some time, and had drawn up several experimental concepts based on tip jet systems. Later they took on the job of developing a glass-fibre composite blade that was much stronger than the existing metal designs. When Derschmidt received his first patent in 1955, Bölkow took up the concept and started work on the Bölkow Bo 46 as an experimental testbed, paid for by a Ministry of Defence contract.

The basic Bo 46 design was finalized in January 1959. The five-bladed rotor system was initially tested in a wind tunnel and turned in impressive results. Construction of three highly streamlined fuselages started which were powered by an 800 hp Turboméca Turmo turboshaft driving a five-bladed Derschmidt rotor. A six-bladed rotor was conventionally mounted on the left side of the tail. The maximum speed was not limited by rotor considerations, but the maximum power of the engine. Adding separate engines for additional forward thrust was expected to allow speeds as high as 400mph or more.

Initial test flights of the Bo 46 with the rotors locked started in the autumn of 1963. A series of unexpected new types of dynamic loads were encountered, which led to dangerous oscillations in the rotor. These did not appear to be inherent to the design itself, but they could only be cured through additional complexity in the rotor. During the same period, rotor design was moving to composite blades that were much stronger than the older spar-and-stringer designs, which eliminated the need for the complex bearing system that relieved loads. Although the Derschmidt rotor still improved performance, it appeared the added complexity was not worthwhile.Interest in the system faded, but research flights continued. The Bo 46 was eventually equipped with two Turboméca Marboré engines, allowing a speed of 248 mph.
« Last Edit: January 22, 2021, 01:57:53 PM by Angry Turnip »

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Re: The slightly less well known
« Reply #760 on: January 22, 2021, 02:11:59 PM »
Bücker Bü 180 Student

The Bücker Bü 180 Student was a 1930s German two-seat sporting/training aircraft.

Following on from the success of the Bü 133 Jungmeister the Bücker company designed the Bü 180. It was a open cockpit, low-wing cantilever monoplane that would be later used as a trainer aircraft and later named Student. The wing was a wooden construction with a mixture of plywood and fabric covering. The fuselage was a steel tube frame forward and a wooden monocoque at the rear with a fabric covering. The Student had a fixed tailskid landing gear and was powered by a 60 hp Walter Mikron II inline engine. The prototype first flew in 1937 and a small number were built for civilian use.
« Last Edit: January 22, 2021, 02:12:46 PM by Angry Turnip »

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Re: The slightly less well known
« Reply #761 on: January 22, 2021, 02:23:45 PM »
Caspar C 32

The Caspar C 32 was an aircraft developed in Germany for aerial spraying in the late 1920s.

It was a single-bay biplane with staggered, equal-span wings that accommodated the pilot and a single passenger or observer in tandem open cockpits. A small, additional horizontal stabiliser was fitted near the top of the tall single tail fin above the main horizontal stabiliser. The first example was used by the Biologische Reichsanstalt für Land- und Forstwirtschaft in Berlin until the early 1930s, before being acquired by DVS ( German Air Transport School ) in 1933. DVS also purchased two examples directly from Caspar.

The fourth and last C 32 built was bought by the Graf Solms-Laubach and named Germania. Otto Könnecke was to have made a transatlantic crossing with it, but ongoing bad weather led to the continuous postponing of the event. Eventually, the plan was changed to making an eastward flight to the United States, via India and Japan. Könnecke departed in the aircraft from Cologne on 27 September 1927, but by early 1928 was forced to turn back having only reached India.

It was powered by a Junkers L5 6-cylinder water-cooled in-line piston engine, 310 hp for take-off;  280 hp continuous, which gave a max speed of around 112 mph.
« Last Edit: January 22, 2021, 02:26:36 PM by Angry Turnip »

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Re: The slightly less well known
« Reply #762 on: January 25, 2021, 10:27:14 AM »
DFW Mars

The DFW Mars was an early German military utility aircraft built in 1913.

Unusually the aircraft was produced in both monoplane and biplane versions, which shared a common fuselage and empennage. The monoplane version featured wings that were wire-braced to a vertical post on the forward fuselage, and was powered by a 90 hp NAG engine. The biplane had conventional three-bay wings of unequal span and was powered by a 100 hp Mercedes engine. The wings of both the monoplane and biplane versions featured prominent sweepback.

Mars aircraft distinguished themselves in pre-war passenger-carrying feats and reliability, and were purchased by both the German military and the British Admiralty, which purchased an example for the RNAS. Turkish Mars aircraft were flown in the First and Second Balkan Wars in 1912-1913 and the type is therefore believed to be the first German-built aircraft to have seen active military service.
« Last Edit: January 25, 2021, 10:27:47 AM by Angry Turnip »

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Re: The slightly less well known
« Reply #763 on: January 25, 2021, 10:38:50 AM »
DFW R.II

The DFW R.II was a German bomber aircraft of World War I.

The requirement was for a generally similar aircraft to the earlier R.1 but needed greater payload - 3,400 kg (7,500 lb) - than the 2600 kg of the R.I). This meant the design had to be considerably revised. The same arrangement of four inline engines mounted in the fuselage, driving two tractor propellers and two pusher propellers via long driveshaft was used.
When the R.II first flew in August 1918, the driveshafts proved troublesome, creating vibration. As a solution, they were enclosed within steel tubes, which fixed the problem. The aircraft also was able to benefit from the newly-available 260hp Mercedes D.IVa engine that had replaced the unreliable D.IV in production.

Of the six ordered, only two were completed before the end of the war, and these were operated on training duties only as their performance proved inadequate for front-line duties. Following the war, DFW planned an airliner version of the R.II, which would have carried 24 passengers. Construction of a prototype was abandoned before it was complete.
« Last Edit: January 25, 2021, 10:39:14 AM by Angry Turnip »

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Re: The slightly less well known
« Reply #764 on: January 25, 2021, 03:42:22 PM »
DFS 39 Delta IV

Alexander Lippisch's Delta IV was a continuation of his work on delta wing designs.

The project began with an order from Gerhard Fieseler for a design that his company could build for him to fly in the 1932 Europarundflug air rally. The result was a highly unorthodox design, sporting large delta wings, canards, and an engine and propeller mounted in both the nose and tail of the plane.
Fieseler built this design as the F 3 Wespe ("Wasp"), but it proved highly unstable, causing Fieseler to crash it on his first flight. Modifications were unable to correct these deficiencies, and after one final crash, Fieseler abandoned the aircraft.

Lippisch continued to believe that the design had promise and Professor Walter Georgii of the DFS (Deutsche Forschungsanstalt für Segelflug – German Research Institute for Sailplane Flight). secured funding from the RLM (Reich Air Ministry) to purchase the aircraft from Fieseler and work on perfecting it. At the DFS, Lippisch rebuilt the aircraft, removing the canards and the rear engine and renaming it the Delta IVa.

Although this flew much better than its predecessor, it was still involved in yet another serious crash. The aircraft was rebuilt again, this time incorporating new aerodynamic refinements based on Lippisch's experiences with his recent Storch X glider. The new incarnation, dubbed Delta IVb proved to be a major improvement.

The aircraft was rebuilt yet again, making the sweep of its wings less severe, and adding small, downturned fins at their tips. The fuselage was lengthened slightly, and a small rudder was added to it. Now called the Delta IVc, the result was finally what Lippisch had been aiming for. In 1936, the aircraft was taken to the Luftwaffe flight-testing centre at Rechlin where it  gained an airworthiness certificate and an official RLM designation – DFS 39.
It proved to be an extremely stable and well-behaved design, and attracted the interest of the RLM as a starting point for "Project X" – the programme to develop a rocket-powered fighter aircraft. This would eventually lead to the development of the Messerschmitt Me 163 Komet.
« Last Edit: January 25, 2021, 03:51:58 PM by Angry Turnip »

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Re: The slightly less well known
« Reply #765 on: January 25, 2021, 03:57:06 PM »
DFS Kranich

The DFS Kranich is a type of German glider. It was developed by Hans Jacobs.

Series production of the Kranich (Crane) took place in the aircraft division of Karl Schweyer AG in Mannheim. The two-seater was, in its version 2, the most widely built two-seat glider in Germany from 1935 to 1939. Several hundred examples were built; exact numbers are not known.
On 11 October 1940 Erich Klöckner in a Kranich achieved the record height in a glider of 11,460 m (37598 ft). Because it occurred in wartime, the altitude record was not recognized by the Allied occupying powers, and Klöckner only received official recognition by the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale (FAI) in the late 1990s.[1] This record height was only exceeded ten years after the flight by the American Bill Ivans during a similar scientific program in the Sierra Nevada.

In 1942 30 Kranichs were built by the Swedish manufacturer AB Flygplan in Norrköping, and delivered to the Swedish Air Force for training purposes. Between 1950 and 1952 50 examples of a slightly modified copy of the Kranich II were built in Poland, known as the SZD-C Żuraw
« Last Edit: January 25, 2021, 03:58:04 PM by Angry Turnip »

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Re: The slightly less well known
« Reply #766 on: January 27, 2021, 08:55:11 PM »
Dornier Komet

The Dornier Komet ("Comet"), and Merkur ("Mercury"), were a family of aircraft manufactured in Germany during the 1920s.

The first Komets used the same, 17 m (55 ft 9 in) span wing, tail, and even upper fuselage, as well as the 185 hp BMW IIIa engine of the Delphin I, but replaced the lower fuselage and sponsons with a simple sheet-metal bottom that incorporated fixed tailskid undercarriage. The engine installation was also relocated from its unusal position above the Delphin's nose to the Komet's fuselage nose. Accommodation was provided for a single pilot and four passengers.An improved version, the Do Komet II, was first flown on 9 October 1922 and was exported to countries including Colombia, Spain, Switzerland, and the Soviet Union.

The 1924 Do Komet III was an almost all-new design that shared elements with the Delphin III. The cabin was enlarged to seat  two more passengers and the larger wing, with a span of 19.6 m (64 ft 4 in), was raised above the fuselage on re-enfoced struts. Power was greatly increased from the Komet I, with a 450 hp Napier Lion engine. This version was exported to Denmark and Sweden, and also produced under licence in Japan by Kawasaki.
« Last Edit: January 27, 2021, 08:57:03 PM by Angry Turnip »

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Re: The slightly less well known
« Reply #767 on: January 28, 2021, 09:32:52 PM »
Dornier Do X

The Dornier Do X was the largest, heaviest, and most powerful flying boat in the world when it was produced in 1929.

It was designed by Claude Dornier in 1924, planning started in late 1925 and after over 240,000 work-hours it was completed in June 1929.The Do X was financed by the German Transport Ministry and in order to avoid conditions of the Treaty of Versailles, which had in theory strict controls of aircraft permitted to be built by Germany after World War I, a specially designed plant was built near the Swiss portion of Lake Constance.

The Do X was a huge semi-cantilever monoplane with an all-duralumin hull, it`s wings were made of a steel-reinforced duralumin framework covered in heavy linen fabric, and aluminium paint.
It was initially powered by twelve 524 hp license -built Bristol Jupiter radial engines in tandem mountings, with six tractor propellers and six pushers mounted in six strut-mounted nacelles above the wing. The nacelles were joined by an auxiliary wing to stabilise the mountings.The air-cooled Jupiter engines were prone to overheating and could barely lift the Do X to an altitude of  1,400 ft. The engines were supervised by a flight engineer, who controlled the 12 throttles and monitored the bank of engine gauges. The pilot would instruct the engineer to adjust the power setting, in a manner similar to the system used on ships. The flight deck,bore a strong resemblance to the bridge of a large ship. After completing 103 flights in 1930, the Do X was refitted with 610 hp Curtiss V-1570 "Conqueror" water-cooled V-12 engines. Only then was it able to reach the altitude of 500 m (1,650 ft) necessary to cross the Atlantic.

The type was popular with the public, but a lack of commercial interest and a number of non-fatal accidents prevented more than three examples from being built.
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Re: The slightly less well known
« Reply #768 on: January 29, 2021, 11:30:25 PM »
Dornier Do Y

The Dornier Do Y was a German bomber of the 1930s.

The first aircraft flew on 17 October 1931. It was a shoulder-wing monoplane of metal construction with fixed tailwheel landing gear, similar to the four engined Do P, but this model had three Gnome-Rhône 9Kers 9-cylinder air-cooled radial piston engines,of 600 hp each. A civil transport version was proposed but was produced.

The Do P and Do Y were discribed as freighter prototypes; they were in fact steps towards creating the Luftwaffe's first operational bomber, the Dornier Do 11a. Two examples were produced for the Royal Yugoslav Air Force in 1931, followed by two more machines six years later. All four served with the 81st regiment until replaced by the Savoia-Marchetti SM.79 in 1939. The aircraft were then used in transport and liaison roles until all four were captured by German forces at Kraljevo in 1941.

In 1932, Dornier worked on two aircraft originally ordered by Yugoslavia, but then cancelled. These aircraft were part of the Do K and Do Y projects. There was a request by Deutsche Luft Hansa and the Reich Air Ministry for a fast passenger aircraft , which in fact was to get a fast bomber. Dornier offered the design with the new naming Dornier Do 15.
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Re: The slightly less well known
« Reply #769 on: January 30, 2021, 06:15:51 PM »
Dornier Do 19

The Dornier Do 19 was a German four-engine heavy bomber.

The Dornier Do 19 was a mid-wing cantilever design, and was mostly metal in construction. It had a rectangular-section fuselage and the tail had braced twin fins and rudders, mounted on the upper surface of the tailplane, which was set low on the rear fuselage. It also had retractable landing gear, including the tailwheel. The powerplant,was supposed to be four 715 hp for take-off ( 599 hp continuous) Bramo 322H-2 radial engines that were mounted in nacelles at the leading edges of the wings.

It had a crew of ten, a pilot, co-pilot, navigator, bombardier, radio operator and five gunners. The V1 prototype flew on 28 October 1936. After Generalleutnant Wever died in an airplane crash on 3 June 1936, the heavy bomber program lost support, and never recovered. Later in the war, the error of not having heavy bombers became apparent. By then, however, it was too late to develop the bomber aircraft required. Wever's successor, believed Germany required were more fighters and tactical bombers. Therefore, the V2 and V3 prototypes were scrapped. The original V1 became a transport in 1938.

The Dornier Do 19 had a disappointing performance: it was slow, carried only a 1,600 kg bombload, and had only medium range. In fact, the whole Ural bomber concept had already been abandoned, not only because the required range was impossible, but also because existing navigation and bombsights were not accurate enough.
« Last Edit: January 30, 2021, 06:18:23 PM by Angry Turnip »

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Re: The slightly less well known
« Reply #770 on: January 30, 2021, 06:30:03 PM »
Dornier Do 22

The Dornier Do 22 was a German seaplane, developed in the 1930s.

Dornier's Swiss subsidiary, based at Altenrhein, designed a three-seat, single-engined military floatplane, the Do C3; two prototypes were built,with the first flown in 1935.It was a parasol wing monoplane of fabric-covered all-metal construction. Its slightly swept back wing was attached to the fuselage by bracing struts, and its two floats were braced to both the wing and fuselage. It was powered by a 860 hp Hispano-Suiza 12Ybrs engine driving a three-bladed propeller, and could carry a single torpedo or bombs under the fuselage. Defensive armament was one fixed forward-firing machine gun, also two in the rear cockpit and one in a ventral tunnel.

The first production model, known as the Do 22/See when fitted with floats, did not fly until 15 July 1938.The Luftwaffe was not interested in the aircraft,but examples were sold to Yugoslavia, Greece and Latvia. In March 1939, a prototype with conventional landing gear (the Do 22L), was completed and test-flown, but it did not enter production.
The Greek Do 22s were destroyed during the German invasion of the Balkans in 1941, but the crews of eight of the Yugoslav machines successfully evaded capture or destruction by fleeing to Egypt. There they flew under the control of the RAF until the lack of spare parts made the aircraft redundant.
« Last Edit: January 30, 2021, 06:30:57 PM by Angry Turnip »

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Re: The slightly less well known
« Reply #771 on: January 31, 2021, 12:38:42 PM »
Dornier Do 26

The Dornier Do 26 was a gull-winged flying boat produced before and during World War II.

The sleek Do 26, sometimes referred to as the "most beautiful flying-boat ever built",was of all-metal construction. The hull had a central keel and a clearly defined step; the wings were of gull wing configuration, the outer sections being equipped with fully retractable stabilising wing-floats, instead of Dornier's famous "water-wing" sponsons extending from the lower hull for lateral stabilization.Its four engines, 590 hp  Junkers Jumo 205C diesels, were mounted in tractor/pusher pairs in tandem nacelles.The rear (pusher) engines could be swung upwards through 10° during take-off and landing, to prevent contact between the three-blade airscrew and water spray created by the forward propellers.The tail unit was of conventional, comprising a horizontal tailplane and a single, vertical fin with rudder.

In 1937, Deutsche Lufthansa ordered three Do 26 aircraft, which were designed to be launched by catapult from special supply ships, for transatlantic air mail purposes. The first, Do 26 A D-AGNT V1 Seeadler ("Sea eagle"), made its first flight on 21 May 1938. D-AWDS V2 Seefalke ("Sea Falcon"), followed on 23 November 1938. Due to opposition from the United States, the airline was unable to operate these aircraft on the intended transatlantic route; instead, in 1939 they were used to carry air mail between Bathurst and Natal on the Southern Atlantic route. The third aircraft, Do 26 B D-ASRA Seemöwe ("Seagull") was completed just before the start of World War II.

All three Deutsche Lufthansa aircraft were impressed into military service in 1939 at the outbreak of World War II.Three other Do 26 aircraft (V4 – V6) were built as Do 26 C for the Luftwaffe with the more powerful 880 hp Junkers Jumo 205D engines; the original three aircraft were converted for military service. Armament consisted of one 20 mm MG 151/20 cannon and three 7.92 mm (.312 in) MG 15 machine guns.The Do 26s saw service in April and May 1940 in the Norwegian Campaign, transporting supplies, troops and wounded to and from the isolated German forces fighting at Narvik. During this campaign three of them were lost.
« Last Edit: January 31, 2021, 12:39:37 PM by Angry Turnip »

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Re: The slightly less well known
« Reply #772 on: January 31, 2021, 01:07:32 PM »
Dornier Do 335

The Dornier Do 335 Pfeil ("Arrow") was a German World War II heavy fighter.

There are many advantages to this design over the more traditional system of placing one engine on each wing, the most important being power from two engines with the frontal area (and thus drag) of a single-engine design, allowing for higher performance. It also keeps the weight of the twin powerplants near, or on, the aircraft centerline, increasing the roll rate compared to a traditional twin.
The four-surface set of cruciform tail surfaces in the Do 335's rear fuselage design included a ventral vertical fin–rudder assembly that projected downwards from the extreme rear of the fuselage, to protect the rear propeller from an accidental ground strike on takeoff. The presence of the rear pusher propeller also required the provision for an ejection seat for safe escape from a damaged aircraft, and designing the rear propeller and dorsal fin mounts to use explosive bolts to jettison them before an ejection was attempted – as well as twin canopy jettison levers, one per side located to either side of the forward cockpit interior just below the sills of the five-panel windscreen's sides, to jettison the canopy from atop the cockpit before ejection.

When fitted with DB 603A engines delivering 1,726 hp at takeoff it had a pair of the largest displacement -44.52 litres - inverted V12 aircraft engine design mass-produced during the Third Reich's existence. The Do 335 V1 first prototype,flew on 26 October 1943. Several problems during the initial flight of the Do 335 would continue to plague the aircraft through most of its short history. Issues were found with the weak landing gear and with the main gear's wheel well doors, resulting in them being removed for the remainder of the V1's test flights. The Do 335 V1 made 27 flights, flown by three different pilots. During these test flights the second prototype, was completed and made its first flight on 31 December 1943. New to the V2 were upgraded DB 603A-2 engines, and several refinements learned from the test flights. On 20 January 1944, the Do 335 V3,was flown for its first time. The V3 was powered by the new pre-production DB 603G-0 engines which could produce 1,900 PS at take-off and featured a slightly redesigned canopy.In mid January 1944, RLM ordered five more prototypes (V21–V25), to be built as night fighters. By this time, more than 60 hours of flight time had been put on the Do 335 and reports showed it to be a good handling,and very fast.The Do 335 was scheduled to begin mass construction, with the initial order of 120 preproduction aircraft.This number included a number of bombers, destroyers (heavy fighters), and several yet to be developed variants. At the same time, Dornier-Werke München (DWM) was scheduled to build over 2,000 Do 335s in various models, due for delivery in March 1946.

At least 16 prototype Do 335s were known to have flown on a number of DB603 engine subtypes including the DB 603A, A-2, G-0, E and E-1. The first preproduction Do 335 (A-0s) were delivered in July 1944. Approximately 22 preproduction aircraft were thought to have been completed and flown before the end of the war, including approximately 11 A-0s converted to A-11s for training purposes. One such aircraft was transferred to the Royal Aircraft Establishment at Farnborough, and later, after a rear-engine fire burnt through the elevator controls during a flight, crashed onto a local school.

Only one Do 335 survives, the second preproduction Do 335 A-0, designated A-02, with construction number 240 102, and factory radio code registration of VG+PH. The aircraft was assembled at the Dornier plant in Oberpfaffenhofen, Bavaria on 16 April 1945. It was captured by Allied forces at the plant on 22 April 1945.  VG+PH can be seen today in the Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center of the National Air and Space Museum alongside other unique late-war German aircraft.
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Re: The slightly less well known
« Reply #773 on: February 01, 2021, 10:54:01 AM »
Dornier Do 29

The Dornier Do 29 was an experimental aircraft from the 1950`s.

It was developed from a design for a short-takeoff-and-landing aircraft that would utilise a system of pusher propellers, one on each wing in a pusher configuration, to provide downward thrust and enhance lift. The aircraft was based on the Do 27 light transport, modified with twin 270hp Lycoming GO-480 engines mounted below the wings.These engines drove three-bladed, pusher propellers, that were capable of being tilted downwards to an angle of up to 90 degrees, and the engines were coupled so that symmetrical thrust could be maintained in the event of an engine failure. It had a helicopter style canopy and was fitted with an ejection seat.

Two examples of the Do 29 were built, while a third was planned but not completed, the first prototype flew on 12 December 1958. In flight testing, the propeller system was not rotated further than 60 degrees as opposed to its nominal 90 degree capability, but the aircraft proved to be highly successful, with a stalling speed of 15 mph and exceptional short-field performance.Despite this, the tilting-propeller system was not further pursued after the end of the flight test program.
« Last Edit: February 01, 2021, 10:54:30 AM by Angry Turnip »

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Re: The slightly less well known
« Reply #774 on: February 01, 2021, 11:17:19 AM »
Dornier Do 31

The Dornier Do 31 was an experimental vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) jet-propelled transport from the late 1960`s.

The development of the Do 31 was motivated by interest of the German Air Force in the acquisition of short take-off and vertical landing aircraft (STOVL)-capable aircraft. Such ambitions received a further boost from the issuing of NATO specification NBMR-4, which called for a VTOL-capable tactical support aircraft that would be operated in conjunction with the EWR VJ 101, a West German VTOL strike aircraft designed under the NATO contract of BMR-3. A total of three aircraft, two flight-capable and one static airframe, were constructed and used for testing. On 10 February 1967, the Do 31 performed its maiden flight; the first hovering flight of the type took place during July 1967.

The design of the Do 31 was reliant upon its engine configuration. Dornier had opted to incorporate the British-built Bristol Pegasus vectored-thrust turbofan engine, an existing powerplant that was most famously used to power the Harrier. On the Do 31, a pair of Pegasus engines were housed in each of the two inboard nacelles; during the vertical phase of flight, additional lift was provided by an arrangement of four vertically mounted Rolls-Royce RB162 lift engines located in each of the outer nacelles.

By mounting the engines in pods, the fuselage could accommodate a large hold for cargo, which was accessed via a rear-facing loading ramp. Early designs of the Do 31 used more than four Rolls-Royce RB162s; the availability of more powerful versions of the Pegasus engine enabled the reduction to four supplemental lift engines. Due to the engines being placed in nacelles,the Pegasus had to be specially modified for the Do 31.

Pitch control nozzles in the tail, fed from the Pegasus engines, two pointing up, two pointing down
Beyond providing adequate lift and control, other factors influenced the propulsion system. Noise was a major concern, particularly as the airframe's critical frequency was close to that which was naturally generated by the lift engines. The re-ingestion of hot exhaust gasses was another critical area, complicated by there being 16 'fountains' of gas being generated during vertical hover, 12 of which being hot. Following intense study during the flight testing phase of development, it was determined that positioning the nozzles at an angle of 85-degrees, rather than 90-degrees, was sufficient to avoid encountering any issue during takeoff, while no such concerns were observed during landing. Several different types of air intakes were also tested,to deter ingestion problems and the uneven start-up of the lift engines. Bleed air was also drawn from the Pegasus engines to the lift engines as a measure to address ingestion, while dedicated studies were performed on ground erosion effects.

In addition to test flights, Dornier often demonstrated the Do 31 prototypes to officials and the general public, such as at the 1969 Paris Air Show. Several world records were set by the type during its limited flying career. When the high cost, technical and logistical difficulties of operating such an aircraft were realized, the German Air Force opted to cease trials involving VTOL aircraft, such as the Do 31, VJ101, and the later VFW VAK 191B. In the face of limited sales prospects and a lack of state support, the Do 31 and other VTOL projects lingered as research projects for a time prior to their manufacturers abandoning all activity. The Do 31 remains the only VTOL-capable jet-powered transport aircraft to ever fly.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PTYXPSxS9E4&feature=emb_logo  Features some footage of the aircraft at the Dornier Museum.
« Last Edit: February 01, 2021, 11:21:55 AM by Angry Turnip »